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Ngāti Porou

by  Tamati Muturangi Reedy

I te hīnga ake a Māui i tana ika i te kōpū o Hinemoana, ko te wāhanga tuatahi i puea ake, ko te tihi o Hikurangi, te maunga tapu o Ngāti Porou. Nō muri i a Māui ka puta ko ngā tīpuna pēnei i a Toi, i a Paikea – i kau mai i Hawaiki mā runga tohorā, i a Te Kani-a-Takirau – te ariki i whaka-kahore i te tono kia tū hei kīngi mō ngā iwi Māori, ā, i muri mai, ko te tipua nei, a Tā Āpirana Ngata. Ko Hikurangi maunga te tohu whakaaturanga mō te tū mana motuhake o Ngāti Porou me tōna kotahitanga.


Ancestors

Ko te ingoa o Ngāti Porou i ahu mai i te ingoa o te tipuna, o Porourangi. E ai ki te pukenga kōrero o Ngāti Porou, ki a Tā Āpirana Ngata, ko Porourangi rāua ko tōna teina a Tahupōtiki, i heke iho i ngā kāwai o Toikairākau, o Uenuku, o Kahutiaterangi, o Paikea me Ruatapu.

I whānau a Porourangi i te ata tuhi. Nō reira tōna ingoa whānui i noho ai ko Porou-ariki Mata-tara-a-whare, Te tuhimāreikura o Rauru. Ko Tahupōtiki, i whānau mai i te mura o te ahiahi: nō reira te whakaroanga o tōna ingoa, ko Tahupōtiki-Te Tuhimāreikura-o-Oho, a Tama-wahine.

E rua ngā take nui i noho ai ko te ingoa o Porourangi hei ingoa mō te iwi. Tuatahi, ko ōna tātai whakapapa nō roto mai i ngā tīpuna o Hawaiki, pērā i a Toi mā. Tuarua, i heke iho i āna uri te toa mau rākau. I tua atu, nā ngā whakamoemoetanga ki ngā iwi i raupatutia e rātou ō roto whenua i te rohe o Te Tai Rāwhiti.

Māui

Ko ngā korero mō Ngāti Porou, kei roto i ngā pūrākau, ngā pakiwaitara, ngā kōrero o neherā. Ko te whakatau a Ngāti Porou ko tōna mana tuku iho nō te tipua nei, nō Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga. Ko ia te paiheretanga o Ngāti Porou ki te tīmatanga mai o te ao. Ko ia te tangata nāna i hī ake te Ika-a-Māui i te kōpū o te moana. Kei roto i te tangi apakura ‘Haere rā e hika’, e kōrero ana mō te waka o Māui, mō Nukutaimemeha:

Ko te waka i hīia ai te whenua nui nei.

Kei roto i te haka Whakarongo ake te hīrea waha o Māui, e whakanuia ana te whakaputanga o te maunga tapu o Hikurangi i te moana:

Whakaeteete mai ko Hikurangi.

Paikea

Ko te tipua nei a Paikea tētahi o ngā tīpuna nunui ō te iwi. I heke mai ki Aotearoa mā runga i tana tohorā. Ko te puna o ēnei kōrero nō Hawaiki mai rā anō, ā, he kōrero weriweri. Ka puea te pakanga i runga i ngā tautohenga a te whānau mō te tū rangatira, me ngā tāwai a tētahi ki tētahi. Te mutunga ka patupatua e Ruatapu ōna tuākana, e whitu tekau.

Ko Paimahutonga he wahine rangatira, engari i mau herehere, ā, ka moea e te ruanuku nei, e Uenuku. Ka puta tā rāua tama, ko Ruatapu. I runga anō o te wā, ka tāwaitia a Ruatapu e Uenuku ki te ’tama meamea’. Ko te utunga a Ruatapu i tēnā tāwaitanga i a ia, ka haria e ia ngā tama mātāmua ki te moana, ka patupatua. Ko Paikea i rauora. Ko Te Huripūreiata te ingoa o tēnei parekura nui ki a Ngāti Porou.

Nā ngā atua me ngā tipua o te moana a Paikea i whakatere mai ki uta. I moea e Paikea a Huturangi, te tamāhine ātaahua a Te Whironui. Kua tae kē mai a Te Whironui rāua ko tana wahine, a Āraiara ki Aotearoa mā runga i te waka o Nukutere. E whakanuia ana e Ngāti Porou tō rāua moenga ki ngā kupu o roto i te waiata o ‘Paikea’ – te waiata whakahī a Ngāti Porou:

E ai tō ure ki te tamāhine a Te Whironui.

Ngā waka

Ko te waka o Māui, ko Nukutaimemeha, te waka mātāmua o Ngāti Porou. E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho kei runga o Hikurangi e takoto huripoki ana, kua kōhatutia. Ko ētahi atu waka nāna i mau mai nga tīpuna o Ngāti Porou, ko Horouta me tōna rangatira a Pāoa, ko Tākitimu me tōna rangatira a Tamatea. Ko Tereanini, te waka o Rongomaituaho i whai mai rā i tōna matua, i a Paikea i Hawaiki. Ko Te Ikaroa-a-Rauru te waka whakaheke o Hamoterangi, te wahine a Porourangi. He ruarua noa iho ngā kōrero mō ētahi atu o ngā waka e whai pānga atu ana a Ngāti Porou: a Mangarara, a Kurahaupō me Āraiteuru. E ai ki a Apirana Ngata, ko te nuinga o ngā kerēme a Ngāti Porou i roto i Te Kōti Whenua Māori i te rau tau 1800, i whakatauria te mana whenua i runga i a Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga, kāore i runga i ngā waka.

Ngā hononga ā-iwi

He mea nui ki a Ngāti Porou ōna whakapapa here ki ōna whanaunga tata pēnei i a Te Whānau-ā-Apanui. E karangatia ai rātou e Ngāti Porou ko ‘ngā tuākana’, nō runga i a Taua, te mātāmua a Hingangaroa rāua ko Iranui, (te tuahine a Kahungunu). He mokopuna rāua na Porourangi. I roto i ngā pakanga a Taua ki tana teina ki a Hauiti, ka tutea a Taua ki tērā rohe noho ai.

Ko Ngāi Tahu e noho mai rā ki Te Wai Pounamu, e karangatia ana, ko ‘nga tāina’. Ko Ngāti Porou i heke mai i a Porourangi, te tuakana, ko Ngai Tahu i a Tahupōtiki, te taina. Nō te moenga o Hamoterangi ki a rāua i pūmau ake ai te hononga o ngā iwi nei.

Kahungunu me Tainui–Waikato

Ki te taha tonga o te rohe ko te iwi nui o Ngāti Kahungunu. He uri whakaheke anō a Kahungunu nō Porourangi. Ko tana tamāhine a Tauheikurī he tāhū matua anō ki a Ngāti Porou me Ngāti Kahungunu. Ko āna tama, a Tawhiwhi rāua ko Māhaki, he tīpuna matua nō ngā hapū o Ngāti Porou, me Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa.

Ka hono atu anō a Ngāti Porou, mā roto i a Kahungunu, ki ngā iwi o Tainui–Waikato i roto i te moenga o tana uri rongonui, a Māhinaarangi ki a Turongo. Nā rāua ka puta ko te tipuna rongonui a Raukawa.


Tribal boundaries and resources

Ko te rohe whenua o Ngāti Porou kei te taha rāwhiti rawa o Te Ika-a-Māui, kei roto i ngā rohe whenua o ngā waka o Horouta me Tākitimu. Ko te rohe whenua o te waka o Horouta ka tīmata mai i Te Taumata-ō-Apanui i te raki, ka ahu atu ki te tonga ki Paritū, ka anga atu ki te tuawhenua ki ngā whenua o Ngāti Ruapani ki Waikaremoana, kātahi ka tahuri atu ki te raki mā te pae maunga o Raukūmara ki Te Taumata o Apanui. Ko Tūranganui-a-Kiwa te haumitanga o Horouta me te waka o Tākitimu.

Ko te rohe whāiti o Ngāti Porou i tēnei wā i whakaritea i te ture whakamana o Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Porou (1987), ko te rohe mai i Pōtikirua ki te raki ki te Toka-ā-Taiau, arā, ki te pūwaha o Tūranganui.

Ko ngā whenua o Ngāti Porou e mau nei ināianei, 200,000 heketea. He whenua maunga, he whenua pukepuke, he whenua ātaahua tōna takutai moana. Ko ngā wao-nui-a-Tāne, i topea i ngā rā o te tīmatatanga o te ahuwhenua ki Ngāti Porou. Nō muri i te tau 1950 ka whakatipuria ngā uru rākau paina.

Ko tētahi o ngā mea whakahī ki tēnei iwi ko tōna tū wehenga mai i te ao, ko tōna tū ki runga i tōna tino rangatiratanga – mana motuhake.

Rohe hōu

I ngā tau o te 1800 ka neke ētahi o Ngāti Porou ki Harataunga i Moehau, ki te whenua-tuku a te rangatira, a Paora Te Putu. Koinei anake te heke a Ngāti Porou ki waho ake i tōna rohe noho ai. He takoha tēnei whenua ki a Ngāti Porou, i te mea ka hoki mai rātou i Tāmaki-makau-rau, ka peka atu ki te whakaruru ki Harataunga. Ka tohatohaina e Ngāti Porou ngā painga o te haerenga ki te mahi hokohoko. I tua atu, kua whakawhirinaki mai ki a Ngāti Porou, i runga i te mea e kaha ana hoki ki te mau pū.

Ko te pepeha o te iwi

Ko Hikurangi te maunga
Ko Waiapu te awa
Ko Ngāti Porou te iwi.

Koinei te pepeha nui e rongona ana i roto i ngā huihuinga a Ngāti Porou. Kātahi ka kīnakitia ki ngā waiata e pā ana ki ngā tīpuna pērā i a Māui me tana waka, i a Nukutaimemeha, pērā i a Paikea me tōna kōrero nui.

Ko ngā hapū o Ngāti Porou e kaha ana ki te whakahuahua i a rātou ake pepeha, waiata hoki, i roto i ngā huihuinga.

He pukahu ngā kāinga noho kei ngā whenua tuakahiwi, me ngā takutai moana. Kei ia kāinga ōna kōrero, ōna whakataukī, me ōna pepeha. Koinei ngā tohu whakaū i te mana o ia hapū, o ia whānau.

Ngā maunga me ngā awa

Ko Hikurangi te maunga tino whakaihiihi o te iwi, no te mea e here atu ana ki ngā kōrero o te hīnga mai o Te Ika-a-Māui. I te hīnga ake i tana ika, ko te wāhi tuatahi i puea ake ko Hikurangi tonu. Ka pae tana waka, a Nukutaimemeha ki reira. Ko Hikurangi ano te wāhi whakaahuru o ngā iwi i Te Tai a Ruatapu, i tukua mai hei patu i ngā mōrehu o Te Huripūreiata. Ko te ingoa o Hikurangi kei Rarotonga, kei Tahiti ano.

E whakanuia ana anō te maunga o Hikurangi ki roto i te haka a Ngāti Porou, a Rūaumoko. He mauri tau te ia o te haka i runga i te ngarue o te whenua me te tinana:

He atua! He tangata! He atua! He tangata! Ho!

Ko te awa o Waiapu te awa rongonui o te iwi. Pērā i a Hikurangi, ko te ingoa o Waiapu kei Tahiti. I ngā wā ka tū he pakanga ka huihui ngā iwi, ka whakaruru ki te riu o Waiapu, ā, e mau nei i te whakataukī :

Hoake tāua ki Waiapu ki tātara e maru ana.

Toi descendants

I horapa ai te mana o ngā uri o Porourangi ki te rohe, nā ngā pakanga.

Koinei ētahi iwi i heke iho i a Toi, e kīia ai e Ngata ‘Ko ngā uri o Toi’:

  • Ko Ruawaipū (i muri mai ko Ngāi Tuere), i noho ki te rohe ki te taha raki o te riu o Maraehara, ahu atu ki Te Araroa me Wharekahika
  • Ko Te Wahineiti i noho ki te taha tonga o te riu o Waiapu
  • Ko Uepōhatu mai i te ākau, i Tupāroa ki Reporua, ka huri ki tuawhenua ki te take o Hikurangi
  • Ko Ngāti Ruanuku me ngā hapū o Te Wahineiti, i noho ki ngā takutai o Whareponga, o Akuaku me Waipiro, ā, ka ahu atu ki ngā maunga nui o tuawhenua
  • Ko Ngāti Ira, e mana ana ki ngā pae maunga o tuawhenua mai i Mangatū (kei te taha uru o Tūranga) ki te taha tonga o Hikurangi, ahu atu ki te takutai o Tūpāroa.

Ngāi Tuere

I roto i te pakanga e karangatia nei ko te Heke a Ngāi Tuere, nā ngā uri o Tuere, te mokopuna a Porourangi, i ngaki te mate o te whenua o Ruawaipū. I murua ōna whenua e te iwi o Ngā Oho, he iwi rāwaho nō Te Moana-a-Toi. I te patunga a Ngā Oho i te rangatira o Ruawaipū, i a Tamatea-arahia, ka rere tana tamāhine, a Tamatea-ūpoko me ētahi atu o rātou ki Whāngārā. I moe a Tamatea-ūpoko ki a Uekaiahu, he uri nō Porourangi. I whakamau ā rāua tama, a Raramatai, a Tahania, a Uetaha, me Tamakoro ki te ngaki i te mate o tō rātou tipuna, ā, ki te whakahoki mai hoki i te whenua o tō rātou kōkā.

Ka whakatakaina te ope taua hei patu i a Ngā Oho, E ai ki a Ngata, ‘Koinei tētahi o ngā ope tauā i takahi i te rohe whānui, mai i tētahi moka o te rohe ki te tētahi atu moka’. 1 Ko te momo pakanga i whakaritea e Uetaha mō tana ope, ko te manukahaki. Ko tēnei tikanga he poapoa i te hoariri, kia tōia ai tōna ope tauā. Kātahi, ka tukuna te whana whakairi. He rite tēnei momo whakataka pakanga ki ta Pākanui (i te ngakinga o te mate o Poroumātā i Whareponga).

Nā tēnei pakanga, ka moea ngā mōrehu o Ruawaipū e ngā uri o Porourangi, ā, e karangatia nei ko Ngai Tuere.

Ko Taua, ko Māhaki me Hauiti

Ko tētahi o ngā pakanga i hōrapa ai te mana o Porourangi, ko te pakanga i waenganui i ana mokopuna: i a Taua, i a Māhaki me Hauiti. I puta te riri i te apo a ngā tuākana i ngā ika a Hauiti. Ka pakanga, kātahi ka tutea e Hauiti ōna tuākana i waho o te rohe. Ko Taua i tau atu ki te rohe o Te Whānau-a-Apanui, ā, ko tana uri ko Apanui Waipapa. Nāna hoki ko Apanui Ringa-mutu, e mau nei te ingoa o tērā iwi

Ko te tuakana tuarua, a Māhaki, i noho ki te riu o Waiapu, ā, ka moe i a Hinemākaho, (te tuahine o Poroumātā). Ko ngā uri ko Hiakaitāria, ko Tukiumu, me te tuahine, a Rākaitemania. E kī ana a Ngata, koinei ētahi o ngā tīpuna i mana ai ngā whenua o tēnei takiwā i te kōtitanga.

Ko te taina, ko Hauiti, i mau tonu tōna mana ki Uawa. I roto i āna whakaekenga i tau rawa atu ki te rohe o Uepohatu. Nāna anō i tute atu a Ngāti Ira ki waho o te rohe. Nā āna pakanga me ngā whakamoemoe haere a ōna uri, e mau ai tōna karangatanga o Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti.

Ko Poroumātā

Ko tētahi kōrero nunui o Ngāti Porou, ko te kōhurutanga i a Poroumātā i Whareponga. Ko ia, he uri nō Porourangi, ā, he rangatira nō Ngāti Ruanuku me ōna hapū. E noho mārie ana i waenga i te iwi. Heoi, nā te maukino a ōna tama tokoono i te iwi, ka hua ake te riri. Haere ai ngā tama, ka pāhuatia ngā kupenga ika. Ko te mutunga i patua a Poroumātā me ngā tama ki te moana. Heoi, ko ngā tamāhine, ko Materoa, ko Tāwhipare, me Te Ataakura i noho rauora. E kī ana a Ngata ‘Ko ēnei wāhine tētahi mātāpuna nui whakaharahara o ngā tātai whakapapa o Porourangi; i hua mai ai ngā tino rangatira, me ngā toa rongonui o Ngāti Porou.’ 2

I ngakia te kōhurutanga o Poroumata e Tuwhakairiora (te tama a Te Ataakura). Ka raupatutia e ia a Ngati Ruanuku mai i te taha raki. Na tōna irāmutu, nā Pākanui (mokopuna a Materoa) i ūkui atu te hoariri o Te Wahineiti me ngā mōrehu o Ngāti Ruanuku, mai i te taha tonga. Nā ēnei toa e roha atu ai te mana o Porourangi ki runga i te iwi whānui. Ko rāua anō tētahi o ngā whāriki whakapapa o ngā uri o Porourangi.

Ngāti Ira

Ko Ngāti Ira he iwi toa i ōna rā. E roha ana tōna mana ā-iwi, mai i Mangatū, ahu atu i ngā maunga o tuawhenua, a, tau atu ki te taha moana ki Tūpāroa.

I raupatutia tēnei iwi i roto i ngā pakanga maha ki ngā uri o Porourangi. E ai ki a Ngata, i whakaekea a Ngāti Ira, mai i ngā taha e toru: ko Tutepuaki te toa mai i te tonga, ko Kahukuranui ( te tama a Hauiti) mai i te hau marangai, ā, ko ngā mokopuna a Tamaihu (Te Atau, Kūkū, Korohau, Rongotangatakē) mai i te taha raki.

Footnotes
  1. Āpirana T. Ngata, Porourangi School of Maori Culture, Rauru-nui-a-toi course. › Back
  2. Porourangi School of Maori Culture, Rauru-nui-a-toi course. › Back

Post-European conflicts and developments

Nō ngā tau o1820 te heke nui a Ngāpuhi ki te motu whānui me ana pū, na te Pākehā. E mōhiotia ana te tārukenga a Ngāpuhi i a Ngāti Porou i Te Whetūmatarau me Kōkai. Na ngā mauherehere o konei i whakahoki mai te Rongopai, i te tau 1834. I haria mai e (Piripi) Taumata-a-kura ki Rangitukia, te punawai o tē Hāhi Karaitiana. I muri mai ka hui te 4000 ki Whakawhitirā ki te whakarongo ki tēnei mea hōu. Ki ētahi e kī ana mō te Whakapono: “ Nā tēnei taonga i tango te kiko tangata i ō mātou niho” i mutu ai te kaitangata. Ka tau hoki te rangimārie. Ko ngā mamae o aua pakanga, kua whakangāwaritia. I whakararatatia te kiri nguha i ngā whakamoemoetanga o tēra wā, ā, tatū noa mai ki nāianei.

I muri mai, he wa tēnei e takoto mōai ai te whenua. He wā e whakamātauria ana ngā āhuatanga hōu. Nā konei ka whakamātau te hinengaro ki ngā tauwhāinga o te ao hōu. Ko te mutunga ka hainatia te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840 e ētahi o ngā rangatira o Ngāti Porou. I ngā tau o te 1850, e kaha ana ngā hapu o Ngāti Porou ki te whakahaere i ngā mahi hokohoko i runga i ō rātou waka ki Tāmaki-makau-rau, atu ki Poihākena o Ahitereiria.

Te riri tara-a-whare

I roto i ngā tau o 1865 ki ngā tau o 1870, ka tū te riri tara-a-whare, ki roto o Ngāti Porou. Arā, ka pakanga a Ngāti Porou ki a Ngāti Porou. Ka weherua te iwi.

Ko ētahi i whai ki te taha Hauhau, nā rātou rā i patu a Te Wākena i te tau 1865. E whakauru mai ana te Hauhau ki te kawe haere i tōna momo rongopai, te Pai Mārire. Ko ētahi o ngā hapū i tautoko, nō roto o Waiapu, o Tokomaru, o Ūawa, me Tūranga. Ko tōna kauhau, he kī e kore e mate te tangata i te matā pū, me te turaki atu i te Pākehā i te whenua o te Māori. I tua atu, e whaiwhai ana he tautoko mō te Kīngitanga, te kaupapa whakakotahi i te Ao Maori i raro i te Kīngi Māori. Heoi, kua takoto kē te whakautu a Ngāti Porou i te whakakāhoretanga a Te Kani-a-Takirau i te tono ki a ia hei kīngi. Ko tana whakataukī, ko tēnei:

Ko tōku Kīngitanga nō te ihu tō mai i te pō. Ko tōku maunga a Hikurangi ehara i te maunga nekeneke, he maunga tū tonu!

Ko ngā pakanga ki te Hauhau i tū ki te taha raki o Waiapu, ki roto o Tokomaru, o Ūawa, me Waerenga-a-Hika i roto o Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. Mutu rawa atu ēnei pakanga i te whāinga i a Te Kooti i Te Urewera i te 1870.

Te Tūkotahitanga

Nō te tāpaetanga o te kīngitanga ki a Te Kani-a-Takirau, ka whakautu ia ki te kōrero nei – ‘Ko tāku kīngitanga nō te ihu tō mai i te pō. Ko tāku maunga a Hikurangi, ehara i te maunga nekeneke, he maunga tū tonu.’

Mai i taua wā ki nāianei kua tū tēnei whakataukī hei kōrero rangatira (ki ētahi he whakahīhī) ki te iwi. Ko te ingoa o Ngāti Porou mōna anō ko Te Wīwī Nāti. I ahu mai te kōrero nei i a Tā Āpirana Ngata, e whakarite ana i te iwi ki te wīwī – ara, he tipu pipiri.

Ko tētahi taha i tū ki te ārai atu i ngā ope Hauhau. I te tau 1865, ka pakanga te ope o Te Aowera ki ngā Hauhau mau pū, i Mangaone. Ko ngā rangatira o te ope, ko Hēnare Nihoniho rāua ko Rāpata Wahawaha. I mate a Hēnare i reira, ka tau te mana ārahi ki a Rāpata.

I te tīmatanga o ēnei pakanga, ruarua noa iho ngā pū a Ngāti Porou E rima noa ngā pū a te ope whitu tekau o Te Aowera. Heoi, kāore i roa ka whakamaua ngā pū a te Kāwanatanga ki ngā ope o Ngāti Porou. Ko te hiahia o te Kāwanatanga he aukati i te Hauhau. Ko te hiahia o Ngāti Porou, he pupuri i tōna ake mana motuhake.

Ko te whakataukī a Te Kani-a-Takirau kua noho hei taonga whakapehapeha mā Ngāti Porou. Ko te Wīwī Nāti tētahi anō o ngā karangatanga o te iwi. Nā Tā Apirana Ngata i whakaingoa, e whakarite ana i te tū ngātahi a Ngāti Porou, anō nei he pū wīwī.


New leaders

Ko ngā toa i puta ake i roto i ēnei pakanga ki te Hauhau, i mau ai te mana o Ngāti Porou ki roto ake i tōna rohe, ko Rāpata Wahawaha rātou ko Tuta Nihoniho, ko Mōkena Kōhere, ko Hēnare Pōtae, ko Hōtene Porourangi.

I muri mai o ngā pakanga ka tahuri te Kāwanatanga ki te muru i ngā whenua o Ngāti Porou, i runga i te tū o ētahi o te iwi ki te taha Hauhau.

‘Nōhou ake ōhou whenua’

Nā te toa tūtū tauā o Ngāti Porou nā Rāpata Wahawaha, i ana tuhinga, te kōrero ki a Te Makarini, Te Kaihoko-whenua a Te Kāwanatanga, nā Ngāti Porou ake tāna whawhai, ēhara i te Kāwanatanga. Ka whakautua e Te Makarini ‘Ae. Kaore he wāhi a te Kāwanatanga ki a koutou whawhai, nā koutou anō. Ko ō koutou whenua, nō koutou anake. Kāore he wāhi ki te Kāwanatanga.’

Ko Mōkena Kōhere anō i tū ki te aukati i te hiahia o te Kāwanatanga ki te muru i ngā whenua o Ngāti Porou. Ko tana kupu ko tēnei: ‘Mauria tō moni. Nāku tonu taku riri, ēhara i a koe, i te Pākehā.‘

I taua wa e kaha ana te mau pū a Ngāti Porou. Na konei i tūpato ai te Kāwanatanga ki te muru whenua. Otirā, nā te nui o te pū ki a Ngāti Porou i hua rawa ake ai te whakaaro o ngā kaiārahi o taua wā me haere ki te ngaki i te mate o Ngāti Porou i a Ngāpuhi i te rima tekau tau o mua atu. Nā te pūmau ki te Whakapono i kore ai, e ai ki te kōrero. 1

Te maungārongo me ngā whanaketanga

Mai i ngā tau o te 1870 ki 1900 ka mau te rongo ki te iwi. Ka tipu ngā mahi hokohoko mō ngā mākete o Tāmaki-makau-rau me Poihākena. Nā konei i tipu kaha ai ki te whai i te mātauranga o te Pākehā.

Tā Āpirana Ngata

Ka neke mai i ngā tau o te 1890, ka hau te rongo mō te kaiārahi nui o Ngāti Porou, a Āpirana Turupa Ngata. Koia te Māori tuatahi kia whakawhiwhia ki te tohu mātauranga o te whare wānanga o Niu Tīreni. Nāna i whakatakoto he tauira ki tōna iwi ake mō ngā mahi tōrangapū, I tua i tērā ko tana koha nui ki te whakawhanaketanga o te motu, ko tana māia ki te kōkiri i ngā take mō te oranga nui o te iwi Maori.

I te wā e heke ana te maha o te iwi Māori, e noho hinapōuri ana te iwi, ka tū i a Tā Āpirana Ngata ngā momo kaupapa katoa hei hiki i te mauri o te iwi. Ka takoto i a ia te kaupapa ahuwhenua Māori, te whakaoranga i ngā tikanga o neherā, me te whakatairanga i ngā tākaro whakataetae (whutupaoro, hōki, tēnehi) i waenganui i ngā iwi. Kei te tairanga tonu ngā painga o ana mahi i ēnei rā.

Nā Āpirana anō i whakahaere te āwhina a te iwi Māori ki ngā pakanga e rua o te ao, a, e maumaharatia ana e ngā hōia, i ta rātou karangatanga i a ia ‘Te Matua o Te Hokowhitu a Tū’.

Ko te takoha nui a Ngāti Porou ki ēnei pakanga, ko te hunga hōia i haere, mate atu hoki. Kei roto i ngā marae maha o te iwi ngā tohu whakamaharatanga ki a rātou. E tū whakaiti ana anō a Ngāti Porou i te mea i whakawhiwhia tana mokopuna, 2 Tenata, a Moana Ngarimu, ki te Rīpeka Wikitōria.

Footnotes
  1. Kōrero tūmataiti nā Hānora Te Ohāki Reedy, c. 1960. › Back

1900s and beyond

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1900 ki te mutunga o te Pakanga Tuarua (1945), tino kaha te tipu o te iwi o Ngāti Porou. Nō reira, tīmata ai te hekenga nui o te iwi ki ngā taone – nā te huri kē o ngā momo mahi ahuwhenua, nā te iti haere o te whenua, ā, nā te kaupapa hoki a te kāwanatanga ki te whakanekeneke iwi hei kaimahi mō ngā umanga nui i ngā tāone. I tua atu, he whai i te oranga nui me te mātauranga mō ā rātou whānau.

Te rohe ka rongo koe i te kōrero ‘Kei te aha’

He kaumātua a Koro Dewes nō Ngāti Porou. Ka tae ki tētahi hui ka tū ki te marae o Hinerupe i te tau 1995. Kua mutu ngā whaikōrero. E harirū ana te tangata whenua me te manuhiri. Ka tae mai tētahi tangata ki mua i a Koro ka pātai, ‘Kei te pēhea koe?’ Tere tonu te whakautu a Koro, ‘Eta, you’re in "Kei te aha" country now!’ Koinei tētahi o ngā rerenga kōrero rongonui rawa a Ngāti Porou.

Te rau tau 2000

Tatū ki te tau 2013, e 72,000 ngā uri o te iwi o Ngāti Porou. E kīia ana, ko te iwi nui tuarua a Ngāti Porou o ngā iwi katoa o te motu. Neke atu i te 25 paihēneti, kei roto i te rohe ake e noho ana, toro atu ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. Ko te nuinga kei ngā tāone o Tāmaki-makau-rau, Te Whanganui-a-Tara, me ētahi atu tāone o Aotearoa.

I roto i te rau tau 2000, kei te kaha a Ngāti Porou ki te torotoro atu ki ōna uri kei waho i te rohe. Kei te kaha anō ki te pupuri i te ahi kā o te wā kāinga me ngā tikanga hoki, kia tū pakari ai, kia tū māia ai, kia mau ai tōna mana mō ake tonu atu.

I whakatūria Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Porou (1987) hei reo mō te iwi me ōna hapū i roto i ngā tauwhāinga, i ngā tautohetohe ki te Karauna. Ko te taumata tirohanga ko te whakapakari i te oranga nui o te iwi, me ōna tikanga. Ko tōna tino whāinga, kei roto ēnei kupu ahurei:

Ko te whakapūmau i te mana motuhake o Ngāti Porou i roto i tōna mana atua, mana tangata, mana whenua.

Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Ngāti Porou (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ko 1901 te tau whakamutunga rawa i pātaihia ai te Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou. Heoi kāore i pātaihia kia whakatakotohia ngā iwi maha.

  • tatauranga o 1901: 4,164
  • tatauranga o 1991: 48,525
  • tatauranga o 2001: 61,701
  • tatauranga o 2006: 71,907
  • tatauranga o 2013: 71,049

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 13,161
  • Tūranganui-a-Kiwa: 11,985
  • Te Whanganui-a-Tara: 11,133

 


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Tamati Muturangi Reedy, 'Ngāti Porou', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ngati-porou/print (accessed 17 October 2019)

Story by Tamati Muturangi Reedy, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017