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Ngāti Tūwharetoa

by  Martin Wikaira

Kei te pūtake o ngā pūrākau o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, ko ngā maunga whakahī me ngā roto o tō rātou rohe i te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ko Taupō-nui-a-Tia te roto nui rawa atu i Aotearoa; kei waenganui pū a ia i te rohe o Ngāti Tūwharetoa.


Lands and people

Ko Tongariro te maunga
Ko Taupō-nui-a-Tia te moana
Ko Ngāti Tūwharetoa te iwi
Ko Te Heuheu te tangata.

Kei te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui te rohe whenua o Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Kapi te moana o Taupō i te rohe. Ko ōna paenga whenua:

  • te raki - te piriti o Mihi kei te tonga o Reporoa
  • te uru - Tītīraupenga, te pae maunga o Hauhungaroa, ka rere ki Taumarunui i te tonga-mā-rawhiti
  • te rāwhiti - te ikawhenua o Kaimanawa
  • te tonga - te Rohe Tāpui ā-Iwi o Tongariro

He rahi ngā whānau o Ngāti Tūwharetoa e noho ana ki ngā takiwā o Moawhango, o Te Ara-taumaihi (Bulls), o Tokorangi. Ko te kōrero a te iwi mō tēnei āhuatanga, ‘Ko te tomokanga o te iwi ki te tonga, ki Tokorangi.’

Ka taea te whakarōpū i ngā hapū o Ngāi Tūwharetoa ki ngā huinga e rua ka whai iho nei:

  • Te Mātāpuna: Noho ai tēnei wāhanga o te iwi ki te tonga o Motutaiko, he motu kei te moana o Taupō. Kīia rātou, ko te pūtake o te iwi
  • Te Hikuwai: Kei te raki o te moana ngā whenua o tēnei wāhanga o te iwi. Ko rātou ‘te hikuwai’, i te mea noho ai rātou ki te pito o te moana ka puta te awa o Waikato.

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The journeys of Ngātoroirangi and Tia

Te taenga mai o Te Arawa

Ahakoa whakapapa tonu mai ai a Ngāti Tūwharetoa i Te Arawa, he motuhake ana whakahaere i ngā whakahaere o ngā hapū o Te Arawa.

I te taenga mai o Te Arawa i Hawaiki, ka ū te waka ki Maketū. Ka tipu he raruraru i waenganui i a Tamatekapua rāua ko Ngātoroirangi te tohunga ahurewa, me te aha, ka wehe atu a Ngātoroirangi ki te rapu whenua ki uta. Koianei ngā whenua o Ngati Tuwharetoa i ēnei ra.

Heke ai te tohunga nei me tana iwi mā te takutai ki Matatā i te pūaha o te awa o Tarawera. Ko te ingoa tūturu o te awa nei ko Te Awa-a-te-Atua, hei whakanui i a Ngātoroirangi.

Tia te kaihōpara

Nō te wehenga o Ngātoroirangi i Maketū, ka wehe atu anō a Tia mā te awa o Kaituna haere ana ki Rotorua. Kei tētahi wāhi i reira, i pā noa a Tia ki te tūpāpaku o tētahi rangatira. He tino tapu te tūpāpaku rangatira. Mā te tohunga rā anō e tango te tapu i runga i a Tia; nā reira kīia ai taua wāhi i unuhia te tapu i runga i a Tia, ko Te Horohoroinga-nui-a-Tia. Nō muri whakarāpopotongia ai taua ingoa ki a Horohoro.

Ka ahu atu a Tia ki te uru kia tae ki te awa o Waikato. Nā tana kite i te paruparu o te wai, ka mohio he tangata kei mua i a ia e haere ana. Ka whakaingoatia taua wāhi ko Ātiamuri. Nā tōna hiahia kia tūtaki ki te hunga nei, ka whāia e Tia. I Wairākei ka tae a Tia ki tētahi tāheke ka tapaina e ia ko Aratiatia. I tōna taenga ki te moana o Taupō, ka pōuri a Tia i te mea kua tau kē te noho o Ngāti Hotu, tētahi iwi nui, ki reira.

Taupō-nui-a-Tia

Kātahi ka huri a Tia mā te taha rāwhiti o te moana kia tae ki Hamaria. Nō tana taenga atu ki reira ka kite a ia i te ōrite o ngā pari o taua wāhi ki tōna pūeru taupō, ka tapaina e ia te moana ko Te Taupō-nui-a-Tia.

Te kakenga o Ngātoroirangi i a Tauhara me Tongariro

I taua wā tonu, e haere ana a Ngātoroirangi mā Te Awa-a-te-Atua ki te roto o Tarawera. Kia kake ia i te maunga o Ruawāhia ka titiro ki te tonga, e ko Tauhara. Ka hiahia a ia ki te kake i taua maunga ki te whakatū tūāhu ki ngā atua, kia pai ai tana haere i te whenua.

I Tauhara, ka kite a Ngātoroirangi i a Tia e huri ana i te moana. Ka whiua e ia tana taiaha ki ngā wai, ko tana taunaha tērā i te moana me ngā whenua i ōna tahatika. Kātahi ka whai ia i a Tia. I a ia ka haere, ka whakatūria e Ngātoroirangi he tūāhu i runga i te huarahi hei pou i tōna mana ki te whenua.

Kia tae ki Motutere, e tū whakarehu mai ana te maunga o Tongariro. Ka hiahia a ia ki te piki. Nō tana taenga ki te pūtake i Rangipō, ka tūtaki a ia ki a Hape-ki-tuarangi me tōna iwi. Ka karakia a Ngātoroirangi, ka mate a Hape me tōna iwi.

Heoi ko Ngātoroirangi tonu i tata mate i te mātao i tana kakenga i te maunga. Ahakoa te ngenge me te makariri o tōna tinana, ka eke tonu a ia ki te tihi. Ko tana kokoraho tērā i ngā papatahi kei raro mō ōna uri whakaheke. Ka taunahatia e ia ngā whenua e mōhiotia nei i ēnei rā ko te rohe o Ngāti Tūwharetoa.

Nā tana kaha makariri, ka karanga atu a ia ki ana tuāhine ki a Kuiwai rāua ko Haungaroa i Hawaiki, kia tukua mai he ahi hei whakamahana i a ia: ‘Kuiwai e, Haungaroa e, ka riro au i te tonga, tukua mai he ahi!’ Koinei te takenga mai o te ingoa o Tongariro.

Te whakaingoa i a Ketetahi

E ai ki te kōrero, o ngā kete e toru i tonoa e Ngātoroirangi, kotahi anake i tae. Ko tētahi i tau ki Whakaari i Te Tai Rāwhiti, ko tētahi i riro i ngā iwi o Waiotapu. Ka riri a Ngātoroirangi nā te mea kotahi anake te kete i tae ki a ia, ka whiua e ia te kete ki te taha o te maunga. Tapaina ai te wāhi ko Ketetahi.

Ka hoki a Ngātoroirangi ki Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi

Ka hipa te wā, ka hiahia a Ngātoroirangi kia kite i tōna iwi o Tainui. Heoi ka kī a Hoturoa ki a ia, i te mea i heke a ia ki Aotearoa mā runga i a Te Arawa, koirā kē tōna waka. Ka pōuri a Ngātoroirangi i tēnei kōrero, ka haere kia noho ki te moutere o Mōtītī i Te Moana-a-Toi.


Tūwharetoa

Tūwharetoa te rangatira

Tapaina ai a Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki a Tūwharetoa, he tipuna i ora i te rau tau 1500. I Kawerau tōna kāinga. He toa, he tohunga whakairo a Tuwharetoa. He tangata roa, he tanga purotu, he koi hoki te hinengaro. I tana tamarikitanga, raru katoa ai ana kaiako nā te koi o tōna hinengaro.

Nō ngā iwi tōmua o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi ōna here i te taha ki tōna whāea. Ki te taha ki tōna matua, ka whakapapa a Tūwharetoa ki ngā rangatira o Te Arawa me Mataatua.

Ngā wāhine a Tūwharetoa

Kia tū tangata a Tūwharetoa, kua pakari kē ōna pūmanawa rangatira. Ka taumaua a ia ki a Paekitawhiti, he puhi. Ka whānau mai tā rāua tamāhine a Manaia-wharepū me tā rāua tama a Rongomai-te-ngāngana.

He takawaenga anō a Tūwharetoa ki ngā iwi noho tata. Nō tana haerenga ki roto o ngā iwi o Te Whānau-a-Apanui me Ngāi Tai ka tūtaki a ia ki a Hinemōtū, he wahine ātaahua. Ahakoa tana taumau ki tētahi atu, ka moe tonu rāua ko Tūwharetoa. Nō tā rāua taenga ki te pā o Māwaketaupō, te matua o Tūwharetoa, ka manaakitia tā rāua moenga e te iwi. Tokowaru ngā tamariki a Tūwharetoa rāua ko Hinemōtū. Ahakoa tōna wehenga atu i tōna kāinga, whakanuia tonuhia ai a Hinemōtū e tōna iwi. Ka tapaina e tōna iwi tētahi toka kei te awa o Mōtū, ki tōna ingoa.

Kia hipa ngā tau, ka moe a Tūwharetoa i a Uiraroa; tokorima ā rāua tamariki.

He tangata a Tūwharetoa i nui te manakotia e ngā iwi, me kī e ngā wāhine. Tērā te wā i tētahi o ana haerenga, ka tūtaki a Tūwharetoa ki a Rangiuru te wahine a Whakaue-kaipapa. Kaha te hiahia o Rangiuru ki a Tūwharetoa. Nāwai, ā, ka moe rāua, ka whānau mai tā rāua tama, ko Tūtānekai. Kia pakeke a Tūtānekai ka hau te rongo mō tōna rangatiratanga. Ka moe ia i a Hinemoa, te wahine pūrotu o Te Arawa.

Kia kaumātua rawa ia, ka mate tara whare a Tūwharetoa ki tōna pā i Waitahanui. Ka moe anō a Uiraroa i a Awanuiarangi kia puta ki waho ko Rongo-tangi-awa, nāna ko Rongomainohorangi, nāna ko Te Rangihouhiri, te tipuna taketake o Ngāi Te Rangi ki Tauranga Moana. Koinei te hononga ki ngā iwi o Whakatāne me Tauranga.


Warfare

Maruiwi

I te wā i a Toi te kaihōpara, e noho ana te iwi o Maruiwi ki ngā rohe o te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui, atu i Tāmaki ki Te Moana-a-Toi me Heretaunga. Ka panaia rātou kia rere ki waho o te rohe.

Ka wehe a Maruiwi, ka tū ki Kawerau mō tētahi wā. Ka riri ngā tama a Tūwharetoa ki a rātou. Ka kī atu a Tūwharetoa ki ana tama kaua e kuhu ki te riri me te iwi nei. Hauware atu. Ka whāia te iwi rā e ngā tama a Tūwharetoa. Ka tūtaki, ka pakanga rātou ki Kākātarahae, ka patua Tūwharetoa. Nui ngā rangatira i hinga, i mauheretia rānei i taua pakanga. Ko Rongomai-te-ngāngana, tama a Tūwharetoa tētahi i mate. Ka putua ngā mate o Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki te taha o tētahi rākau kīia ai ko Ōwhakatihi.

I ora te tama tuarua a Rongomai-te-ngāngana, ka rere ki Taupō. Nō muri, ka hurihia tōna ingoa ki a Whakatihi, hei maumaharatanga ki tōna matua. He ingoa nui a Whakatihi i roto i a Ngāti Tūwharetoa.

Ngāti Hotu

Nō te taenga atu o Ngātoroirangi rāua ko Tia ki te rohe o Taupō, ko Ngāti Hotu te iwi. He whero ngā makawe o tēnei iwi, kīia ai rātou he ‘urukehu’.

Ka whawhai rā a Ngāti Hotu kia puritia ō rātou whenua. Ko Tūrangitukua, ko Waikari ko Ruawehea ngā rangatira o Ngāti Tūwharetoa i taua wā. Ka hinga a Ngāti Hotu i a Ngāti Tūwharetoa me ana haumi mai Kawerau i raro i a Tūtewero. Kua pou te mana o Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki Taupō.

Ngā pakanga ā-iwi, ā-hapū

I whawhai ngā hapū o Ngāti Tūwharetoa i roto i ngā tau, tae rawa ki te rau tau 1800. He tūranga nui ō Ngāti Whiti, Ngāti Apa, Ngāti Tama i te hītori o Ngāti Tūwharetoa.

Ngā rangatira

He rangatira tahi a Te Rangiita rāua ko tana tama a Tamamutu. He takawaenga, nā raua i pou te mana o te iwi ki te rohe. Heoi nā Rangituamātotoru, te mokopuna a Tamamutu i whakatakoto te tauira ariki mō te iwi.

Tūreiti e te iwi

He uri a Horonuku nō Herea. Nā tana kaha whakapono ka whānau mai tana mātāmua he tāne, ka whakatangihia te pūtātara kia whakamōhio i te iwi. Nō te whānautanga mai o tana tamaiti, he kōtiro kē. Nō te whānautanga mai o tana tamaiti tāne e rua tau i muri mai, kāore i whakatangihia te pūtātara – waihoki, tapaina ai taua tamaiti ko Tūreiti.

Te whare ariki o Te Heuheu

Ko Herea te ariki tuatahi o te whare o Te Heuheu, nō te paunga o te rau tau 1700. I te hingatanga o Te Wakaiti ki a ia i Pūkawa, ka tū mai a Herea hei ariki o te rohe Taupō.

I tētahi rā, ka haere a Herea mā kia tiki i te tinana o tō rātou huānga. Nā te ururua o te wāhi i uaua te kite i tō rātou uri, kua tipuria hoki a ia e te māheuheu. Whāia, ka tangohia a Te Heuheu hei ingoa mō te whānau.

Ka marewa te whare ariki o Te Heuheu i te huringa o te ingoa o Herea ki Te Rangituamātotoru. Ka tapaina e Rangiaho, te wahine a Herea tā rāua tamaiti ko Te Heuheu anō. Nō muri ka tangohia e Herea a Te Heuheu hei ingoa mōna.

Mate ana he ariki, tū ana ko tana mātāmua hei piki kōtuku.


Mountains and lakes

Te kōrero mō ngā maunga

I ngā rā o tuauri tērā ētahi maunga toa e whā; a Tongariro, a Taranaki, a Tauhara, a Pūtauaki. Ka pakanga ngā maunga nei ki a rātou anō kia riro ki tētahi o rātou a Pīhanga, te maunga pūrotu. Ko Tongariro i toa.

Ka whakaaro ērā o ngā maunga kia wehe atu. Engari kia kakama tonu rātou; whiti ana te rā, ka kōhatu rātou. Ka haere a Pūtauaki ki te rāwhiti ka tae ki Kawerau. Kāore noa iho i tawhiti te haere atu o Tauhara, he hurihuri nōna kia mātaki i a Pīhanga; tae noa iho a ia ki tērā taha o te moana. Ka haere a Taranaki ki te uru. Kei te tū tonu a ia ki reira.

Te Rohe Tāpui ā-Iwi o Tongariro

I te tekau tau atu i 1880, he rahi ngā kerēme mō ngā whenua i te rohe o Taupō. Nā te kuhu o Horonuku ki ngā riri ki Waikato me tana āwhina i a Te Kooti, ka whakaaro ētahi he take tērā mā te Karauna ki te raupatu i ngā poraka whenua o Taupō. Ka māharahara a Horonuku kei riro te whenua. I te tau 1887, i runga tonu i ngā āwhina a tana hunaonga (a Lawrence Marshal Grace, he kaitōrangapū nō Tauranga), ka takohahia te poraka o Tongariro ki te kāwanatanga. Mā tēnei tikanga, ka kore e taea te maunga te hoko. Koinei te rohe tāpui ā-iwi tuatahi ki Aotearoa.

Te tūāpapa o te moana o Taupō

I te tau 1926, i te wā o te kāwanatanga o Coates ka whakatauhia he whakaaetanga e rāua tahi ko Ngāti Tūwharetoa kia tukua te tūāpapa o Taupo Moana me ōna kautawa ki te Karauna. Hei utu mō tēnei, ka whatia mai tētahi wāhanga o te tahua mai i ngā raihana hī ika. Whāia, ka tū he poari kaitiaki i ngā rawa me ngā whenua o te iwi.

Te haere ki te Kōti

I ngā tekau tau o 1950 me 1960, tū ai Te Kōti Whenua Māori ki Taupō, ki Tokaanu, ki Taumarunui, ki te pokapū i Whanganui. Ka tae ake te kaiwhakawā ki te wāhi kua whakaritea hei whare kōti, ka whakatū i tana kōti. Ka tatari ngā whānau o Tokaanu mō te katoa o te rā kia whai wā kia kōrero i te kōti. Ka heria he kai, ka noho ngā whānau ki te tatari.

Ka pau ngā tau e whitiwhiti kōrero ana te iwi me te kāwanatanga kia whakahokia te tūāpapa o te moana ki te iwi. Nō te tekau tau atu i 1990 ka tutuki tēnei kaupapa.

Ngā ika wai māori

I ngā rā ki mua, he rahi ngā ika o Taupō me ngā kōawa. Tokowhā ngā momo ika:

  • te kōkopu, koinei te ika nui ki te iwi
  • te īnanga
  • te kākahi
  • te kōura
  • te kōaro

Tērā te wā, he tuna kei ngā awa o te rohe. Nō ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau atu i 1900 ka tukua te taraute kahukura (rainbow) me te taraute parauri (brown) ki ngā wai o Taupō. Kāore i roa ka tata kore ngā ika tūturu ki te moana. Kei te pērā te āhua i tēnei wā.


Ngāti Tūwharetoa today

Te Poari Kaitiaki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa

I te 15 o ngā rā o Noema 1926 ka whakaingoatia ngā mema tuatahi o te poari. Inā, ko:

  • Hoani Te Heuheu (te heamana, Waihī)
  • Pau Mariu (Waihī)
  • Kahu Te Kuru (Kākahi)
  • Paora Rokino (Taupō)
  • Pitiroi Mohi (Taupō)
  • Taite Te Tomo (Halcombe)
  • Takinga Arthur Grace (Taupō)
  • Werihe Te Tuiri (Waihī)
  • Pūataata Alfred Grace (hekeretari, Waihī)

Nō te 24 o Nōema 1926 ka tū te hui tuatahi ki Tokaanu. He mata whānui te titiro a ēnei rangatira, nā rātou ngā tikanga i takoto mō te poari e tōtika ai tā rātou whakangao i ngā rawa a te iwi. He uri ngā mema o te poari o ēnei tau tata nei ki a rātou i te poari tuatahi.

Ka tohutohu te poari i te iwi mō te whakahaere me te whakamahi i ana rawa hei oranga mō ngā whakatipuranga kei te tū ā tōna wā. Ka tirohia ngā mātāpono o te ao ōhanga hei arataki i ngā kaupapa kaipakihi. Ehara tēnei i te huarahi māmā, nā te tawhiti o te iwi i ngā pokapū tauhokohoko. Ka whakatū rōpū kaitiaki te poari ki te tautoko i ngā mahi whakatipu paina. Kei te whakarato āwhina tonu te poari ki ngā kaupapa mātauranga a te iwi.

Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki Kawerau (Te Moana-a-Toi)

I te hūnukutanga o ngā tama a Tūwharetoa mai i Kawerau ki Taupō, ka noho ētahi ki Kawerau ki te pupuri i te mana o te iwi ki era takiwā. Ka motuhake te tū a Tūwharetoa ki Kawerau i a Tūwharetoa ki Taupō.

Te ariki o te iwi

Taka rawa ki te tau 2003 ko Tumu Te Heuheu te ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Koia te mātāmua o ngā tamariki a Tā Hepi Te Heuheu. Nā Tā Hepi te take, mā te Māori anō āna kaupapa e whakahaere. Nā tōna mana nui, i taea e Tā Hepi te whakakao i te iwi Māori kia hui mō ngā kaupapa nui.

Kei te ngana a Tūmū ki te whakatutuki i ngā mahi a tōna matua, mō tōna iwi, mō te motu whānui. Kua kuhu a Tūmū ki ngā kaupapa tiaki taiao i te ao.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Ngāti Tūwharetoa (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

  • tatauranga o 1991: 24,066
  • tatauranga o 2001: 29,301
  • tatauranga o 2006: 34,674
  • tatauranga o 2013: 35,877

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Waikato: 8,043
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 5,991
  • Te Moana a Toi: 5,475
  • Manawatū–Whanganui: 4,965

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Martin Wikaira, 'Ngāti Tūwharetoa', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ngati-tuwharetoa/print (accessed 14 June 2021)

He kōrero nā Martin Wikaira, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 1 Mar 2017