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Ngāti Whātua

by  Rāwiri Taonui

E whā ngā whanga ki te rohe o Ngāti Whātua – a Hokianga, a Kaipara, Te Waitematā, a Manukau. I hau te rongo mō te toa o ngā tīpuna o Ngāti Whātua. He wāhi nui tō Ngāti Whātua i roto i ngā kōrero mō Tāmaki-makau-rau.


Origins

Ngāti Whātua-whānui

Ko te tikanga o te ingoa o Ngāti Whātua-whānui, o Ngāti Whātua-tūturu rānei, arā, ko te iwi whānui, ko te iwi tūturu rānei o Ngāti Whātua, me kī, ngā iwi tokowhā ka noho ki ngā whenua atu i te whanga o Hokianga ki Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ko aua iwi ko Te Roroa, Te Uri-o-Hau, Te Taoū me Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei. Ko te ingoa o Ngāti Whātua ka whakatauhia ki runga i ngā iwi nei, ki runga hoki i a Ngāti Whātua ki Ōrākei. Ahakoa te whakaaro he hapū kē ngā iwi e whā nei, he iwi motuhake tēnā me tēnā o rātou. Ka mahi ngātahi, ka mahi motuhake rānei rātou i ngā wā e tika ana.

Taketake mai ngā iwi o Ngāti Whātua i te tipuna i a Tuputupuwhenua (ko Tumutumuwhenua rānei). Whakaheke ai ngā iwi i te waka a Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi, tērā o ngā waka i pae ki te tai hauāuru, ki waenganui i ngā whanga o Kaipara rāua ko Hokianga. Ka pā anō ngā tātai o Ngāti Whātua ki ngā tīpuna i heke i te takiwā o Muriwhenua kia moe ki roto i te iwi.

Te tipuna a Tuputupuwhenua–Tumutumuwhenua

E ai ki nga hapū o Ngati Whātua ki te raki pera i a Te Roroa, i māpuna ake a Tuputupuwhenua i te whenua, a, koia tonu te waiora o te whenua. Hei tā rātou, ko Ngāi Tuputupuwhenua ngā uri o tana wahine a Kui, kīia ai rātou, ko Te Tini-o-Kui. Ko rātou ngā tāngata tuatahi kia noho ki te whārua o Waimamaku me te ngahere o Waipoua. Tērā te kōrero a Te Roroa mō te ingoa o Tuputupuwhenua, e kī nei rātou ko Tuputupuwhenua he puna waiora i pupū i te whenua.

Engari ki tā ngā iwi ka noho ki te tonga, ko Tumutumuwhenua kē te ingoa o te tipuna nei ā, ka whakaaetia i puea ake ia i te whenua. Tokorua āna wāhine: ko Te Repo, he wahine e kitea ai e te tangata matakite anake; ko Kui, nāna te hue me te taro i kawe ki Aotearoa.

Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi

Ko Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi te waka tūturu o Ngāti Whātua. Ko te taha rāwhiti o te pito whakateraki o Aotearoa te wāhi tuatahi i tau mai a Māhuhu. Ka toro ia ki ngā Whangaroa, Tākou me Whangaruru, ka tau ki te whanga o Pārengarenga. Kātahi ka huri te waka mā Te Rēinga kia puta ki te tai hauāuru.

E kī ana te iwi o Te Roroa, ko Whakatau te rangatira, nāna te waka i pae ki Kawerua kei te tai hauāuru. I reira ka moe tana tama a Rongomai i a Takarita, he wahine nō taua takiwā.

Ki te kōrero a ngā iwi noho ki te tonga, ko Rongomai kē te rangatira o runga i te waka, ka mutu, ka tau te waka ki Tāporapora-o-Toko-o-te-rangi, tētahi kūrae kei te whanga o Kaipara. I te taupokitanga o te waka, ka toremi a Rongomai ki te moana, ka ākina tōna tinana ki ngā toka tū kei te raki o te tomokanga ki te whanga; kīia ai taua wāhi, ko Te Ākitanga-o-Rongomai. Ka kainga tōna tinana e te araara. Mai i taua wā kore rawa ōna uri e kai i taua momo ika.

Kei ētahi kōrero e kī ana, i hoki te iwi o Māhuhu ki te tai tokerau, kia noho ki te whanga o Rangaunu. Ko te manga o Te Waipopo-o-Māhuhu te taunga o te waka.


The tribes of Ngāti Whātua

Te Roroa

Toitū ana a Te Roroa ki te riu o Waimamaku, te ngahere o Waipoua, te pari o Maunganui me te riu o Kaihū. He uri rātou nō Manumanu I rāua ko tana teina a Rangitauwawaro. Ka heke rāua i Muriwhenua ki te whārua o Waimamaku. Ko Waimamaku te wāhi i moe ai rāua me ō rāua uri ki a Ngāi Tuputupuwhenua, Te Tini-o-Kui, Te Uri-o-Nuku (nō Ngātokimatawhaorua), Ngāti Ruanui (o runga i a Māmari), Ngāti Kahu, Ngāi Tamatea (nō runga i a Tinana, a Māmaru me Tākitimu), Ngāti Miru (o runga i a Mataatua), Ngāti Rangi me Ngāti Ririki.

Nō te wā i a Manumanu II (te tama a Manumanu I), a Rongotaumua (te tama a Rangitauwawaro) me tō rāua uri a Toa, ka nui ake te mana o Te Roroa . Nāwai ā, ka riro i a rātou ngā whenua o Kaihū me te taha whakarunga o te awa o Wairoa, ka whakatūria he pā ki ngā maunga Maungaraho me Tokatoka. Nō muri, nā ngā mokopuna a Toa (ngā tamariki a tana tama pakeke a Tiro) te mana i whakawhānui. I a Te Waiata rāua ko tana tama, te tohunga rongonui a Tāoho te mana ki Kaihū me te pari o Maunganui. Ko Te Maunga te mana whenua ki Waipoua; ko Te Toko ki Taiāmai; ko Te Māra ki Waimamaku; ko Paekoraha ki Waiwhatawhata me Hunoke. Ko ngā rangatira whakahirahira o te rau tau 1800, ko ngā uri o Toa a Te Tāua, a Tiopira Kīnaki, a Parore Te Āwha, a Tirarau.

Ko te ingoa o Te Roroa, nō te wā i patua a Manumanu II i tētahi pakanga ki Kawakawa i te Pēwhairangi. Nā tōna māia ka kī te hoariri mōna, ‘Te Hei! Te roroa o te tangata, rite tonu ki te kahikatea!’

Te Uri-o-Hau rāua ko Te Taoū

Ka heke te wā, ka tau te mana o ngā iwi nei ki te whanga o Kaipara - ko Te Uri-o-Hau ki te raki, ko Te Taoū ki te tonga. I pēnei nā te whātoro o Ngāti Whātua ki ngā whenua o Ngāti Awa, Ngāti Ririki me Ngāti Mārua.

Heke iho a Te Uri-o-Hau rāua ko Te Taoū i a Haumoewhārangi (ko Houmoewārangi, ko Haumaiwārangi rānei). Ka heke whakatetonga ia mā te riu o Kaihū me te awa o Wairoa, kia noho ki Poutō, kei te tomokanga whakateraki o te whanga o Kaipara. Nā ngā kōwhetewhete mō tētahi māra kūmara ka patua ia. Ka whāia e tana pouaru e Waihekeao kia āwhina tana take utu e Kāwharu, rangatira toa o Tainui. Ka whakaae atu a Kāwharu, ka arahina tana taua ki Kaipara. Ka pāhuatia ngā pā i te tai hauauru atu i Muriwai ki te tomokanga o te whanga o Manukau. Kīia ai ēnei pakanga, ko Te Raupatu Tīhore.

I riro i ngā tamariki a Haumoewhārangi rāua ko Waihekeao – a Mawake, a Whiti, a Rongo, a Mauku, a Riunga, a Weka me Hakiputatōmuri, te mana o Kaipara, tae rawa ki Whāngārei i te rāwhiti, ki Whakapirau (Wellsford), me te kūrae o Mangawhai. Ko Hakiputatōmuri te tipuna taketake o Te Uri-o-Hau, ko Mawake te tipuna taketake o Te Taoū.

Kāore tonu i te mōhiotia te tikanga ake o te ingoa o Te Taoū. Kei tētahi e kōrero ana i ahu mai te ingoa o Te Taoū i a Hakiputatōmuri rātou ko tōna iwi, i mōhiotia ai mō te toa ki te mau ki te tao i te pakanga. Kei tētahi atu kōrero e kī ana i takea te ingoa i a Toutara, te mokopuna kōtiro a Haumoewhārangi, i patua me te tao. Nā te ringa kaha o Tumupākihi, te mokopuna tuarua a Haumoewhārangi rāua ko tāna tama a Waha-akiaki ka tau tō rātou mana ki taha tonga o te whanga o Kaipara.

Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei

I te wā e toitū ana a Te Taoū ki te taha tonga o te whanga o Kaipara, ko Te Wai-o-Hua te iwi nui ki Tāmaki-makau-rau, ko Kiwi Tāmaki tō rātou rangatira. Hāunga ngā hononga i waenganui i ngā iwi nei, nā te kuhu atu o Ngāti Whātua ki ngā whenua ki te tonga, ka riri ngā iwi nei. I te tangihanga o Tumupākihi ka pakaru te riri. Ka tae atu a Kiwi Tāmaki me ana toa; nō te wā o te hākari ka whakaekehia ohoreretia te tangata whenua e rātou, ka patua ētahi. Ka rere a Waha-akiaki, te tama a Tumupākihi, rātou ko Tūperiri mā ki tōna pā ki Te Mākiri. Ka whakapaea te pā e Kiwi mā. Kāore i hinga. I tana wehenga, ka taunu a Kiwi i a Waha-akiaki, ka whakairia e ia te whaturei o Waha-akiaki ki runga o Maungakiekie. Ka whakautu a Waha-akiaki, ka whakairia e ia te whaturei o Kiwi ki runga i te rākau pūriri ki Tauwhare.

Ko te pakanga nui o ngā pakanga i tū i te tau 1741 ki Paruroa (e mōhiotia i nāianei ko Big Muddy Creek) ki te whanga o Manukau. Ka patua a Kiwi Tāmaki ki reira e Waha-akiaki. I ngā pakanga i muri mai ka tau te mana o Waha-akiaki rāua ko Tūperiri ki te puku o te rohe o Tāmaki. Ka noho ngā uri taketake o Te Taoū ki te whanga o Kaipara i raro i te awe o Waha-akiaki, ko tētahi wāhanga ka noho ki Tāmaki i raro i te mana o Tūperiri. Nāwai ā, ka mōhiotia tēnei peka o Ngāti Whātua, ko Ngāti Whātua, ko Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei rānei.

Atu i ngā tau tōmua tae atu ki ngā tau pokapū o te rau tau 1800, ko Te Ōtene Kikokiko te rangatira o Te Taoū i te tonga o te whanga o Kaipara, ko Āpihai Te Kawau te rangatira o Ngāti Whātua ki Tāmaki. Ka noho tonu a Te Wai-o-Hua ki te taha o Ngāti Whātua engari i te tonga o Tāmaki-makau-rau kē ō rātou nohonga. Arā anō ngā hapū karanga rua pērā i a Te Uringutu me Ngā Oho.


European contact

Ngā pakanga i waenganui i ngā iwi

He kino ngā pakanga o ngā tau 1815 ki te 1840 ki te iwi o Ngāti Whātua. He iwi kaha tonu a Ngāti Whātua i ngā pakanga i mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā. Hei tauira, i hinga a Ngāpuhi i a Te Roroa ki Moremonui i te pakanga o Te Kai-a-te-karoro. I pakanga a Ngāti Whātua ki Tāmaki rāua ko Te Wai-o-Hua ki a Ngāti Pāoa o Waiheke me Moehau. Engari ia, nō te taenga mai o ngā pū a ngā kaihokohoko me ngā tāngata whai, ka huri te āhua o ngā pakanga, ka nui atu ngā pakanga, ka tokomaha atu ngā tāngata ka mate.

Ko Apihai Te Kawau te rangatira o Ngāti Whātua ki Tāmaki i te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800. He mokopuna ia nā Tūperiri. I te tau 1822, 1823 rānei, ka whai ia i ngā ope taua o Waikato e haere ana ki te tonga. I huri āwhio te taua nei mā Rotorua ki Te Matau-a-Māui me Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ka hoki atu mā Taranaki me te rohe o Waikato. I a Āpihai Te Kawau e ngaro ana, ka whakaekea a Tāmaki-makau-rau e ngā taua mau pū a Hongi Hika. Nui rawa atu ngā pū a Hongi Hika me Ngāpuhi. Ka whakaekea a Mauinaina, te pā o Ngāti Pāoa. Tini ka mate. Ka rere atu a Ngāti Whātua i te rohe o Tāmaki. I te tau 1826 ka hinga anō a Ngāti Whātua i a Ngāpuhi i te awa o Kaiwaka kei te tonga o Whāngārei, i te pakanga o Te Ika-a-Ranganui. Ka rere ngā mōrehu i te wehi o te pū, ka mahue a Kaipara me Tāmaki-makau-rau.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Nō te tau 1840 ka haina ētahi o ngā rangatira o Ngāti Whātua i te Tiriti o Waitangi - a Tirarau rāua ko tana teina a Taurau, a Te Roha o Te Uri-o-Hau me Te Parawhau, a Hāmiora Pakikoraha o Te Roroa, a Te Tinana, a Te Reweti me Āpihai Te Kawau o Ngāti Whātua-o-Ōrākei. Hāunga, ka riro te nuinga o ngā whenua o Ngāti Whātua mā roto i ngā kerēme i mua i te tau 1840, mā ngā hokohoko tinihanga a te Karauna, mā ngā mahi a te Kōti Whenua Māori, mā ētahi atu mahi tinihanga hoki.

Te rironga o ngā whenua

I te tau 1842, ka pakaru te riri i waenganui i a Te Uri-o-Hau me tētahi kaihokohoko. Ko te whakapae a ngā Māori i takahia te tapu o tētahi urupā e te kaihokohoko. Ko te utu mō te mahi a Te Uri-o-Hau, ka tangohia ō rātou whenua e 2000 heketea te rahi.

Ka rongohia te ringa kaha o te kāwanatanga ki ngā whenua o Te Roroa, mā roto i āna tikanga rerekē (pēnei i te hē o te tatau i te rahi o te whenua me ngā paenga whenua), āna takahitanga o āna ake ture i te wā i hokona te nuinga o ō rātou whenua i te tekau tau atu i 1870. Kāore te kāwanatanga i aro ki ngā whakaaetanga ā-waha, ā-tuhi hoki e mea ana kia rāhuitia he whenua mō te Māori. I pērā anō te pā kino a te kāwanatanga ki a Te Taoū. Tata ki te e 6 ōrau o ngā whenua i te whanga o Kaipara i riro i mua i te tau 1865. Ko ngā whenua i mahue mai i tae ki mua i te Kōti Whenua Māori i mua i te tau 1891; kia tae ki te tau 1908 kua riro te e 55 % o ēnei whenua.

I roto i ngā tau, ka tūkinotia, ka tangohia ngā kōiwi o ngā tīpuna i ngā urupā o Te Roroa rāua ko Te Uri-o-Hau.


Ngāti Whātua and the Treaty of Waitangi

Te haina i te tiriti

I te 20 o Maehe 1840 i hainahia e Āpihai Te Kawau te Tiriti o Waitangi ki te whanga o Manukau. Nō muri tēnei i tana pōhiri ki a Rūtene Kāwana Wiremu Hopihona (Lieutenant Governor William Hobson) kia noho ki Tāmaki-makau-rau, hei kaitiaki mō te whenua, mō te iwi. Heoi, nō te nekenga o te tāone matua mai i Kororāreka (Russell) ki Tāmaki, ka kaha ake te hiahia a te Pākehā ki te whenua. I hokona e Ngāti Whātua ngā eka e 3,000 (1,214 heketea) ki te Karauna mō te moni me ngā rawa e 341 pāuna noa iho te uara; kāore i pau te ono marama, ka hokona tētahi pito o taua whenua e 44 eka te rahi (17 heketea) mō te e 24,275 pāuna. I te rua tau i muri mai, ko te toenga o te whenua i wāwāhia, i hokona mō te 72,000 pāuna neke atu. Kia tae rawa ki te tau 1850, kua riro kē te nuinga o ngā whenua pai o te iwi i Tāmaki.

Taka rawa ki te tau 1900 kua whāiti te noho o Ngāti Whātua ki te whanga o Ōkahu i Ōrākei. Ka kaha ake te pēhi a te kāwanatanga me te Kaunihera Tāone o Ākarana i a ratou kia whakawāteatia te whenua. Ka whakatakotoria he paipa parakaingaki ki runga tonu i te papakāinga i Ōkahu. Kāore i āhei ngā kāinga o Ōkahu ki ngā wai māori o te tāone. Ko ngā whānau whakamutunga ki Ōkahu i panaia i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1950; ka turakina ō rātou kāinga, ka tahuna te wharenui. Ko te whare karakia me te urupā anake kei reira ināianei.

Takaparawhā (Bastion Point)

Mai anō i te hui a ngā rangatira Māori o te motu ki Kohimarama i te tau 1881 i raro i te mana o Paora Tūhaere, e tū ana a Ngāti Whātua ki te ihu o ngā mautohe whenua. I te tau 1977, i arahina he noho mautohe e Joe Hawke ki Takaparawhā mō ngā rā e 506. I te otinga ka panaia ngā uri o Ngāti Whātua i te papatipu i manakohia e rātou. Nā ngā whakaaturanga o te hunga pāpāho, ka mārama ake ngā tāngata katoa ki ngā tangi a te Māori mō te whenua. Mai i tērā wā he nui ngā mahi kua tutuki. Nō te tau 1992 i whakaputahia e Te Rōpu Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi āna rangahau mō te kerēme a Te Roroa, nā reira e whai wāhi ana rātou ki ngā tūranga ikeike o tō rātou rohe. Kua ū anō te Karauna kia pai āna mahi, i tana tuku i te kaitiakitanga o Tāne Mahuta, te kauri nui rawa kei te ngahere o Waipoua, kei te taha raki o Tākiwira.

Ngā whakataunga o ngā kerēme tiriti

Nō te tau 2000 i whakatauhia te kerēme a Te Uri-o-Hau ki te Karauna. I rongohia ngā kōrero mō ngā kerēme a Te Taoū i mua i te aroaro o Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 2004. I whakawhiwhia a Ngāti Whātua ki tētahi paremata mō ngā whenua i riro i Ōrākei. I ēnei rā, kua tū te iwi ki ngā mahi toi me ngā mahi tōrangapū o te tāone nui o Tāmaki. Kua whai kerēme anō a Ngāti Whātua mō te nuinga o te rohe o Tāmaki. Neke atu i te 15,000 ngā tāngata i tae ki te whanga o Ōkahu, i te rā tuatahi o te mano tau hōu, ki te pōhiri i a Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi te waka hōu o te iwi, ki te whanga i panaia a Ngāti Whātua i ngā tau e 50 kua taha.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Ngāti Whātua (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ko 1901 te tau whakamutunga rawa i pātaihia ai te Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou. Heoi kāore i pātaihia kia whakatakotohia ngā iwi maha.

Ngāti Whātua

  • tatauranga o 1901: 356
  • tatauranga o 1991: 9,360
  • tatauranga o 2001: 12,105
  • tatauranga o 2006: 14,721
  • tatauranga o 2013: 14,784

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 7,353
  • Te Tai Tokerau: 3,120

Te Roroa

  • tatauranga o 2001: 966
  • tatauranga o 2006: 1,170
  • tatauranga o 2013: 1,176

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 504
  • Te Tai Tokerau: 387

Te Uri-o-Hau

  • tatauranga o 2001: 732
  • tatauranga o 2006: 1,071
  • tatauranga o 2013: 1,260

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 459
  • Te Tai Tokerau: 417

 


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How to cite this page: Rāwiri Taonui, 'Ngāti Whātua', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ngati-whatua/print (accessed 12 August 2020)

He kōrero nā Rāwiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017