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Ngāti Maniapoto

by  Tūhuatahi Tui Adams and Paul Meredith

‘Kia mau tonu ki tēnā; kia mau ki te kawau mārō. Whanake ake! Whanake ake!’

Koinei ngā tohutohu a te tupuna a Maniapoto ki tana iwi i mua i tōna matenga. He tauira tēnei o te pūmautanga o te iwi i roto i ngā tau maha, e whakaaturia ana i roto i ngā mahi ōhanga, i te whakatūnga o te Rohe Pōtae me te tiaki a te iwi i āna tikanga.

Lineage, lands and settlements

Te whakapapa

Ko te ingoa o te iwi o Ngāti Maniapoto i ahu mai i tō ratou tupuna i a Maniapoto. Whakaheke mai ia i ngā tāngata o te waka o Tainui i whakawhiti mai i te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa i Hawaiki ki Aotearoa.

Kei roto a Ngāti Maniapoto i te kotahitanga o ngā iwi o Tainui ka heke mai i te tupuna rongonui i a Tūrongo. Nā tō rāua moenga ko Māhinaarangi i here a Tainui ki ngā iwi o te tai rāwhiti – he mea e whakanuia tonutia ana i ēnei rā. Whakanuia ai te piringa nei i te waiata e whai nei:

Taku ara ko Tūrongo;
I wawaea ki te Tai Rāwhiti,
Ko Māhinaarangi, i au e!
Ko te rua rā i moe ai a Raukawa
Nā Raukawa ko Rereahu;
Nā Rereahu ko Maniapoto
He ara tautika mai ki ahau

Te whenua

Totoro rawa te mana o Tainui ki te nuinga o te raki o te puku o te Ika-a-Māui. Kei roto katoa ngā whenua tūturu o Ngāti Maniapoto i te Rohe Pōtae, i mōhiotia whānuitia ai taua rohe, ko Te Nehenehenui.

Ko te takutai atu i Kāwhia i te raki ki Mōkau kei te tonga, koinei te paenga whakateuru o te rohe o Ngāti Maniapoto. I tau a Tainui ki konei ā, kitea tonuhia ai te punga o te waka ki konei i tēnei rā.

Ko te roto o Ngāroto te paenga whakateraki o te rohe. I te huringa o te rau tau atu i te tau 1800 i tū te pakanga nui o Hinga-kākā ki reira. E hia mano ngā toa i tū; i te otinga ko Waikato rāua ko Maniapoto i toa.

Ko te paenga ki te rāwhiti ka haere mā ngā pae maunga o Rangitoto me Hurakia ā, ko te paenga whakatetonga ko te pae maunga o Tūhua. E kī ana te kōrero ki te rarapa te uira i runga o Rangitoto he tohu tērā o te mate.

Ngā wāhi noho o ngā tūpuna

He iti noa ō rātou papakāinga; ko te nuinga kei ngā whanga i te takutai, i ngā tahataha rānei o ngā awa me ngā kōawa pērā i a Mōkau me te whārua mōmona o te awa o Waipā. E ai ki te kōrero, noho ai te taniwha a Waiwaia ki ōna rua kei ngā tahataha o taua awa. Kei ngā maunga me ngā karahiwi te maha rawa atu o ngā pā tawhito me ngā wāhi tapu.

Ko Hikurangi tētahi o ngā pā nui o Maniapoto, kei te raki mā rāwhiti i kō atu o Ōtorohanga. Noho ai te tuahine o Maniapoto a Te Rongorito rāua ko tōna hoa tāne a Tamatehura ki tua tata, ki Te Waka, kei te taha rāwhiti o te repo o Māhaonui. Ko te kupu whakatūpato a Maniapoto, me kaua te riri e whakaputaina ki taua takiwā. Nā tēnei whakahau āna i hua mai ai te whakataukī: ‘Kei hewa ki te marae o Hine’.

Ko Te Kuiti he whakarāpopotonga mō Te Kūititanga. Koia te manawa o te rohe o te iwi. Ehara i te mea he tohu tērā te ingoa o Te Kuiti mō te kūititanga o te whenua anake, engari he kōrero e whakanui ana i a Te Kuiti, te wāhi whāiti mai ai a Ngāti Maniapoto. He kōrero tēnei mō Te Kuiti:

Te Kūititanga o Ngāti Maniapoto
Te Kūititanga o ngā maunga
Te Kūititanga o ngā whakaaro.
Footnotes
  1. From a translation by Pei Te Hurinui Jones. › Back
  2. From a translation by Hinekahukura Barrett-Aranui. › Back

The ancestor Maniapoto

Te tohu i a Maniapoto

E ora ana a Maniapoto i te rau tau 1600 ā, he tokomaha ngā iwi nui i whakatūria e ia. E mārama ai ngā kōrero mō te āhuatanga o tōna rironga i te mana kaiārahi o te iwi, me hoki rawa ngā kōrero ki te wā e whakahemohemo ana a Rereahu tōna matua.

Ko te tikanga o ngā wā o mua, mā te rangatira anō tana piki tūranga e tohu. Ko Te Ihingaarangi te mātāmua a Rereahu, te tama a rāua ko tana wahine tuatahi. Ko te whakapono o tēnei o ana tama, ka heke te mana o Rereahu ki a ia. Engari ka rata kē a Rereahu ki a Maniapoto, te mātāmua o ā rāua tamariki ko Hine-aupounamu. I te wā e ngaro atu ana a Te Ihingaarangi ka karangahia e Rereahu a Maniapoto.

Ka tohu a Rereahu kia ngaua e Maniapoto tana tipuaki, kua pania ki te kōkōwai. He tohu tēnei kua whakawhitia te mana o Rereahu ki a Maniapoto. Nō te hokinga atu o Te Ihingaarangi kua mate kē a Rereahu. I te kitenga atu o Te Ihingaarangi i te whero i ngā ngutu o Maniapoto, ka mōhio ia kua riro kē te mana o tō rāua matua.

Ahakoa tohe ai a Te Ihingaarangi ki a Maniapoto mō te mana o tō rāua matua, hauwarea atu. Nāwai ā, ka wehe a ia me ana tamariki ki te takiwā o Maungatautari noho ai. Ko ngā iwi o Te Ihingaarangi ki aua takiwā ko Ngāti Korokī rātou ko Ngāti Hape, ko Ngāti Haua. Engari i tōna matenga he rahi tonu tōna iwi i hoki ki Ōtorohanga. Kei reira tonu rātou i ēnei rā, kei raro i te karangatanga o Ngāti Te Ihingaarangi.

Matakore

Ko ngā kōrero o mua e pā ana ki a Ngāti Maniapoto ka hāngai ki a Maniapoto rātou ko ana teina pēnei i a Matakore, tae rawa hoki ki ana tamariki, mokopuna.

Ko rātou ngā tūpuna taketake o ngā hapū maha o nāianei, pērā i a Ngāti Matakore. Nā Matakore tōna tuakana a Maniapoto i tautoko i te wā o ngā whakatumatuma a Te Ihingaarangi; ka riro i a ia ngā whenua kei te tonga o te awa o Waipā tae atu ki te pae maunga o Rangitoto. Nā tō rāua moenga ko Waiharapepe i hono atu ai tōna iwi ki ngā iwi o Te Arawa.

Maniapoto rātou ko ana wāhine, tamariki

Tokotoru ngā wāhine a Maniapoto, ko tētahi ko Hinewhatihua, te mokopuna tuarua a Te Ihingaarangi. Nō muri rawa mai ka moea e ia a Paparauwhare, te tamāhine a Hinewhatihua; heoi, ehara ia nā Maniapoto, nā tētahi kē. Mai i tērā moenga ka puta a Rōrā te tupuna o Ngāti Rōrā i noho ki Te Kuiti.

Te Kawairirangi

Ko Te Kawairirangi te tama a Maniapoto rāua ko Hinemania, tana wahine tuatahi. Ka haere a Te Kawairirangi ki te raki ki te pā nui o Maungakiekie kei te rohe o Tāmaki-makau-rau. I reira ka moe ia i ngā māhanga a Mārei rāua ko Māroa. I kōhurutia ia i Tāmaki ā, ko tana tama a Rungaterangi i kōhurutia ki te tonga, ki te rohe o Mōkau. Nā runga i ēnei aituā ka hua ake te whakataukī; ‘Mōkau ki runga, Tāmaki ki raro’ hei whakamaumaharatanga ki a Ngāti Maniapoto. Nō muri mai ka whakahuatia te pepeha nei hei tohu mō te rohe o ngā iwi o Tainui puta noa.

He pepeha

I tōna kaumātuatanga ka noho a Maniapoto ki Te Ana-uriuri, tētehi ana pākeho kei te takiwā o Waitomo. I a ia e whakamatemate ana ka haere a Maniapoto ki Pukeroa, takiwā ki Hangatiki. I reira ka karangahia e ia te iwi kia hui. Ka whakapuakina e ia tana ōhākī, ka whakahauhia e ia ngā toa kia haka. Kātahi ka haka ana teina me ā rātou tamariki i raro i ngā tātakitanga a Te Kawairirangi. I te otinga ka tau ngā whakaaro o Maniapoto, ka tohungia pēneitia e ia tōna iwi:

Kia mau tonu ki tēnā; kia mau ki te kawau mārō! Whanake ake! Whanake ake!

He kōrero tēnei e whakarite ana i te taua ki te kawau, ka rere tika tonu tana whanake, kore he huringa atu. Koianei ia te pepeha mō te iwi.


The coming of the Pākehā

Ngā tūtakitanga tōmuatanga

He rite a Ngāti Maniapoto ki ētehi atu iwi arā, ko ngā Pākehā tuatahi i tūtakina ko ngā tāngata patu tohorā, ngā tāngata tauhokohoko me ngā mihinare. He pānga nui tō ngā tāngata whai Pākehā ki te iwi, inarā i whakamoea rātou ki ngā wāhine rangatira o Maniapoto.

Ngā hononga Pākehā–Māori

He tangata Wīwī a Louis Hetet, he tangata whai i whakamoea ki tētehi wahine rangatira nō Ngāti Maniapoto. Ko tana haerenga tuatahitanga mai ki Aotearoa nō te tau 1835, mā runga i tētahi kaipuke patu tohorā; i te tau 1842 ka hoki mai anō ia ka noho ki Paripari (e pātata ana ki Te Kuiti). Ka moe ia i a Te Rangituatahi, te tamāhine a Taonui Hīkaka. Tokowhā ā rāua tamariki; ko George Ngātai, ko John Taonui, ko Henry Mate-ngaro, ko Mere Te Wai. Ka tū ngā tama tokotoru hei kaipakihi rongonui i ngā tau tōmua o te Rohe Pōtae. He tāngata rongonui ō rātou uri whakaheke ki roto i a Ngāti Maniapoto. Ka moe a Mere Te Wai i a Te Toko Turner, he tama nā tētahi atu Pākehā–Māori, a William Turner, nā rāua ko te whānau Turner.

He maha ngā whānau o Ngāti Maniapoto kua hua i ngā tūmomo moenga nei – pērā i ngā whānau Searancke, Barrett, Ormsby, Bell, Anderson, Emery, Hughes me te maha noa atu. Mai i ērā wā, kua whai tūranga nui ō rātou uri ki ngā take o te iwi, o te rohe hoki.

Ngā mahi ōhanga

Kia tae rawa ki te tekau tau atu i 1850, kei te whakahaerehia e Louis Hetet tētahi o ngā mira mahi puehu parāoa hei tautoko i ngā mahi ahuwhenua me ngā ahumahi e mahia ana e te iwi. Ko ngā mahi he whakatupu wīti, ōti, kānga, he whakamōmona poaka, he hāro muka; ka kawea ēnei hei hoko ki Tāmaki, ki ngā mākete kei tua atu hoki. He kaipuke anō ō Ngāti Maniapoto - ko Rere-wiki, ko Parininihi, ko Re-wini, ko Aotearoa.


The Māori King movement

Te Puna Roimata

Nā runga i ō rātou māharahara mō te nui haere o ngā tāngata whai Pākehā me tō rātou hīkaka ki ngā whenua o te Māori, ka manaakitia e Ngāti Maniapoto te whakatūnga o te kīngi Māori, hei ārai i te hoko whenua.

I te tau 1857 i tētehi hui i tū ki Haurua, i whakapuakina e Ngāti Maniapoto tā rātou tautoko i a Pōtatau Te Wherowhero hei kīngi Māori tuatahi; karangahia ai te hui nei ko ‘Te Puna Roimata’.

Ka ātete tonu a Ngāti Maniapoto ki te rironga o ngā whenua me te rironga o te mana ā-iwi. Whāia, ka tautokohia e rātou te hunga i pakanga ki ngā hōia a te Pākehā i ngā riri i Taranaki me Waikato i te tekau tau atu i 1860.

Rewi Maniapoto

Ko Rewi Maniapoto te rangatira ārahi i te riri ki te Pākehā. Ka puta te rongo mōna i te pakanga ki Ōrākau i te tau 1864. Ahakoa te nui o ngā hoariri me te karanga a ngā hōia Pākehā kia mutu tō rātou riri, ka whakahokia pēneitia taua tono:

E hoa, ka whawhai tonu mātou! Ake! Ake! Ake!

Nā te kore kai, kore wai, kore kariri, ka whakarērea te pā e te taua o Rewi. Ka rere rātou, ka whakawhiti i te awa o Pūniu, kia hou ki te rohe o Ngāti Maniapoto, ki te taha o ngā iwi o Waikato e rere ana me Tāwhiao, te kīngi Māori tuarua.

Te Rohe Pōtae

I whakatakotoria tētehi paenga whenua hei aukati i te kuhutanga o te Pākehā ki te rohe. Ka tū te Rohe Pōtae hei whenua motuhake. Kia taka rā anō ki te tau 1883, i te otinga o ngā kōrerorero ki waenganui i te kāwanatanga rātou ko ngā rangatira o Maniapoto pērā i a Wahanui, Rewi me Te Taonui, ka huakina te Rohe Pōtae ki te Pākehā. Ka wātea te Rohe Pōtae ki ngā mahi rūri whenua mō ngā huarahi me te rerewē matua o te Ika-a-Māui.

Te takanga o te pōtae

E kī ana te kōrero nā te kīngi Māori tuarua nā Tāwhiao, tōna pōtae i whiu ki runga i tētahi mahere whenua o te Ika-a-Māui; ko te wāhi i kapia e te pōtae koirā te whenua ka taka ki raro ki tōna mana. Nā reira i tapaina ai te Rohe Pōtae.

Te aukati waipiro

Ko tētehi o ngā whakaritenga o tēnei ‘piringa tapu’, i whakatūria e ngā rangatira e Wahanui mā, kia kaua e whakaaetia te waipiro i te rohe, nō te mea i kite rātou i ngā pānga kino o te waipiro ki ētehi atu iwi. Nō te tau 1953 hikina ai te aukati nei.

Te Kōti Whenua Māori

I tua atu, i te māharahara ngā rangatira mō ngā mahi a Te Kōti Whenua Māori me āna āpiha hoko whenua i roto i te rohe. Ahakoa tā rātou ngana kia pupuritia ō rātou whenua, i riro te nuinga o ngā whenua nā te hīkaka me te kaha uru mai o ngā Pākehā.


Ngāti Maniapoto today

Ngā taupori me ngā wāhi noho

Neke atu i te e 35,000 te rahi o te iwi o Ngāti Maniapoto i te tau 2013; e taea ai te kī ko ia tētahi o ngā iwi nui.

E 42 ngā marae o Ngāti Maniapoto. Ko Te Tokanga-nui-a-noho kei waenganui pū i te rohe, kei te tāone o Te Kūiti; ka noho ia hei poutokomanawa mō te iwi.

Kia pūpū, kia mātotoru

Ko te tikanga o te ingoa o te marae o Te Tokanga-nui-a-noho ko te ‘rourou nui a te tangata noho’, e whakanuia ana i te pepeha:

He aha koe i haere mai ai i te rourou iti a haere, tē noho atu ai i te tokanga nui a noho?

He kōrero rongonui tēnei nā Ngāti Maniapoto. Waihoki, ka whakatūpato a Parewhete i tana tāne a Wairangi, e mea ana a Ngāti Maru ki te patu i a rātou ko tana tira. Ka pātai a Parewhete ki a Wairangi, ‘He aha koe i haere mai ai ko tāu iti, tē noho atu ki tō iwi kaha.’

Kua marara ngā uri o Ngāti Maniapoto ki te motu, ki te ao hoki. He rite a Ngāti Maniapoto ki ētehi atu iwi arā, nā te hekenga nui ki ngā tāone nunui i muri mai i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao, kua ruarua noa ōna uri ki ōna kāinga papatupu.

Te whakaora tikanga

Nō ngā tau tata kua pahure, kua kaha a Ngāti Maniapoto ki te whakaara i āna mahi toi, i tōna reo hoki. Tokorua ngā tāngata nui o te iwi i tū hei pou tikanga i te rau tau atu i 1900.

Nā Tākuta Pei Te Hurinui Jones a Tā Āpirana Ngata i awhi ki te whakarauika i Ngā Mōteateangā pukapuka o ngā kohikohinga waiata tawhito. Ka noho ēnei pukapuka hei mātāpuna o te reo ōkawa o te Māori. Kua tāngia e Tākuta Pei Te Hurinui Jones ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā whakapapa o Maniapoto me Tainui.

I hau te rongo ki te ao mō ngā pūkenga o Tākuta Rangimārie Hetet ki ngā mahi raranga, whatu. Kua whakaheke te taonga nei ki ngā whakatupuranga me te iwi Māori puta noa.

Te Poari Māori o Maniapoto

Nō te tau 1988 i waihangahia ai te Poari Māori o Maniapoto ‘hei pupuru, hei tiaki i te tuakiri, te mana, ngā pānga hoki o Ngāti Maniapoto’. Tohutohungia ai te poari ki ngā tikanga, ngā kōrero tuku iho me te taha wairua e te kāhui kaumātua, e Te Mauri o Maniapoto.

Ia rua tau ka tū te Kawau Mārō o Maniapoto, he hui whakataetae hākinakina i waenganui i ngā marae. Ko te mea nui kē pea, he kaupapa tēnei e hokihoki ai ngā uri ki te wā kāinga, ki reira whakanui ai i tō rātou tū hei Maniapoto.

Footnotes
    • Maniapoto Māori Trust Board Act, 1988. › Back

Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Ngāti Maniapoto (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ko 1901 te tau whakamutunga rawa i pātaihia ai te Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou. Heoi kāore i pātaihia kia whakatakotohia ngā iwi maha.

  • tatauranga o 1901: 1,572
  • tatauranga o 1991: 21,936
  • tatauranga o 2001: 27,168
  • tatauranga o 2006: 33,627
  • tatauranga o 2013: 35,358

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Waikato: 11,955
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 8,349

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Tūhuatahi Tui Adams and Paul Meredith, 'Ngāti Maniapoto', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ngati-maniapoto/print (accessed 11 August 2020)

He kōrero nā Tūhuatahi Tui Adams and Paul Meredith, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017