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Ngāti Raukawa

by  Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal

He tipu kakara te raukawa i pania e Māhinaarangi ki tōna kiri i mua i ana tūtakitanga i ngā pō ki tana whaiāipo nō Tainui, ki a Tūrongo. Whāia, tapaina ai e rāua tā rāua tamaiti ki te raukawa, e puta mai ai ko Ngāti Raukawa.


Lands

Tēnā anō rā kei ngā tamariki toa nā Rakamamao
Kei te rangi e haere ana nā Mōtai-tangata-rau.

Kei ngā kāinga e rua ngā kāinga tupu o Ngāti Raukawa. Ko te kāinga tuatahi, kei waenganui i te tonga o Waikato me te taha raki o te takiwā o Taupō ā, ko tōna pokapū kei Maungatautari, te tupuna maunga o Ngāti Raukawa. Kei Maungatautari ngā wāhi nui o te iwi – ngā wāhi whakawhānau, ngā urupā, ngā pā, ngā wāhi tū ai ngā whare wānanga me te maha noa atu. Kei ngā kōrero tuku iho a Ngāti Raukawa ngā whakamārama mō te takiwā:

  • Ngāti Raukawa ki Wharepūhunga
  • Ngāti Raukawa ki Te Kaokaoroa-o-Pātetere
  • Ngāti Raukawa ki Panehakua.

Ko Wharepūhunga tētahi takiwā kei te tonga me te rāwhiti o Te Awamutu, arā, kei waenganui i a Maungatautari me Waipapa – kei te taha tokerau tēnei o te moana o Taupō. Ko Te Kaokaoroa-o-Pātetere te pae maunga e takoto ana i te taha tokerau o te moana o Taupō, ahu atu ki te pae maunga o Kaimai i te taha uru o Tauranga. Kāore i te mōhiotia i nāianei kei hea ake a Panehakua.

Ko te takiwā rongonui tuarua o Ngāti Raukawa kei te tonga, mai i te awa o Rangitīkei i te taha uru o te awa o Manawatū, ki te awa iti o Kukutauaki, paku nei tana tawhiti kei te taha tokerau o Waikanae. Koianei ia te rohe o Ngāti Raukawa-ki-te-tonga. Nō ngā tekau tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800 neke ai rātou i Maungatautari.

Te whare o Raukawa

Ka kōrero tēnei whakataukī mō te rohe o Ngāti Raukawa ki te tonga o Waikato. He kōrero ka whakarite i te rohe ki te whare tipuna.

Ko Ranginui te tuanui

Ko Papatuanuku te papa

Ko te poutūārongo kei Pikitū

Ko te poutokomanawa kei Ngātira

Ko te poutāhu kei Tārukenga, kei Te Ngākau

Ōna maihi, taka mai ki Te Wairere

Ki Horohoro.

Maungatautari

Ko Maungatautari te tupuna maunga o Ngāti Raukawa. Kei te taha tonga o te tāone o Kemureti e tū ana. He nui ngā kōrero mōna. Kei roto ia i ngā waiata, i ngā whakataukī me te maha noa atu o ngā tuhituhinga. Anei tētahi kōrero mōna nā ētahi rangatira o Ngāti Raukawa i tuhi ki te reta:

Ōtaki
9 Hune 1864
E hoa e te Kāwana tēnā koe, ko te taha whaitua o Maungatautari, ko te taha ki te Rāwhiti, E hoa e te Kāwana, kia rongo mai koe. He whakataukī tēnei, nā ngā rangatira o te motu mō Maungatautari, ko te Ure tētehi whaitua, ko te Hika kei tētehi whaitua.
Kei tētahi waiata nā te rangatira o Ngāti Raukawa nā Te Whatanui, e whakarite ana i a Maungatautari ki ‘Te Kura a Tauninihi’. He kōrero tēnei mō tētahi kura tapu i heria mai i Hawaiki mā runga i te waka Tainui.

Kia tata te waka ki uta i Whangaparāoa ka kite atu, ka pōhēhē ngā tāngata o runga he rite ngā hua o te pohutukawa me te rātā i kite rātou ki tērā te kura i heria mai i tāwāhi. Ka porowhiua ngā kura ki te moana. Nō te ūnga o te waka ki uta, ka kite ngā tāngata o runga ehara aua hua i kite rātou i te kura, ka tahuri rātou ki te rapu i taua taonga i whiua wawetia e rātou ki te moana.

Ko tā te waiata a Te Whatanui, he whakarite i a Maungatautari ki taua kura tapu, i te mea i ‘mahue’ e te iwi o Ngāti Raukawa te maunga i a rātou ka wehe ki te tonga i ngā tekau tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800.


Early history

Raukawa

Whakapapa mai ai a Ngāti Raukawa i tō rātou tupuna i a Raukawa, nō te waka o Tainui. He hononga anō ōna ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, arā ki a Ngāti Kahungunu i te mea i ahu mai tōna whāea a Māhinaarangi i reira. I whānau mai a Raukawa i ngā whakatupuranga e 20–25 ki muri, ki te puna wai o Ōkoroire, ka whakatupuria a ia ki te kāinga o tōna matua i Rangiātea, tata ki Ōtorohanga. Kāore i te mau ngā kōrero mō ngā nekeneke a Raukawa i tōna wā. Hāunga, tokomaha ngā tūpuna o Ngāti Raukawa he pānga nui ō rātou ki ngā nekenekehanga nui i te hītori o te rohe o Waikato me ngā takiwā kei te taha tonga o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ko ētahi o ngā tūpuna rongonui nei ko ngā tama a Takihiku, tae rawa ki a Kapumanawawhiti rāua ko Huia. Ko ētahi o ōna tūpuna rongonui i te rau tau 1800 ko Te Whatanui, ko Te Ahukaramū, ko te tupua nei a Te Rauparaha.

Mai anō i te whānautanga mai o Raukawa, kikī ana te hītori o Ngāti Raukawa i ngā piki me ngā heke o tēnei mea te iwi.

Ngā tamariki a Raukawa

Tēnā anō rā kei ngā tamariki toa nā Rakamamao
Kei te rangi e haere ana nā Mōtai-tangata-rau.

Hāngai pū ana ngā hītori tōmua o Ngāti Raukawa ki ngā tamariki a Raukawa – a Rereahu, a Takihiku, a Whakatere, a Kurawari – e kōrerohia tonuhia i ēnei rā. I tua atu i a Kurawari, tapaina ai ētahi hapū ki ngā ingoa o ēnei tūpuna. Tērā ko te tupuna rongonui rawa o te whakatupuranga o muri mai i ēnei, ko te tama a Rereahu, ko Maniapoto, nāna ko Ngāti Maniapoto. Ahakoa te mea i reira anō tōna tuakana a Te Ihinga-a-rangi, i whakahekea te mana a tō rāua matua ki a Maniapoto.

He tuahine tā Maniapoto ko Te Rongorito tōna ingoa; he tupuna nui ia o ngā uri whakaheke o Ngāti Raukawa. He puhi a Te Rongorito, he wahine tapu i akona ki ngā āhuatanga o te rangatira; ka puta i a ia tētahi wāhanga kaha o Ngāti Raukawa. Ko tana mokopuna ko Kapumanawawhiti, he tino toa, he rākau kawa; nāna ka hau ki tawhiti te rongo mō Ngāti Raukawa. Nō muri i te mutunga o ētahi pakanga i toa nei ia i te raki o Taranaki, ka puta tēnei kōrero mōna i tōna whanaunga i a Parekarau:

He uri tamawahine, māna e takahi te one i Hākerekere.

Whakahuatia tonuhia tēnei pepeha e Ngāti Raukawa hei whakanui i te mana o Te Rongorito.

Whai muri i a Kapumanawawhiti ko tana irāmutu ko Ngātokowaru, tētahi atu tupuna toa rongonui o Ngāti Raukawa. Ka taka ki tētahi pakanga, ka mauherea a Ngātokowaru, ka kawea ki mua i te aroaro o te rangatira o Ngāti Mahuta, ki a Te Putu e whakahemohemo ana. I te whakatatanga atu a Ngātokowaru ki te rangatira o tōna hoariri e whakahemohemo ana, ka tangohia e ia tana tete huna, ka whakamatea e ia a Te Putu, me tana kōrero: ‘Ko te tete o Ngātokowaru, tēnā ka rangona!’


19th century migrations

I te wāhanga tōmua o te rau tau 1800, ka neke tētahi wāhanga nui o Ngāti Raukawa i ngā takiwā o Maungatautari me Wharepūhunga ki ngā whenua kei te tonga o Te Ika-a-Māui. Tae rā anō rātou ki ngā takiwā o Rangitīkei, o Manawatū, o Horowhenua me Kapiti. Ko ngā take i neke ai rātou ko ngā riri i te raki me te whanaungatanga tata i waenganui i a Ngāti Raukawa rāua ko Ngāti Toarangatira kua haere whakatetonga noa atu i te kāinga tupu i Kāwhia.

I te takiwā o te tau 1820 ka tae te kōrero ki Maungatautari e mea ana kua parekuratia a Ngāti Toarangatira. I tērā ka tukuna he ope. Ko ētahi o ngā rangatira o tēnei haere e mōhiotia nei ko te Heke Karere, ko Ngārangiōrēhua, ko Te Horohau, ko Mātenga Te Mātia, ko Te Ahukaramū. Kia tae rawa rātou ki te tonga, ka kite rātou he tika te kōrero, kua pā te raruraru ki a Ngāti Toarangatira, ina rā kua mate ētahi tamariki.

Te tono a Ngāti Toa

Kia oti ā rātou huihui, ka takatū te ope o Ngāti Raukawa ki te hoki ki Maungatautari. I konei, ka tono a Te Rauparaha o Ngāti Toarangatira kia nōhia te tonga e Ngāti Raukawa. Kāore i tautokona te tono nei e Ngāti Raukawa. Ka rongo a Waitohi, te tuahine a Te Rauparaha i tēnei kōrero, ka tono anō ko ia. Whakaae ana ngā rangatira o te ope ki tana tono. Tae rawa ana te ope ki Maungatautari ka whakatakotoria e tētahi o ngā rangatira e Te Ahukaramū te kōrero kia heke rātou ki te tonga. Ka whakakeke te iwi ki te haere. I reira ka whakahaua e Te Ahukaramū āna tāngata kia tahuna ngā pā me ngā whare o te iwi.

Ngā heke e toru

Whai muri i tēnei ko te hekenga nui tuatahi o Ngāti Raukawa ki te tonga. Ko te ingoa o tēnei heke ko Te Heke Whirinui, he ingoa whakamaumaharatanga mō ngā whakairo nui i runga i ngā whāriki i wahaina e rātou. Nā Te Ahukaramū tēnei ope i ārahi. Ko te hekenga nui tuarua, ko Te Heke Kariritahi, he ingoa whakamahara mō ngā momo pū a te ope. Ko Nēpia Taratoa te kaiārahi o tēnei ope. Ko te hekenga whakamutunga, ko Te Heke Mai-i-raro. Ko Te Whatanui te rangatira o tēnei ope.

Nā ngā heke a Ngāti Raukawa i uru atu ai rātou ki ētahi riri ki ngā iwi kei te tonga. Mahi tahi ai a Ngāti Toarangatira rāua ko Ngāti Raukawa kia riro mai ai he whenua mō rāua, mai i Rangitīkei ki Kapiti. He maha ngā hapū i whakanōhia ki ēnei takiwā. Ko ngā marae maha o Ngāti Raukawa kei te tū i ēnei rā hei tohu ki te whakanohonga o ngā hapū i te rau tau 1800; ko ētahi marae i ēnei rā e tū ana kei runga i ngā poraka whenua i whakaritea i te wāhanga tōmua o te rau tau 1800.


The 20th century onwards

I ēnei rā, he maha ngā marae, ngā whare, ngā rōpū ā-iwi o Ngāti Raukawa kei te tū. Ko ētahi o ngā rōpū nei ko te Poari o Raukawa kei Tokoroa, ko te Rūnanga o Raukawa kei Ōtaki, ko te Wānanga o Raukawa kei Ōtaki, ko te whare karakia o Rangiātea kei Ōtaki, ko te Karapu Rērehi Hōiho o Ōtaki me te marae o Raukawa kei Ōtaki anō hoki.

He whīwhiwhi, he rerekē te hītori o Ngāti Raukawa i te rau tau 1900, nā runga tonu i ngā āhuatanga nui i pā, pēnei i te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao me te paheketanga nui o te tekau tau atu i te 1930 ā, whai muri iho i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao he tini te tangata i hūnuku i ngā kāinga tupu o te iwi ki ngā tāone noho ai. Koinei anō te wā i puta ai te rongo mō Īnia Te Wīata, he reo panguru rōreka i mōhiotia whānuitia e te ao, rāua ko Kīngi Tāhiwi, i mōhiotia whānuitia mō āna mahi tito waiata. Nō te tau 1975 tīmataria ai e Ngāti Raukawa tētahi mahere whanake iwi, e 25 tau te roa o tana haere. Ko te ingoa o tēnei mahere whanake ko ‘Whakatupuranga rua mano – Generation 2000’; nā tēnei kaupapa i ora ai anō te maha o ngā marae tae rawa ki te reo Māori. I whakatūria Te Wānanga o Raukawa kei Ōtaki hei ako i ngā mātauranga tiketike.

I ēnei rā, e aru ana ngā uri o Ngāti Raukawa i te maha rawa atu o ngā kaupapa pēnei i ngā toi, te pūtaiao, ngā mahi umanga me ērā take e hāngai pū ana ki te whakaara ake anō o te mātauranga Māori.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Ngāti Raukawa (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ko 1901 te tau whakamutunga rawa i pātaihia ai te Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou. Heoi kāore i pātaihia kia whakatakotohia ngā iwi maha.

Ngāti Raukawa

  • tatauranga o 1901: 2,084

Ngāti Raukawa (Horowhenua/Manawatū)

  • tatauranga o 1991: 1,014
  • tatauranga o 2001: 11,088
  • tatauranga o 2006: 13,233
  • tatauranga o 2013: 15,135

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Manawatū–Whanganui: 4,728
  • Te Whanganui-a-Tara: 3,969

Ngāti Raukawa (Waikato)

  • tatauranga o 1991: 912
  • tatauranga o 2001: 5,175
  • tatauranga o 2006: 8,166
  • tatauranga o 2013: 10,053

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Waikato: 3,621
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 1,860

Ngāti Raukawa

  • tatauranga o 1991: 16,509
  • tatauranga o 2001: 8,781
  • tatauranga o 2006: 8,022
  • tatauranga o 2013: 4,785

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Waikato: 1,236
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 1,008

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, 'Ngāti Raukawa', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ngati-raukawa/print (accessed 22 September 2020)

He kōrero nā Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 3 Mar 2017