Skip to main content
Logo: Te Ara - The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Print all pages now.

Rangitāne

by  Mason Durie and Meihana Durie

Ko te iwi o Rangitāne ngā uri whakaheke o Whātonga, te rangatira o te waka a Kurahaupō, i heke mai i Hawaiki. Kei ngā wāhi maha puta noa i te whenua ngā marae o Rangitāne. He tohu tēnei ki te hōrapa o te iwi i ngā wā tōmua o tā rātou taenga ki Aotearoa.


The origins of Rangitāne

Whātonga

Ko Rangitāne te iwi whakaheke mai i te tipuna a Whātonga, tētahi o ngā rangatira tokotoru nā rātou te waka o Kurahaupō i taki mai ki Aotearoa. E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho, he mea auaha te waka i tētahi rākau nō te wao o Tawhitinui, i Hawaiki. Ka heke te waka i ngā ngaru whakapukepuke o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa kia tau ki te whanga iti o Nukutaurua, ki Te Māhia, i te takiwā o te tau 1350 (kei ētahi kōrero e mea ana, nō ngā rau tau e rua ki mua tau mai ai te waka). I tōna ūnga ki reira, ka whakakōhatuhia te waka e te tohunga e Hau.

Rangitāne

Nāwai ā, ka noho a Whātonga ki Heretaunga. I reira, ka moe ia i a Hotuwaipara, ka whānau mai tā rāua tama, ko Tarataraika, te tipuna taketake o te iwi o Ngāi Tara kei Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Ka whānau mai ki tana murimanu a Reretua, tā rāua tama a Tautoki me tā rāua tamāhine a Rerekitaiari. Ko Tautoki ka moe i a Waipuna, te mokopuna tuarua a te kaumoana nui o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, a Kupe. Ko tā rāua tama ko Rangitāne (e mōhiotia anō ko Rangitānenui, ko Tāne-nui-a-rangi, ko Rangitānenui-ā-rangi rānei) – nāna, ko Rangitāne.

Te nōhanga o te iwi

Heke iho i ngā whakatipuranga, ka heke te iwi o Rangitāne ki Tāmakinui-a-Rua (ko te tāone o nāianei o Dannevirke), ki ngā rohe o Te Wairarapa, Te Wairau, Te Whanganui a Tarai te tonga, tae atu ki ngā rohe o Manawatū me Horowhenua i te uru. E toitū tonu ana te mana o Rangitāne ki ngā takiwā nei.

Nō te hōrapa o te iwi ki ngā takiwā, ka puta te whakataukī nei:

Tini whetū ki te rangi
Ko Tānenui-a-rangi ki te whenua.

Ngā hapū

I te nui haere o te iwi, ka tū motuhake ētahi hapū hei iwi tonu, pēnei i a Muaūpoko, engari ko te nuinga i noho tonu hei hapū, taka rawa ki ēnei rā. Otirā, ko ngā hapū ko Ngāti Kere, Ngāti Parakiore, Ngāti Hāmua, Te Rangiwhakāewa, Ngāti Mairehau, Ngāti Hauiti, Ngāti Hineaute, Ngāti Rangitepaia, Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Huataki, Ngāti Tauira, Ngāti Rangiaranaki .


19th century: war, settlement and leadership

Ngā pakanga ā-iwi

Hāunga anō ngā kōwhetewhete i waenganui i a Rangitāne rātou ko ngā iwi noho tata (pērā i a Ngāti Kahungunu rāua ko Ngāti Apa), i noho mārire te iwi o Rangitāne mō ngā rau tau e toru, e whā rānei. Heoi anō, nō te tekau tau atu i 1820 ka rerekē te āhuatanga nei. Nō te takahitanga atu o ngā taua mau pū pēnei i ō Ngāti Toa me Ngāti Raukawa ki ngā rohe o Kāpiti, o Manawatū, ka whakaekehia te iwi ki aua rohe. Heoi, ka utua e Rangitāne te riri ki te riri; he maha ngā pakanga. Nō muri rawa ka hohoungia te rongo ki ētahi.

Te noho Pākehā

He maha ngā raruraru ka pā ki te iwi i te tomokanga o ngā iwi o te raki i te rohe whenua i ngā tekau tau o 1820, o 1830. Heoi, nō te wāhanga tuarua o te rau tau ka whakaeke mai ko te Pākehā me āna whakarerekētanga. Ka whakatūria e te Pākehā āna tikanga hōu, pērā i te whakapono Karaitiana, ka manaakitia e te Māori. Ka mahue ngā papakāinga i ngā tahataha awa, ka nuku te iwi kia tata ki ngā rori me ngā ara rerewē, e taea ake ai te tauhokohoko. Ka hīkaka ngā tāngata whai Pākehā ki te hoko whenua hei mahi ahuwhenua, whāia, i ngā tekau tau o 1860, o 1870 i hokona e te kāwanatanga ngā poraka whenua nunui ki ngā rohe o Manawatū, o Tāmakinui-a-Rua.

Ngā rangatira

Ko ngā rangatira o te iwi i te wā i whakaeke te Pākehā ki te rohe ko Hōri Rōpiha, Te Peeti Te Aweawe, Hoani Meihana Te Rangiotū, Nireaha Tāmaki, Hoani Tūnuiārangi, Tame Te Panau, Kerei Te Panau. Waimarie te iwi i reira rātou ki te ārahi i a Rangitāne i roto i ngā tūtakitanga, ngā pāhekoheko, ngā whitiwhitinga me te Pākehā. Nā rātou i kawe te iwi o Rangitāne kia tū ki te ao hurihuri, mā te whakatenatena i te whai i te mātauranga, mā te pupuri hoki ki ngā tikanga tuku iho a te iwi. Hei tauira, i te tau 1852, ka karangahia e Te Rangiotū he hui; e 60 ngā rangatira o te iwi i tae ake ki te hui, ko te take, ki te kohi i ngā whakapapa o te iwi. Kua noho aua mātauranga hei puna kōrero mō te iwi.


20th and 21st centuries: survival and adaptation

Te noho tāone

I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900, ka tahuri te iwi ki ngā mahi pāmu, miraka kau, ahuone. Heoi, nā te paheketanga o te ōhanga o te ao i te tekau tau atu i 1930, kīhai i ora ngā pāmu iti noa o ngā uri o Rangitāne. I te mutunga, ka hokona, ka rīhitia rānei ō rātou pāmu ki ētahi atu kaipāmu, ko te nuinga he Pākehā, mō te iti noa o te moni. Heoi, ka huri ngā uri o Rangitāne ki ngā mahi ihu oneone pēnei i te mahi ki ngā pāmu o ētahi atu tāngata, te patu mīti, te mahi rerewē, te mahi i ngā mahi tūmatanui o te wā. Hohoro mārika ana te rere o te iwi ki ngā tāone noho ai. Ahakoa i kā tonu ngā ahi o ngā marae ki ngā papakāinga, ko te rahi o te iwi kei te noho ki wāhi kē.

Ngā kaiārahi ki te ao hōu

Nā te whakawhirinaki atu o ngā kaiārahi o ngā whakatupuranga hōu ki ngā tikanga o te ao hōu, pērā i ngā kaupapa ōhanga, te pāngarau, ngā tūhonotanga tāngata, ka puta te iwi ki te whaiao, ki te ao mārama. Ko ngā kaiārahi pēnei i a Wiremu Kīngi Te Aweawe, rātou ko John Mason Durie, ko Tūiti Makitānara, ko Rangiputangatahi Māwhete mā ētahi o ngā kaiārahi o te iwi i hau ki roto i ngā mahi tōrangapū o te rohe, o te motu whānui hoki. Ā, i te wā tonu o te paheketanga o te ōhanga o te ao, i muri hoki, i whakatairanga rātou i ngā āhuatanga aru tuwheratanga. Ko Adelaide Poananga o Rangitāne ka noho ki Amerika mō ētahi tau. Nāna a Rangitāne i ārahi i te wā ka nuku te iwi ki ngā tāone, nāna hoki i ārahi te hangaa o te Whare Maumahara ki te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th Battalion (Māori) of New Zealand) ki Te Papa-i-oea (Palmerston North).

Rokohanga atu ki te wāhanga tuarua o te rau tau 1900, arā anō ngā kaiārahi o Rangitāne i mahi i ngā mahi nui mā te iwi Māori, mā te motu whānui hoki: Tipi Rōpiha (he kaimahi kāwanatanga), Rangi Ruru Karaitiana (he kaiwhakatangitangi pūoro), Rina Moore (he tākuta), Manahi Nītama Paewai (he kaitākaro whutupaoro, he tākuta), Taylor Mihaere (Te Kaunihera o Te Papa-i-oea), Brian Poananga (he kaingārahu, he takawaenga kāwanatanga), Barbara Devonshire (Kaimahi Toko i te Ora), Īnia Te Rangi (Heamana o Te Mauri o Rangitāne, te kaunihera kaumātua o te iwi), Rangi Fitzgerald (Te Komiti o Rangitaane).

Ngā whānau para huarahi

Ko Tipi Rōpiha te Māori tuatahi kia arataki i tētahi tari kāwanatanga i tōna ekenga ki te tūranga hēkeretari mō ngā take Māori atu i 1948 ki 1957. Ko tana tamāhine a Rina Moore te wāhine Māori tuatahi kia whakapōtaetia hei tākuta rongoā i te tau 1949.

He kaitākaro a Lui Paewai nō te kapa ‘Invincible’ o te tau 1924. Ko tana irāmutu a Manahi Paewai he kaitākaro i te kapa o ngā Māori; he tākuta anō ia.

Ko te mokopuna a John Mason Durie, ko Eddy Taihākurei Durie; ko ia te Māori tuatahi kia tohungia hei kaiwhakawā mō te Kōti Whenua Māori i te tau 1974. Nō te tau 1998 ka whakamanahia ia hei kaiwhakawā mō te Kōti Matua.

Rua Mano

Nō te ekenga o te tau 2000, arā noa atu ngā mahi i oti i te iwi: i ora rātou i te hekenga mōrearea i Hawaiki; i tahuna te ahi kā ki te whenua hōu; kei te tū tonu a Rangitāne, ahakoa ngā whakawhiu i ngā pakanga ā-iwi, te taenga mai o te Pākehā me āna mahi, te noho tāone o te iwi. Kua whakatūria he rōpu whakahaere, inā, Te Rūnanganui-o-Rangitāne (i hangaia i te tau 1988).

Ahakoa i takahia te mana whenua, te mana tangata o te iwi, e tū tonu ana te mana motuhake o te iwi. Ahakoa te mea e kore e motu te here o Rangitāne ki āna tikanga, āna taonga whakarere iho, ka kaha tonu te iwi ki te whai i ngā āhuatanga hōu. Kei te whakapau te iwi i āna kaha ki te reo, ngā mahi pāpāho Māori, te hauora, te mātauranga, ngā mahi hao ika, te whakawhānui i te ōhanga o te iwi, te whakahōu marae, te tiaki i te taiao. E kitea mārika, he iwi kaha a Rangitāne, he iwi tuwhera ki ngā painga katoa o te ao hōu.

Ngā uri, ngā marae

E ai ki ngā tatauranga o te tau 2001, neke atu i te 4,400 ngā uri o Rangitāne i te motu. He tohu anō kei te maha ngā marae e piri ana ki te kawa o Rangitāne. Arā, ko ngā wāhi kei reira ngā marae o te iwi ko Ōmaka (kei Ōpawa); ko Mākirikiri, ko Kaitoki, ko Whiti te Rā (katoa rātou kei te takiwā o Tāmakinui-a-Rua); ko Te Ore Ore (e pātata ana ki Mahitāone); ko Tūturu Pūmau (ki Te Papa-i-oea); ko Te Rangimārie (kei Rangiotū, i Manawatū).

Ko ētahi wharenui pēnei i a Te Rangimārie kua tū mai anō i te rau tau 1800. Kei ētahi, pērā i Tūturu Pūmau, i whakatuwheratia i ngā tau tata kua taha. Otirā, he tohu ngā marae tawhito rātou ko ngā marae hōu ki te huringa o te ao me ōna āhuatanga katoa.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Rangitāne (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Rangitāne (Te Matau-a-Māui/Wairarapa)

  • tatauranga o 1991: 156
  • tatauranga o 2001: 1,197
  • tatauranga o 2006: 1,566
  • tatauranga o 2013: 2,217

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Whanganui-a-Tara: 822
  • Manawatū–Whanganui: 543
  • Te Matau-a-Māui: 288

Rangitāne (Manawatū)

  • 1991 census: 330
  • 2001 census: 822
  • 2006 census: 1,281
  • 2013 census: 1,488

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Manawatū–Whanganui: 744
  • Te Whanganui-a-Tara: 201

Rangitāne

  • tatauranga o 1991: 3,003
  • tatauranga o 2001: 1,689
  • tatauranga o 2006: 1,569
  • tatauranga o 2013: 94

 


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Mason Durie and Meihana Durie, 'Rangitāne', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/rangitane/print (accessed 18 October 2019)

Story by Mason Durie and Meihana Durie, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 3 Mar 2017