Skip to main content
Logo: Te Ara - The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Print all pages now.

Ngāti Kahungunu

by  Mere Whaanga

He rangatira pūrotu, he tangata ihu oneone te tipuna a Kahungunu. Ko ētahi o ngā mahi i whakaritea e ia ko te hanga whare, te hanga hāwai, te whakairo, te tārai waka. I ana haere ka moea e ia āna wāhine tokoiwa; ko tōna whakaipotanga i te wahine pūrotu o Te Māhia, i a Rongomaiwahine tētahi o ngā kōrero rongonui rawa o te ao Māori. He maha ngā moenga whai mana a ngā uri o Kahungunu i tū ai ngā hononga ki ngā whānau nui, atu i Tūranganui-a-Kiwa ki Te Wairarapa.


Tribes and lands

Ko Ngāti Kahungunu te tuatoru o ngā iwi nui rawa ki Aotearoa. Ahakoa karangahia ai he iwi, he tika ake pea kia kīia a Ngāti Kahungunu, he tōpūtanga o ngā iwi me ngā hapū, i heke i a Kahungunu.

Ko ngā wāhanga nui o te iwi ko:

  • Ngāti Kahungunu ki Wairoa (ko te paenga whenua ki te raki ko te pae maunga o Wharerata kei te taha tonga o Tūranganui-ā-Kiwa
  • Ngāti Kahungunu ki Heretaunga (ko te paenga whenua ki te rāwhiti ko Te Matau-ā-Māui)
  • Ngāti Kahungunu ki Wairarapa (ko te paenga whenua ki te tonga ko te pae maunga o Rimutaka kei Te Wairarapa ki te tonga)

I tua atu i te wāhi mahinga kai, he ara matua, he huarahi nui ngā awa, ngā roto me ngā whanga maha kei te rohe o Ngāti Kahungunu.

He rite ki te awa

Wairoa hōpūpū, hōnengenenge

E kōrero ana te whakataukī nei mō te hūkeri o te awa o Wairoa, ōna ia kōmiro, me te rite o ngā tāngata o konei ki tō rātou awa.

Te Whanganui a Orotū

Ko ngā tino pā tautiaki i te rohe o Ahuriri ko Ōtātara rāua ko Heipipi, engari arā anō ētahi atu pā. He maha ngā kāinga kapi ai i ōna taha. Nui te mātaitai me ngā mahinga ika ki Te Whanganui a Orotū. Kei ōna awa, ōna kōawa, ōna repo te mahi a te tuna, te koura wai māori, te harakeke me te raupō. Ko ngā moutere i te hāpua o Ahuriri (nā te rū i hiki i te tau 1931) ngā wāhi hī ika, ko ngā whenua mōmona kei ōna takutai i pai mō te whakatū whare me te whakatipu kai.

Te roto o Hātuma

Kei ngā tahataha o tēnei roto (i mōhiotia tuatahitia ko Whātuma) e pātata ana ki Waipukurau, ngā mahuetanga o ngā puni me ngā kāinga. He rite te roto o Hātuma ki te ngahere o Ōtāia (he kōhanga kawau) me te awa o Tukituki, arā he takiwā nui mō te mahi kai.

Ngā maunga

Ko Whakapunake te maunga i mau ai te matau a Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga i a ia ka hī ake i tana ika nui. E tū ana te maunga nei ki te pito whakateraki rawa o ngā whenua o Ngāti Kahungunu, kei waenganui i a Tūranga me Te Wairoa.

Hei ēnei rā, e tata ana ki te hāpua o Whakakī kei te rāwhiti o Wairoa, ka kitea tonuhia ngā puke e whitu: Ko Tahutoria, ko Takitaki, ko Korito, ko Onepoto, ko Iwitea, ko Tūhara, ko Hikunui. E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho, he tohorā ēnei i hurihia hei puke. Ki a Ngāi Tahu Matawhāiti, he hapū nō Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Wairoa, he tapu ēnei hiwi.

Ko Maungaharuru kei waenganui o Te Wairoa me Ahuriri. Koinei te wāhi i whakatauhia ai e Tūpai, tētahi o ngā tohunga tokotoru o runga i te waka Tākitimu, te mauri (he taonga whakairo mai i te rākau) o te manu. Ko te tikanga o te ingoa o ‘Maungaharuru’ ko ‘te maunga haruru ana i te rere o te tini manu’.

E ai ki te kōrero, ko te tihi o Te Mata me ngā puke ki te tonga tae atu ki Kahurānaki, (e pātata ana ki Havelock North) i hangaia mai i te tinana o te tipuna Rongokako, nāna ngā tapuwae nui i waiho ki Kahurānaki, ki Kirihaehae, ki Whāngārā hoki. Ka kitea tōna tinana mehemea ka taraiwa atu i Heretaunga ki te tihi o Te Mata.

Ngā pā

Ko te pā o Te Pakake i tū ki Ahuriri. Nō te whakaeketanga o ngā toa mau pū e 2000 o Waikato, o Ngāti Raukawa, o Tūwharetoa, o Ngāti Maniapoto i a ia, ka hinga te pā. He nui ngā rangatira i hinga, a Whakatō, a Pakapaka, a Humenga, a Te Hauwaho me ētahi atu. Ko te ingoa o Te Pakake, hei maumaharatanga i te pakanga nei, e whakarite ana i ngā toa i hinga ki te pakake kua pae ki uta.

Ko Rākaihikuroa te mokopuna a Kahungunu, nāna te pā o Puketapu i whakatū. E 70 ngā tāngata o Ngāti Māmoe i hinga, i a rātou ka pakanga ki a Ngāti Ira. Ko te pā o Puketapu e pātata ana ki Ōmāhu.


Ancestors

Te waka o Tākitimu

Nā te āhuatanga ki te waka tapu o Tākitimu me tōna iwi i puta ai te tuakiritanga o Ngāti Kahungunu.

I tae mai a Tākitimu i Hawaiki, ko tōna kaiārahi ko Tamatea Arikinui. Nō tā rātou taenga mai ki Aotearoa, ka whakatau a Tamatea Arikinui ko Tauranga hei kāinga mōna, ka tukuna e ia te kaiārahitanga o Takitimu ki a Tahu Potiki. Ko Ruawharo tētahi o ngā tohunga nui o te waka, i tau ia ki Te Māhia.

Ka piki a Tākitimu i te awa o Wairoa kia tau ki Makeakea. Kei reira ko te whare tīpuna o Tākitimu e tū ana i ēnei rā. I mahue mai ētahi o ngā uri o Tahu Pōtiki, kīia ai ko Ngāi Tahu o Te Wairoa. Ko Tūpai tētahi atu o ngā tohunga i runga i te waka, ka tau ia ki Te Wairarapa. Mai i konei ka haere a Tahu Pōtiki ki Te Waipounamu, kia tū hei tipuna o te iwi o Ngāi Tahu.

Rongokako

Ko te tama a Tamatea Arikinui ko Rongokako. He tohunga ia, nui whakaharahara āna mawhititanga. I ngā whakataetae i waenganui i a rāua ko Pāoa kia riro a Muriwhenua, ka mawhiti nui ia i te moana me te whenua, ka mahue ōna tapuwae kei Heretaunga, kei Kirihaehae i Mahia, kei te Tapuwae o Rongokako kei te takiwā ki Whāngārā.

Ka whānau mai a Tamatea Ure Hāea, te tama a Rongokako rāua ko Muriwhenua. Ko tētahi o ōna ingoa ko Tamatea-pōkai-whenua-pōkai-moana, nā tana huri taiāwhio i Aotearoa. Ko tēnei wāhanga o tōna ingoa kei roto i tētahi o ngā ingoa wāhi roa rawa o te ao katoa inā:

Taumatawhakatangihangakōauauatamateaturipukakapiki
maungahoronukupōkaiwhenuakitānatahu.

Ko tēnei wāhi e pātata ana ki Pōrangahau. I konei whakatangihia ai e Tamatea tana kōauau ki tana whaiāipo.

Te whānautanga mai o Kahungunu

Tokotoru ngā wāhine a Tamatea Ure Hāea, he tuahine katoa; ko Te Onoono-i-waho, ko Iwi-pūpū rātou ko Te Moana-i-kauia, hei tamāhine mā Ira rāua ko Tokerauwahine. Ko te tama a Tamatea rāua ko Iwipūpū i tapaina ko Kahungunu.


Kahungunu the man

I whānau mai a Kahungunu (ko Kahu-hunuhunu rānei) ki te pā o Tinotino ki Ōrongotea (nō muri ka whakaingoatia ko Kaitāia). Ka hūnuku tōna matua ki te rohe o Tauranga, te wāhi i tipu ake ai a Kahungunu.

Te kai manu

Ko tētahi o ngā wāhine a Kahungunu, ko Ruareretai, he puhi nō Tūranga-nui-a-Kiwa. I mua tata i te whānautanga mai o tā rāua tamāhine, ka tīkina e Kahungunu he tīeke hei kai mā tana wahine. Nō te whānautanga mai o tā rāua tamāhine ka tapaa ia ki te ingoa Ruahereheretīeke (ngā tīeke i hereherea i tō rātou kōhanga).

He tangata tāroa, pūrotu a Kahungunu. Ka puta whānui te rongo mō tōna rangatiratanga. He tangata puku mahi, i whakatū kāinga, i keri hāwai hei waiwai i ngā māra, i kohi kai, i auaha whakairo, tā moko, te raranga me te tārai waka. Kōrero ai tōna iwi mōna:

Ko Kahu-hunuhunu he tangata ahuwhenua mōhio ki te haere i ngā mahi o uta me te tai.

Ko tētahi kōrero mōna, i tahuri a Kahungunu ki te kari kōawa mai i Awanui ki Kaitāia, kia taea ai e Ngāti Awa te tō i ō rātou waka ki ngā papatahi mōmona kei reira. Waihoki ka hinga te kaupapa, nā te roa o te wā ki te whakaoti i te mahi, nā te pakaru hoki o nga taputapu nā te pōhatuhatu o te whenua repo.

Ngā haerenga o Kahungunu

Nō muri mai ka toko te whakaaro ki a Kahungunu kia haere ki te tonga, ka whakarērea e ia tana wahine tuatahi a Hinetapu me ā rāua tamariki a Tamateaiti rātou ko Haruatai, ko Poupoto. Ka noho a Kahungunu ki Tauranga, ki te taha o tōna matua a Tamatea Ure Hāea mō tētahi wā poto.

Te kōtiro whaiāipo a te koroua

I te hopukanga o Pou Wharekura i tētahi pakanga, ka tono tahi a Wekanui rāua ko Kahukuranui, te tama a Kahungunu mōna. Kia kore ai e tutū te puehu, ka moea a Pou Wharekura e Kahungunu hei wahine māna. E ai ki te kōrero, nā Pou Wharekura tonu te tono ki a Kahungunu ko ia hei wahine māna, he pai ake ki a ia kia maimoatia ia e te koroua, tē mauhereherea e te tamariki.

I Ōtira ka kapohia noatia e ia ētahi ika e haohia ana ki tātahi. Ka kite tōna tuakana a Whaene i tana mahi, kātahi ka whiua atu e ia te tāmure ki a Kahungunu kia werohia tōna ringa e te tara o te ika. Whāia, nō te whānautanga mai o te tama a tōna huānga a Haumanga, ka whakaingoatia e Kahungunu ko Tūtāmure (he mea wero e te tāmure) hei maumaharatanga mō taua āhuatanga.

Ka nuku a Kahungunu ki Whakatāne, ka moe i a Waiarai, kia puta ko Pō Tirohia. Ka nuku anō a Kahungunu ki Opotiki ka noho i te taha o tōna whanaunga o Haumanga. I reira ka uru ia ki tētahi pakanga ki ngā iwi o Rotorua; i karangahia te pakanga nei ko Te Awhenga.

Ngā wāhine rātou ko ngā tamariki a Kahungunu

I a ia ka haere whakatetonga, ka tūtakina, ka moea e Kahungunu te tokomaha o ngā wāhine, i puta ai te tini o ana tamariki.

  • I Ōpōtiki ka moe ia i a Te Hautāruke. Ko ā rāua tamariki tokotoru ko Rākei, ko Whakatau, ko Papake.
  • I Whāngārā, tokorua ā rāua tamariki ko Ruarauhanga, ko Ruaroa rāua ko Rongomaire.
  • I te pā nui o Popoia ki te rohe o Tūranga, ka moe ia i a Ruareretai, te tamāhine a te ariki, a Ruapani. Ko tā rāua tamāhine ko Ruahereheretīeke.
  • I Whareongaonga ka moe ia i a Hinepuariari kia puta ko Pōwhiro (ko Te Pōhiro rānei) me tētahi atu. I moea anō e ia te tuahine a Kahukura-waiaraia kia puta ā rāua tamariki, a Tuaiti rāua ko Pōtirohia.
  • Kia rongo rawa ia i ngā kōrero mō te pūrotu me te arikitanga o Rongomaiwahine, ka haere a Kahungunu ki tōna kāinga ki Nukutaurua. Ko ngā kōrero mō tō rāua whakaipotanga tētahi o nga tino pūrākau i te ao Māori.

I tōna kaumātuatanga, ka moe a Kahungunu i tētahi puhi, ko Pou Wharekura, he mea hopu ki te pā o Kaiwhakareireia. Ka puta tā rāua tamāhine ko Ruatāpui.


Kahungunu and Rongomaiwahine

Whānui te rongohia o te korero aroha mō Kahungunu rāua ko Rongomaiwahine.

I tae te rongo ki a Kahungunu mō te ātaahua me te arikitanga o Rongomaiwahine. Hāunga, nō tōna taenga ki Te Māhia ka kite ia kua moe kē a Rongomaiwahine i a Tamatakutai. Ka tahuri a Kahungunu ki te whakarata i te iwi o Rongomaiwahine, inā te rahi o te aruhe, i tākaia e ia ki te aka, ka takahurihia i te puke. Nā te nui mārika o te aruhe ka purukatia ngā tatau o te whare.

Kātahi ia ka piki i tētahi puke, ki reira mātaki ai i ngā karoro e ruku ana i te wai; ka whakangungu ia kia rite tana kuku hau ki tā ngā manu kuku hau. Mai i tēra wā kua mōhiotia taua puke ko Puke Karoro. Kātahi a Kahungunu ka haere ki te ruku. Kikī ana ngā ipu ki te pāua hei toha mā ngā tāngata katoa o te pā. Nō tōna pueanga ake i tana ruku whakamutunga, kua piri katoa te pāua ki tōna uma, mīharo ana ngā tāngata.

Nō te whakaaetanga o te iwi o Rongomaiwahine ki a ia, ka whakatika a Kahungunu ki te whakatūtū i te ngangare ki waenganui i a Rongomaiwahine me tana tāne a Tamatakutai. I tētahi pō ka haere huna ia, ka pīhau ki waenganui i te tokorua rā, ka oho ake rāua, ka tohe rāua ki a rāua anō. Aoake, ka haere a Kahungunu i te taha o Tamatakutai ki te tākaro retireti ngaru mā runga waka. Ka riro mā Kahungunu te waka e urungi, ka taupokina e ia te waka i runga i tētahi ngaru nui, ka taka atu a Tamatakutai. Nā te mea kīhai ia i mōhio ki te kauhoe, ka toremi a Tamatakutai.

Ka moe a Kahungunu rāua ko Rongomaiwahine

I tētahi rā ka mea atu a Kahungunu ki a Rongomaiwahine kia whiri i ōna makawe. I a ia e here ana i te tikitiki o Kahungunu ka whati te here. Ka nanao a Kahungunu ki tōna tātua, ka tangohia he harakeke i whakatipuria ki Kawhainui, e pātata ana ki Tauranga. Kia mutu te whakangohengohe i te harakeke ki te wai, ka oti te here a Rongomaiwahine i tōna tikitiki. Kātahi a Kahungunu ka tū, ka anga whakateraki me tana kī:

E te pūtiki wharanui o Tamatea i mahue atu rā i runga o Tauranga.

Nā tēnei kōrero, ka mārama a Rongomaiwahine rātou ko tōna iwi ko wai ake a Kahungunu. Ka moe pūmau rāua, ka noho rāua ki Maungakāhia, te pā i Te Māhia, ka mate a Kahungunu ki konei.

He rahi ngā uri o Rongomaiwahine kei Te Māhia e pūmau ana ki tō ratou Ngāti Rongomaiwahinetanga, kāpā ki te Ngāti Kahungunutanga: ko tō rātou e whakapono ai, he rangatira ake te whakapapa o Rongomaiwahine i tō Kahungunu.


Ngāti Kahungunu become established

Te whakapākūhātanga o te tamāhine a Kahungunu

Ka noho a Kahungunu rāua ko Rongomaiwahine ki Maunga-a-Kāhia (Maungakāhia), te pā i whakatūria e Kahungunu ki Nukutaurua. Tokorima ā rāua tamariki: ko Kahukuranui (he tama) rātou ko Rongomaipāpā (he tamāhine), ko Tamatea-kōtā (he tama), ko Māhakinui (he tama), ko Tauheikurī (he tamāhine).

Kotahi anake te whakaekenga o Maungakāhia. Tērā tētahi wā ka whakatika a Tūtāmure, a Tamataipūnoa (ngā tama a Haumanga, te uri o Kahungunu) me ā raua toa e 500 te rahi mai i Ōpōtiki ki Te Māhia. He pā ikeike, he pā kaha a Maungakāhia, ahakoa tērā, ka whakapaeangatia te pā e Tūtāmure rāua ko Tamataipūnoa. Nō te kitenga kei te kino te pakanga, ka tonoa e Kahungunu tana tamāhine mātāmuri a Tauheikurī kia mōhio ai ko wai e taki ana i te taua. Ka tū a Tūtāmure ka kī:

Ranga ranga te muri, ka tutū te ngaru o te moana ko au tenei ko Tūtāmure.

Hei reira ka mōhio a Kahungunu ko te tama a tōna huānga tērā. Ka tonoa e ia a Tauheikurī hei wahine mā Tūtāmure. I te mea kīhai ia i mōhio ko wai a Tūtāmure, ka tūturi a Tauheikurī ki mua kē i te mea pūrotu, i a Tamataipūnoa, ka tukuna te meremere, a Titingāpua ki a ia. Nō konei, ka haere a Tūtāmure kia tiro i tōna āhua i tetahi hōpua wai kei te ākau kei mua o Maungakāhia, ka mōhio ia, he pūrotu ake tana teina i a ia. Mai i taua wā kua mōhiotia taua hōpua wai ko Te Wai Whakaata a Tūtāmure. Ka tohu a Tūtāmure ki tana teina kia whakaaehia ngā koha – te meremere me te whakapākūhātanga ki a Tauheikurī. Nā wai ā, ka haere a Tauheikurī rāua ko Tamataipūnoa ki te rohe o Tūranga-nui-a-Kiwa noho ai. Tokorua ā rāua tamariki, ko Tawhiwhi rāua ko Māhaki. Ka hua ake ko Māhaki te tipuna o Te Aitanga a Māhaki.

Ko Kōtore, te rangatira o Ōmaruhakeke

Ko te pā o Ōmaruhakeke kei tua tata o Marumaru i whakaeketia e tētahi taua nō Te Kaha. Ko Apanui te rangatira. Ka hinga te pā. I mua o tōna patunga, ka umere a Kōtore te rangatira o te pā, ‘E hoa, ko te weriweri ai ka takoto ai au ki roto ki tō puku!’ Ka pātai a Apanui kei hea he tāne pūrotu ake i a ia, ka kite a Kōtore i āna ake tama, a Umurau rāua ko Tamahikawai e arahina ana ki a Apanui kia patua. Ka whakautu a Kōtore, ‘Arā, kia pērā me ngā tukemata nui o Kahungunu e arahina mai rā.’ Nō muri mai ka mōhiotia ai a Tapuwae, te mokopuna a Kōtore, rātou ko tōna wahine me ōna uri ko Ngā Tukemata nui o Kahungunu. Nō muri mai ka ūhia te ingoa ki ngā uri katoa o Kahungunu.

Te kupenga a Te Huki

Ko Te Huki e ora ana e ono whakapaparanga i muri mai i a Kahungunu rāua ko Rongomaiwahine. I ōna rā, koia te rangatira nui o te whenua kei waenganui o Waihua me Mōhaka. Nā roto i āna mārenatanga me tana whakanoho i ana tamariki ki ngā wāhi atu i Tūranganui-a-Kiwa ki Wairarapa, ka tū āna hononga tangata wā roa i kīia ko Te Kupenga a Te Huki.

Tokotoru ngā wāhine a Te Huki arā ko:

  • Te Rangitohumare, he mokopuna nā Te Whatiāpiti (ko Te Whatuiāpiti rānei) o Heretaunga
  • Te Ropuhina, he puhi nō Nūhaka, kei te taha raki o te rohe o Ngāti Kahungunu
  • Rewanga, te tamāhine a Te Aringa i Waho, te rangatira o te pā o Tītīrangi ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa.

Noho tonu ai ngā wāhine a Te Huki ki waenganui i ō rātou ake iwi, he wā anō ka huri haere ia kia kite i tēnā, i tēnā o rātou. Ka moe ana tamariki i ngā tamariki a ngā rangatira whai kaha, me te aha, ko ō rātou uri, ko ngā whānau matua o Whāngārā-Tūranganui, o Te Māhia, o Nūhaka, o Te Wairoa, o Heretaunga, o Pōrangahau.


European contact

Ngā riri mau pū

Nō te taenga o te Pākehā ki te rohe o Ngāti Kahungunu i te tekau tau atu i 1820, i hoko pū atu ia ki te Māori, i kitea ai ngā kino i pā ki te iwi. Ko Ngāti Kahungunu ki Wairoa i whakaekea i te tau 1822 e ngā iwi mau pū o Ngāpuhi, o Hauraki, o Waikato, o Te Whakatōhea, o Tūhoe. E rua ngā tau i muri mai ka noho a Te Wera Hauraki o Ngāpuhi ki Te Māhia hei kaitiaki mō taua iwi.

Ngā toenga mā te hoariri

I te whakaeketanga o te taua mau pū o Ngāpuhi ki te rohe o Te Wairoa ka horo te iwi ki tō rātou pā whakaharahara ki runga o Mōrere, kei te tonga-mā-rāwhiti o Nūhaka. Ka whakapaeangatia te pā e Ngāpuhi, engari nā te nui o ngā kai o te pā, ko te ope taua kē ka rongo i te matekai. Ka tāwaitia a Ngāpuhi e ngā tāngata o te pā, ka whiua ngā para kai ki a rātou, nā reira hua ake ai te ingoa o Moumoukai. Nāwai ā, ka hīkina e Ngāpuhi tana whakapaeanga. I mua i tōna hokinga, ka tono a Pōmare o Ngāpuhi kia tapaina e tētahi tokorua tā rāua tamaiti ki tōna ingoa. Nā reira i hua ake te ingoa o Pōmare hei ingoa whānau ki roto o Nūhaka.

I te tau 1830 ka neke te nuinga o ngā tāngata o Ngāti Kahungunu e noho ana ki Ahuriri ki Te Māhia e puta ai ō rātou ihu i ngā whakaeketanga o tētahi taua nui rawa o Waikato, o Ngāti Raukawa, o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, o Ngāti Maniapoto.

I mauhereherea a Te Hāpuku o Ngāti Whatuiāpiti me Ngāti Kahungunu ki te pā o Te Pakakē; waihoki ka puta tōna ihu ki Te Māhia. I te tau 1835 ko Te Hāpuku tētahi o ngā rangatira i waitohu i te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni, i hainahia te tuhinga nei e ētahi rangatira mai ngā iwi.

Ngā tauhokohoko me te tiriti

Kia tae ki te tekau tau atu i 1830 kua tūtū kē ngā teihana patu tohorā kei Te Mahia, Te Wairoa, Tāngōio, Pētane-Heipipi me Cape Kidnappers. Ko te nuinga o ngā teihana patu tohorā nei i runga i ngā whenua i rīhitia e te Māori. I taua wā anō, kua tīmata te hokihoki a ngā tāngata o Heretaunga ki ō rātou kāinga tipu.

Nā Te Hāpuku te Tiriti o Waitangi i haina i te tau 1840 mō Ngāti Kahungunu. Ko tētahi atu tangata i haina ko Mātenga Tūkareaho o Te Wairoa. Tērā pea he tāngata tokotoru atu nō Ngāti Kahungunu i haina. Kia tae ki te tau 1851 kua taunga a Ngāti Kahungunu ki te mahi me te hoko kai pēnei i te witi, te kānga, te hua rākau, ngā hua whenua, te poaka, te rīwai. Kua tau kē te noho a ngā kaitiaki kararehe Pākehā ki Te Wairarapa, e tīmata ana tā rātou neke kia tata haere ki Ahuriri. I te tuatahi i te kuhu ratou ki ētahi rīhi whenua kāore i whai mana ā-ture.

Ngā mānia mōmona

Ko te whakataukī a ‘Heretaunga haukū nui’ e kōrero ana mō te whenua parahua, mōmona kei te taha tonga-mā-uru o Heretaunga. He nui ngā arawai me ngā repo kī ana i te kai, i te aha noa. Nō te keringa o ngā repo e te Pākehā mō te ahuwhenua, ka kitea te tino mōmona o te one.

Te hoko i te whenua

Kia tae ki te tau 1859, e 1,404,700 ngā eka (568,462 heketea) i hokona e te Kāwanatanga mai i a Ngāti Kahungunu i Te Matau-a-Māui; he tinihanga ētahi o ngā hokohoko. Kei waenganui i te 3,000 ki te 4,000 eka whenua (1,200 – 1,600 heketea) i te pupuritia tonutia e ngā Māori e 3,500 te nui. Ka nui haere ngā whakahē ki ngā mahi hoko whenua; kia tae ki te tekau atu i 1870 kua tū Te Rōpū Whakahētanga Hoko Whenua (Repudiation Movement) ki te whakahē i ngā hokonga whenua katoa.

Kia tae ki te wā o te rū i Ahuriri i te tau 1931, he maramara whenua noa i ngā ringa o ngā hapū tokowhitu o Te Whanganui a Ōrotu. Nā te rū te whenua i hiki i te hāpua o Ahuriri. Ka tangohia nga moutere e ono kei te hāpua ki raro i te Public Works Act, kore rawa he utunga. I roto i ngā tau e 40 ka ngaro katoa ngā tika me ngā whenua o ngā hapū.

Te kāinga o Pāpāwai me te Kotahitanga

Ko Pāpāwai tētahi kāinga e pātata ana ki Hūpēnui (Greytown) ki te rohe o Kahungunu ki Te Wairarapa. He wāhi whakahirahira ia nō te iwi i ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau 1800. I te tekau tau atu i 1860 ka whakaakongia ki konei e te tohunga e Te Mātorohanga ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā tikanga tawhito o Ngāti Kahungunu. I tuhia e Hoani Whatahoro Jury ēnei kōrero me ngā akoranga a tērā atu tohunga o te rohe o Te Wairarapa, a Nēpia Pōhūhū. I muri mai ka tāpirihia atu e tētahi rangatira nō Te Wairarapa e Tamahau Mahupuku āna kōrero ki ngā tuhituhi. Koia tētahi o te hunga whāngai kōrero ki te kaimātai momo tangata a Percy Smith.

Ko te paremata Māori arā, Te Kotahitanga, i hui ki Pāpāwai i te tau 1897. I tino kaha te kaupapa o Te Kotahitanga ki te rohe o Te Wairarapa ka mutu ka tū anō ngā hui ki te marae o Waipatu ki Heretaunga i te tau 1892 me te tau 1893.


The challenge of the new

Te Aute me Hukarere

I te tau 1857, ka kohaina e te iwi o Te Aute ngā whenua e 1,745 eka (700 heketea) te rahi hei whakatū kura hei whakaako i ngā tamariki Māori. I roto i ngā tau, kua whakaakongia e te kura o Te Aute me te Kura Kōtiro Māori o Hukarere te tokomaha o ngā kaiārahi rongonui rawa o te ao Māori. Nō te tau 1897 ka whakatūria e ngā ākonga o Te Aute ‘Te Kotahitanga o Ngā Tamariki o te Kareti o Te Aute’. Nō muri mai ka whakatūria e ngā tauira tawhito o Te Aute ko te Rōpū Taitamariki Māori (Young Māori Party).

Ngā nupepa, te hunga pāpāho me ngā mahi toi

He maha ngā nūpepa kua puta i a Ngāti Kahungunu hei whakamōhio i ngā whakaaro me ngā āwangawanga o rātou ngā uri. Ko ētahi o ēnei tānga tuhituhinga ko:

  • Aotearoa, nā John Thompson rāua ko Mariata Honepi i whakaputa i te tau 1892
  • Huia Tangata Kotahi, te nūpepa a Te Kotahitanga i Waipatu, i ētitahia e Īhāia Hūtana i ngā tau 1893 ki te 1895.
  • Te Toa Takitini, i tāngia i waenganui i ngā tau 1921 me te 1932.
  • Te Reo o Aotearoa, i ētitatia e te pīhopa o Aotearoa e F.A Bennett i ngā tau 1932 me 1933
  • Kahungunu, ko Huia Huata rāua ko Jo Spooner ngā rangatira, ngā ētita me ngā kaiwhakahaere, i whakaputaina i te tau 1991
  • He Ngākau Hou, he nūpepa hapori kei Maraenui, i ētitatia e Bonnie Waka, ā, nō muri i a ia ko Paul King rāua ko Jimina King ngā ētita. I whakatūhia te nūpepa nei i te tau 1999.

Ko Te Reo Irirangi o Kahungunu e tū ana ki te Whare Takiura o Kahungunu (Eastern Institute of Technology) kei Te Matau-a-Māui. Nō te tau 1988 whakatūria ai te reo irirangi. Ko Sandy Adsett o Ngāti Kahungunu tētahi pūkenga toi e mōhiotia whānuitia ana i te ao; koia te kaihautū o te ura toi Māori o Toimairangi, kei Heretaunga. Kua tae rā anō te Rōpū Kanikani Toi o Kahurangi (Te Kahurangi Māori Dance Theatre) o Heretaunga ki Amerika ki te Raki, ki reira whakaatu atu ai i ā rātou mahi.

Ngā rōpu whakahaere me ngā marae o Kahungunu

Ko Ngāti Kahungunu Iwi Incorporated te kaitiaki i ngā kaupapa whanake me ngā hiahia o te iwi puta noa, tae noa ki ngā take tōrangapū. E ono ōna rohe taiwhenua, tae atu ki ngā taura here ki ngā tāone pēnei i a Tāmaki-makaurau me Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ngā wāhi kei reira e noho ana te tini o te iwi.

Hui katoa e 86 ngā marae ki te rohe o Kahungunu. Ko ētahi karekau he whare, ko ētahi kua koroua ngā whare, engari ka tū tonu hei marae. Ko te nuinga o ngā marae kei waenganui pū i ō ratou hapori. Hāunga tērā, he maha ngā whare hōu kua whakatūria ki runga i ngā marae, he tohu ki te mea e kaha tonu ana a Ngāti Kahungunu ki tō rātou ake rohe.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Ngāti Kahungunu (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ko 1901 te tau whakamutunga rawa i pātaihia ai te Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou. Heoi kāore i pātaihia kia whakatakotohia ngā iwi maha.

  • tatauranga o 1901: 5,064
  • tatauranga o 1991: 43,614
  • tatauranga o 2001: 51,552
  • tatauranga o 2006: 59,943
  • tatauranga o 2013: 61,629

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Matau-a-Māui: 17,532
  • Te Whanganui-a-Tara: 10,278

 


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Mere Whaanga, 'Ngāti Kahungunu', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ngati-kahungunu/print (accessed 7 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Mere Whaanga, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 3 Mar 2017