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Ngāti Toarangatira

by  Mīria Pōmare

Ahakoa ngā piki, ngā heke o te wā, kei te tū kaha tonu te iwi o Ngāti Toa. Nā Te Rauparaha te iwi i ārahi kia heke ki te tonga, ki tētahi wāhi e maru ai, e ora ai, e tipu ai rātou. He ururua te huarahi i takahia e rātou i roto i ngā tau. Hāunga tērā, ka tū a Ngāti Toa hei iwi whai rawa, hei iwi kaha, e toitū ana tōna mana ki ngā taha e rua o Te Moana-a-Raukawa.


Identity

Te pūtake

Heke ai te iwi o Ngāti Toa (ko Ngāti Toarangatira) i te waka o Tainui. Kei te pepeha nei ngā whakamarama mō ngā whenua o ngā iwi o Tainui.

Mōkau ki runga, Tāmaki ki raro
Mangatoatoa ki waenganui
Ko Pare Waikato, ko Pare Hauraki
Ko te Kaokaoroa-o-Pātetere.

Ko Tūpāhau rāua ko Toarangatira

He uri whakaheke a Tūpāhau nō Hoturoa, te rangatira o te waka o Tainui. I noho a Tūpāhau ki Kāwhia, i te tai hauāuru o te Ika-a-Māui; koinei te taunga otinga o Tainui.

Ka taka ki tētahi rā, ka tohe a Tūpāhau rāua ko Tāmure mō te taki i ētahi karakia. Ahakoa ka ngana a Tūpāhau kia tau te rongo, kaha rawa te pukuriri a Tāmure, ka pakanga rāua. Ahakoa he rahi kē ake ngā toa o te hoariri, i eke panuku te taua o Tūpāhau. Ka rere a Tāmure; ka whāia, ka mau i a Tūpāhau. Heoi ka tukua e Tūpāhau tana hoariri, ka kī, ‘Nā te toa o te tamaiti rangatira, i te rā e whiti nei’. Nō te whakataunga o te rongo, ka puea te ingoa o Ngāti Toarangatira hei ingoa mō te iwi o Tūpāhau, ina rā he kupu whakarite tēnei ingoa mō te māia, te kaha o ana toa. Whakarāpopotongia ai te ingoa ki Ngāti Toa.

I ngā whakapaparanga 15 -20 ki mua whānau mai ai a Toarangatira, te mokopuna a Tūpāhau. I a ia e tamariki ana, ka ngana a Toarangatira ki te whai i ngā tauira a tōna koroua. He toa ia ki ngā mahi a Tūmatauenga. Ko te taiaha tana tino rākau pakanga. Ka eke a Toarangatira hei rangatira mō te iwi, hauware ake tōna tuakana. Nā tēnei āhuatanga ka tū ko ia hei mana nui ki te rohe o Kāwhia.

Te hekenga ki te tonga

Ka noho a Ngāti Toa ki Kāwhia mō tētahi wā tino roa. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1820, nā runga i ngā tautohetohe me ngā riri ki ētahi atu iwi o taua takiwā, ka wehe atu a Ngāti Toa i Kāwhia. Ka whai atu ana haumi, arā, a Ngāti Rārua, a Ngāti Koata, a Ngāti Te Akamapuhia. Ka neke whakatetonga rātou ki ngā takiwā o Te Moana-a-Raukawa me te whanga o Porirua.

Te pepeha mō te iwi

Ko Tainui te waka
Ko Hoturoa te tangata
Ko Ngāti Toarangatira te iwi.

Ko Porirua te takiwā ko Takapūwāhia, ko Toarangatira te whare. Koinei te wāhi hui ai te iwi ki te wānanga i āna take maha. He tohu te whare mō te mana o Ngāti Toa.


Migration from the north

Taka rawa ki te tekau tau atu i 1820, kua roa te wā e pakanga ana a Ngāti Toa ki ngā iwi o Waikato ki uta, mō te mana o Kāwhia me āna rawa katoa. Whāia, ka whakahauhia e Te Rauparaha te iwi kia heke whakatetonga, ki te rohe o Kapiti, ki ngā whenua me ngā rawa o taua rohe, e tata atu hoki ai rātou ki ngā Pākehā hoko pū.

Te wehenga atu i Kāwhia

Ehara i te mea ngāwari te wehe atu i Kāwhia; mai anō i te taenga o te waka a Tainui i te rau tau 1300, ko Kāwhia te kāinga tupu o te iwi. Nā tō rātou hingatanga i te pakanga whakamutunga ki a Waikato rāua ko Ngāti Maniapoto, ka whāiti a Ngāi Toa ki te pā o Te Arawī kei te tonga o Kāwhia. Ka hia marama e whakapaea ana taua pā e te hoariri.

Te Heke Tahutahu Ahi

Mei kore ake te ngākau aroha o tētahi o ngā huānga o Te Rauparaha i roto i te taua o Maniapoto, tērā tonu pea kua ngaro te iwi katoa. Heoi anō, ka tukuna rātou kia wehe atu i Kāwhia. Koinei te tīmatanga o tā rātou heke. I mua i tō rātou wehenga, ka kōrero a Te Rauparaha ki te iwi, ka poroporoaki ki ngā whenua papatipu o ōna tīpuna. Ka anga tana titiro ki Kāwhia, ka waiatahia e ia tana waiata tangi rongonui mō te kāinga ka wehe nei rātou: ‘Tērā ia ngā tai o Honipaka, ka wehe koe i ahau.’

Kia tata ratou ki te awa o Mōkau, ka tūpono te tira wāhine a Te Rauparaha ki tētahi taua o Ngāti Maniapoto. Ka whakakuhuna e Te Rauparaha ngā wāhine ki ngā kākahu kahurangi, ka tohua rātou kia tū ki te taha o tēnā, o tēnā ahi, e pōhēhē ai te hoariri he ope taua nui rātou. Nō konei i tapaina ai te wāhanga tuatahi o te heke, ko te Heke Tahutahu Ahi. I manaakitia a Ngāti Toa e āna huānga o Taranaki, pērā i a Ngāti Mutunga.

Te Heke Tātaramoa

Ka noho a Ngāti Toa ki Taranaki mō ētahi marama – he whakatupu kai, he rapu hoa mō te hekenga ki te tonga ngā mahi. Ahakoa he mano tāngata, neke atu tō rātou rahi, he tokomaha ngā wāhine, tamariki, kaumātua i roto, ka mutu, me hīkoi rātou mō te hia rau kiromita; ka mate ētahi i te huarahi.

Inā te uaua o te heke nei. He maha ngā tutukitanga ki ngā iwi whakataratara o te taha tonga o Taranaki, o Whanganui, o Manawatū, o te takiwā hoki o Horowhenua. Nāwai ā, ka tae a Ngāti Toa me ana haumi ki te rohe o Kapiti, ko te otinga tērā o te wāhanga tuarua o te heke mai i Taranaki ki Kāpiti. Nā te ururua o te huarahi i haerea e ratou, i tapaina tēnei wāhanga o te heke, ko te Heke Tātaramoa.

Te whakanui i ngā heke

Ko te ingoa whānui mō ngā heke, ko te Heke Mai Raro. Ka taka ngā tau ā, ka whakatūria he wharenui, ko Te Heke Mai-i-raro, hei whakanui i ngā heke. I whakatuwheratia te whare i te tau 1997 ki te marae o Hongoeka ki Plimmerton, kei kō atu i te wāhi i tū ai a Taupō, te pā o Te Rauparaha.


19th century: rise and fall

Ngā rohe i Te Wai Pounamu

He wā uaua te heke i te kāinga tupu o Kāwhia ki te rohe o Kapiti. Hāunga tērā, nō muri ka hua he painga ki a Ngāti Toa. Nō te tau 1824 ka toa a Ngāti Toa rātou ko ana haumi i tētahi pakanga nui ki ngā iwi i a rātou te mana mō te rohe o Kapiti i mua. Nā taua toanga, ka tū te mana o Ngāti Toa ki Te Moana-a-Raukawa, e taea ai te totoro ki Te Wai Pounamu, ki te taonga nui nei, te pounamu. Ka toa te iwi i roto i ngā pakanga ki ngā iwi o Kurahaupō i te tau ihu o te waka a Māui, ka riro anō he whenua ki a Ngāti Toa.

Te rangatiratanga o Te Rauparaha

I te hainatanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840, kua tū te mana o Ngāti Toa ki ngā taha o Te Moana-a-Raukawa. Nā Te Rauparaha i tutuki tēnei āhuatanga. He pūkenga ki te ārahi i te riri, he tangata whakaaro nui, he hinengaro tuwhera ki ngā ariā hōu. He maha ngā wā ka whai ia i te huarahi ngāwari, kāpā te riri. Nā tana mōhio me pēhea te whakahoahoa ki iwi kē, i taea ai te eke me te noho ki ngā whenua i Te Moana-a-Raukawa. Nāna hoki ngā mahi tauhokohoko i whakatenatena, i a ia ka pōwhiri i ngā kaipuke kia tau ki Kapiti, me tana whakahau kia noho ngā kaipatu tohorā, ngā tauhokohoko ki waenganui i a Ngāti Toa. Nā whai anō whiwhi ai a Ngāti Toa ki ngā painga nui rawa atu i ngā umanga nei. Ko te moutere o Kapiti te pokapū o ēnei mahi.

Ngā whakamātautau a te Pākehā

I muri i te tau 1840, ka whakatauria e te kāwanatanga tōna mana ki runga i ngā whenua, me ngā wai o Te Moana-a-Raukawa. I ngana a Ngāti Toa ki te tautiaki i ō rātou whenua. Ko te kaupapa tēnei i patua e Ngāti Toa tētahi rōpū e rūri ana i ō rātou whenua ki Te Wairau (Blenheim) i te tau 1843 hei whakatū i tētahi nōhanga Pākehā. Waihoki, kia taka ki te tau 1846, kua kahakoretia e te kāwanatanga ngā rangatira matua o te iwi. I kahakina a Te Rauparaha e Kāwana Hōri Kerei hei mauhere, i taututea a Te Rangihaeata ki wāhi kē. I te korenga ake o ōna rangatira, ka hokona e te Karauna te nuinga o ngā whenua o Ngāti Toa i ngā taha e rua o Te Moana-a-Raukawa.


Ngāti Toa today

Te Rūnanga o Toa Rangatira

I ēnei rā, he maramara noa iho o ōna whenua i te rohe o Te Moana-a-Raukawa kei te toe mai ki a Ngāti Toa. Nō te tau 1989 whakatūria ai Te Rūnanga o Toa Rangatira (te manatū o te iwi) hei tiaki i ngā whenua me ngā rawa i mahue ki te iwi. Pōtitia ai ngā mema tekau mā toru o te rūnanga ki te tiaki, ki te whakatū hoki i te mana o Ngāti Toa.

Ngā mahi a te iwi

Nuku atu i te 70 ngā kaimahi a te manatū, e mahi ana i ngā kaupapa hauora, tiaki taiao, whakahaere hapori, tiaki tāpoi, hao ika, whai kerēme o Tiriti o Waitangi, ngā mahi rangahau, ngā hākinakina, tae atu ki te whakawhanaketanga o ngā tikanga a Ngāti Toa hei painga mō ngā uri whakatipu.

Ngā kerēme a Ngāti Toa

I tua atu, he kaiārahi te manatū mō te iwi, i te rapunga kia ea ngā hara o ngā kāwanatanga ki runga i a Ngāti Toa. Nō te marama o Hune 2003, i rongohia e te Rōpū Whakamana i Te Tiriti o Waitangi te kerēme a Ngāti Toa ki Te Wai Pounamu. Ka noho ngā māngai o te kāwanatanga ki roto i a Toarangatira, te tupuna whare o Ngāti Toa. Ka rongo rātou i ngā mamae i pā ki te iwi o Ngāti Toa i roto i ngā tau 150 kua pahemo.

Te aranga ake

He mea tino nui tēnei ki te iwi o Ngāti Toa. I te whakapuakitanga o ngā kōrero tuku iho a Ngāti Toa, ka ea te hūpē, te roimata, te mamae, ngā mauāhara i pā ki te iwi i ngā mahi a te Karauna. He nekehanga nui tēnei e tū kaha anō ai te mana o te iwi, pērā i ngā rā ki mua.

He nui ngā piki, ngā heke kua pā ki te iwi o Ngāti Toa i roto i ngā tau. Hāunga tērā, he iwi kaha a Ngāti Toa, kei te tū mataara ki te tūtaki i ngā whakamātautau o tēnei ao hurihuri. I runga i tēnā, e whai tikanga tonu ana te haka a Te Rauparaha, mai anō i te wā i titoa e ia i te tau 1820, tatū noa ki ēnei rā, inā, ‘Ka mate, ka mate, ka ora, ka ora!’.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Ngāti Toarangatira (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

  • tatauranga o 1991: 177
  • tatauranga o 2001: 2,766
  • tatauranga o 2006: 3,462
  • tatauranga o 2013: 4,458

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Whanganui-a-Tara: 1,521
  • Waikato: 468
  • Manawatū–Whanganui: 456

 


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Mīria Pōmare, 'Ngāti Toarangatira', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ngati-toarangatira/print (accessed 26 February 2020)

He kōrero nā Mīria Pōmare, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 1 Mar 2017