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Ngāti Apa

by  Grant Huwyler

E noho ana a Ngāti Apa ki te rohe o Rangitīkei ki Te Ika-a-Māui. I te rau tau 1800, ka hau te rongo ki te motu mō ngā poropiti me ngā matakite o Ngāti Apa nā rātou ngā whakapono Māori i waihanga, pērā i te whakapono Māramatanga me te Hāhi Rātana.


Origins

Ngā whenua papatipu

Kei te rohe o Rangitīkei ngā papakāinga o Ngāti Apa, kei te taha tonga mā-uru o Te Ika-a-Māui. Kei waenganui ngā whenua o te iwi i ngā awa o Mangawhero, o Whangaehu, o Turakina, o Rangitīkei. E karapotia ana te rohe e te awa o Whanganui ki te raki mā-uru me te awa o Manawatū ki te tonga mā-rāwhiti.

Kurahaupō

Ka puta a Ngāti Apa i te tupuna i a Ruatea, te kaihautū o te waka a Kurahaupō. E 22 whakapaparanga ki mua, ka rere mai te waka ki Aotearoa i ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Tērā tētahi kōrero, ka tahuri a Kurahaupō ki waho o te moutere o Rangitahuahua i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ka whakawhiti atu te tokomaha o ngā kauhoe ki runga o Aotea. Ko te kōrero a te iwi, i noho a Ruatea ki Rangitahuahua ki te whakatika i te waka. Kāore tonu i te mōhiotia ko hea te wāhi tau mai ai a Kurahaupō ki Aotearoa, ko hea rānei te wāhi tuatahi i noho ai te iwi. Heoi ko te kōrero, i noho rātou ki Pūtauaki i Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi.

He pepeha

Ko te whakataukī o Ngāti Apa inā:

Ko Kurahaupō te waka
Ko Ruatea te tangata
Ko Ngāti Apa te iwi.

Apa-hāpai-taketake

I tapaina a Ngāti Apa ki tō rātou tupuna a Apa-hāpai-taketake, te tama a Ruatea. Kei te takiwā o Te Moana-a-Toi ngā kōrero tuku iho mō te takenga mai o Ngāti Apa. Kei te taha uru o te maunga o Pūtauaki tētahi wāhi, ko te Takanga-a-Apa, i whakaingoatia pērātia i te mea koinā te wāhi i whanaia a Apa e te moa mōkai a Awatope. Nā te wharanga o tōna waewae, i tapaina ai ia, ko Apa-koki. Kei tētahi atu kōrero, i taka a Apa ki taua wāhi, mate rawa. Kei tētahi atu kōrero, nā tana patunga i te moa o Awatope ka panaia a ia i te rohe.

Mana tipuna

Whakanuia te mana o Apa-hāpai-taketake i te pepeha nei:

Apa-wetewete tapiki i te tākiritanga o te ata!

Ngā heke

I heke ētahi o ngā uri o Apa ki ngā rohe o Kapiti me Porirua i te tonga, ka whakawhiti i Te Moana-o-Raukawa ki Whakatū (Nelson), ki Te Taitapu (Golden Bay), ki Te Tai Poutini (West Coast), ki ngā rohe e noho nei a Ngāti Apa i ēnei rā. I noho tonu ō rātou uri, a Ngāti Manawa ki Whirinaki. Ahakoa he huānga rātou ki a Ngāti Apa ki Rangitīkei, kei a rātou anō ā rātou ake kōrero mō tā rātou takenga mai.

Ka hūnuku whakatetonga ngā uri o Apa i te maunga o Pūtauaki kia tae ki Rangitāiki, ahu atu ki Taupō me Rotoaira, kia tau rawa ki Rangitīkei me Ngā Wairiki (te ingoa tawhito mō ngā awa o Mangawhero, o Whangaehu, o Turakina). Ka oti te heke nei i roto i ngā whakatupuranga maha. Nō te taenga ki te taha tonga o Rangitīkei, ka tūtaki rātou ki ētahi atu iwi whai pānga ki a Kurahaupō. I haere mai ēnei iwi i Nukutaurua, i Te Māhia. Ko ngā iwi whakaheke i a Kurahaupō, ko Ngāti Apa, ko Rangitāne, ko Muaūpoko.

Kei te taha raki o Rangitīkei, ka moe a Ngāti Apa ki te iwi o Ngā Wairiki. Heke ai te nuinga o rātou i a Paerangi, te tupuna ake o ngā tāngata o te awa o Whanganui, tae rawa ki a Ngāti Rangi, kei te take o Ruapehu. Hei uri anō a Ngā Wairiki nō Turi, te rangatira o Aotea, mā roto i tana tama, a Tūrangaimua.

Kia tae ki ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800, ka au te noho o ngā uri o Apa me ngā iwi o Manawatu, o Rangitikei, o Whanganui.


Ngāti Apa identity

Taka rawa ki te rau tau 1800, kāore anō a Ngāti Apa kia tū hei iwi motuhake. I ngā rā o mua, noho tahi ai ngā uri o Apa-hāpai-taketake ki raro i te mana o iwi kē, o hapū kē, ki ngā takiwā o Ngā Wairiki, o Rangitīkei.

Ngā whakaekenga mai i te raki

Nō te takiwā o te rau tau 1800, ka whakaeke mai ngā iwi mau pū o te raki ki te muru whenua, ki te apo rawa. Mai i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1820, ka tau te noho o Ngāti Toa rātou ko Ngāti Raukawa, ko Te Āti Awa, ko wai atu nō Taranaki, ki te rohe o Kapiti. Nō te taenga mai o ēnei iwi, ka tīmata ngā riri i waenganui i ngā iwi ki te pito tonga o Te Ika-a-Māui, arā, ngā iwi manene ki ngā iwi kua roa kē ki aua rohe.

Te riri ki Kōhurupō

Nā ngā riri i waenganui i a Ngā Wairiki me Whanganui, ka puea ake a Ngāti Apa hei iwi. I te tau 1836 i whakaekehia te pā o Kōhurupō e ngā iwi o Whanganui. I tata horo te pā, heoi nō te patunga o Takarangi Atua, te rangatira o Whanganui, ka puta a Ngā Wairiki ki waho. He rangatira nui a Takarangi Atua, ka māharahara a Ngā Wairiki, kei hoki mai ngā iwi o Whanganui me ā rātou haumi ki te whakamate i a rātou. I konei, ka tahuri a Ngā Wairiki ki te whai haumi i ngā iwi o Rangitīkei. Ka tau te kōrero kia whakakotahi ngā hapū ki Parewanui, ki te taha raki o te awa o Rangitīkei, ki reira tatari ai i te hoariri. Ka tautoko mai a Ngāti Raukawa - e noho mai rā i tō rātou pā i Poutū, kei te taha tonga o te awa. He kāinga a Te Awahou kei te taha tonga o te awa, i kō atu o Poutū. Ka puea ake te tuakiri o Ngāti Apa i tēnei āhuatanga.

Te aro nui a te Pākehā ki a Ngāti Apa

I te marama o Mei 1840, ka mauria te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Tāwhirihoe, he kāinga kei te pūaha o te awa o Rangitīkei. Tokotoru ngā rangatira o Rangitīkei i haina, ko Te Hākeke, ko Mohi Mahi, ko Taumaru. E ai ki te mihinare a Hēnare Wiremu, nō Ngāti Apa ngā tāngata nei. I te tekau tau atu i 1840, ka tīmata te mahi a ngā mihinare, a John Mason rāua ko Te Teira (Richard Taylor) ki waenganui i ngā iwi o Whanganui me Rangitīkei, E ai ki ā rāua tuhinga, ko Ngāti Apa te iwi i noho ki ngā kāinga o Parewanui me Te Awahou. Hei ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau atu i 1840, i ngā whiriwhiringa mō te hoko i ngā whenua o Rangitīkei-Turakina, ka whakahuatia te kōrero e te māngai o te kāwanatanga, e Te Mākarini, arā, ko ngā tāngata katoa e noho ana ki ngā takiwā o Ngā Wairiki me Rangitīkei, nō te iwi o Ngāti Apa.

I roto i ngā tau e 13 – atu i te wā o te pakanga ki Kōhurupō, taka iho ki te hoko whenua o Rangitīkei–Turakina – kua tū kē a Ngāti Apa hei iwi motuhake.


The impact of European settlement

Ngā tāngata whai

I te tau 1849, i hokona ki te Karauna neke atu i te hau whā miriona eka (100,00 heketea) i waenganui i ngā awa o Rangitīkei me Turakina. Kīia ai te hoko nei ko te hoko o Rangitīkei-Turakina. I te wā o ngā whiriwhiri mō te take nei, kīhai i mārama ki a Ngāti Apa, ki te tau te noho a te Pākehā ki tō rātou rohe, ka riro te mana i runga i ngā whenua me ngā rawa o te rohe. Nō muri i te tau 1849 ka tīmata te tau mai o ngā Pākehā ki ngā takiwā o Ngā Wairiki me Rangitīkei. Ka neke ngā Pākehā mai i Te Whanganui-a-Tara ki te whakatū pāmu.

Ahakoa te whakaritenga tūturu e kī ana, ka āhei tonu a Ngāti Apa ki āna mahinga manu, āna mahinga tuna puta noa i te poraka whenua o Rangitīkei-Turakina, ka haere tonu ngā mahi a ngā Pākehā ki te tope i ngā rākau, ki te keri i ngā repo. Nā ēnei mahi, ka kore ngā mahinga kai a te iwi, ka pēhia te oranga o Ngāti Apa.

I te tohe tonu a Ngāti Apa ki ētahi hapū i te pito tonga o Rangitīkei, ka haere mai ngā āpiha a te Karauna, ka hokona ngā whenua. I waenganui i ngā tau 1864 ki te 1867, ka hokona e te kāwanatanga te poraka whenua e kīia ai, ko Rangitīkei–Manawatū. Nō Ngāti Apa tēnei whenua.

Whenua kore, rawa kore

Ka whai a Ngāti Apa i tētahi mahinga tahitanga me te kāwanatanga. I te wā o ngā riri o te tekau tau atu i 1860, i tukuna e Ngāti Apa āna toa hei hōia mō te kāwanatanga i roto i ngā riri ki ngā iwi o te pito tonga o te Ika a Māui. Heoi, i te mutunga, kāore i arotia nuitia e te kāwanatanga ngā tautoko a Ngāti Apa.

Ka tupuheke a Ngāti Apa, e noho ana i ō rātou whenua rāhui, i roto i te rawakore. Nā ngā hanganga ture pēnei i te whakatūnga o te Kōti Whenua Māori i te tau 1865, ka ngaro haere te noho a te Māori, ka ngaro haere hoki ōna whenua. Ki te pīrangi te iwi ki te hoko i tētahi pito whenua, kua mate rātou ki te tango taitara whenua e takoto ana ngā ingoa o te hunga whai pānga ki aua whenua; he mahi uaua tēnei, ka pau te moni i a ia te kai. Me whai ngā Māori i ngā tikanga a Te Kōti Whenua Māori ka tika, ki te kore, ka riro ngā taitara o ngā whenua ki tāngata kē. Nā ēnei tū āhuatanga, ka tata kore ngā whenua o Ngāti Apa.


Spiritual and political leadership

Kia tae ki ngā tau tōmuri o te rau tau 1800, kua pā te kino o te noho a te Pākehā ki ngā iwi katoa o te motu. Nā te rawakore, nā te tahumaero, nā te pōuri, ka tokoiti haere te whānau mai o ngā tamariki Māori, ka taka te iwi Māori ki te pōuri.

Te Hāhi o te Wairua Tapu

I tēnei wā anō, ka puea ake tētahi tikanga hōu ki Rangitīkei. I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1900, ka whakatūria ki Parewanui te pokapū whakapono a tētahi wahine nō Ngāti Apa, ko Mere Rikiriki tōna ingoa. Ko ngā mātāpono o Te Hāhi o te Wairua Tapu he mea tiki mai i ngā karaipiture, arā, kia kotahi te iwi Māori ki raro i te mana o te Atua me te Tiriti o Waitangi. Tini mano te tangata mai i ngā tōpito katoa o Aotearoa ka tae ki Parewanui ki te whakarongo ki ngā kauhau a Mere Rikiriki, ki te whiwhi hoki i āna manaakitanga taha hauora.

Māramatanga

Nā Mere Rikiriki ētahi tāngata i tohutohu, i ako. Ko tētahi o ēnei tāngata, ko Hōri Ēnoka, ko Māreikura tētahi atu o ōna ingoa. Nāna, te whakapono Māramatanga. Ko tā tēnei whakapono, he hanumi i ngā tikanga Māori me te hāhi Katorika. E haere kaha tonu ana te whakapono nei i ēnei rā.

Nō Ngāti Apa a Ngāpiki Hākaraia, i noho ki roto i te iwi o Ngā Rauru ki Kai Iwi (kei te taha raki o Whanganui). Nā mere Rikiriki i hanga te whakapono o te Māramatanga.

Rātana

Ko Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana te poropiti rongonui rawa atu nā Mere Rikiriki i whāngai. He irāmutu a Rātana nāna. Ahakoa i pakeke mai a ia ki Rangitīkei, ka whakatūria e ia tāna whakapono ki Ngā Wairiki. I te tau 1918, ki tōna kāinga e pātata ana ki Awahuri, ka tau ētahi whakaaturanga ki a ia, kia tū a ia hei waha kōrero mō te Wairua Tapu. Nō muri mai ka whakaputa haerehia e ia ngā tikanga o te matakite me te whakaora tangata mā te karakia. I roto i te toru tau, ka hau te rongo mōna ki ngā Māori, ki ngā Pākehā. Ka hia mano tāngata i tae ki tōna pāmu; ā tōna wā mōhiotia ai, ko Rātana Pā.

I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1920 ka takahia e Rātana te motu ki te kauhau i tana rongopai. Ka tipu te whakapono. Kia tae ki te tau 1925, kua tū mai te Hāhi Rātana. Ka tipu haere tonu, ka huri tōna aronga ki te ao tōrangapū me te Tiriti o Waitangi. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1930, ka tūhono a Rātana ki te rōpū Reipa. Kia tae ki te tau 1943, kua riro i a Rātana ngā tūru Māori e whā i te whare paremata.

I tēnei rau tau 2000, kei te nui tonu ngā tautoko a te Māori mō te Hāhi Rātana, tae rawa ki āna mahi tōrangapū.

He tikanga tōrangapū

Ko Tāriana Tūria tētahi kaitōrangapū Māori rongonui. Ahakoa ko ōna pānga ki ngā iwi o Whanganui, taketake ake ia nō Ngāti Apa. I te marama o Mei 2004, ka whakawātea a ia i tana tūranga mema paremata mō Reipa ki te tautoko i ngā kerēme a te Māori ki ngā takutai moana. I taua tau anō, ka eke a ia hei māngai o te Rōpū Māori.

Ngā whakahaere a te iwi

I te tau 1989, ka tū Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Apa hei kaupapa whakahaere mā ngā hapū. Ko tētahi o ana mahi nui he whakarato mātauranga me te hauora. Tāpiri atu ki tēnā, e takatū ana te Rōpū Rangahau o Ngāti Apa ki ngā kerēme a te iwi ki mua i te aroaro o Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Ia rua marama, ka whakaputaina e te rūnanga tana pānui pārongo ki te whakamōhio i ngā uri o Ngāti Apa mō ngā kaupapa a te iwi. Ko te ingoa o te pānui, ko Te Tāpikitanga o Apa, e hoki ana ki a Apa-hāpai-taketake me te kōrero mōna, arā: ‘Apa-wetewete tāpiki i te tākiritanga o te ata’. Ka tika hoki tēnei kōrero mō a rātou whakatikatika ki te whakaotahi i a rātou me te hopu anō i ngā rawa o te iwi.


Facts and figures

Iwi (tribal) identification

In the New Zealand censuses since 1991, residents of Māori descent were asked to indicate the tribe to which they were affiliated. The figures below show the number who indicated Ngāti Apa (including those who indicated more than one tribe), and the regions where they were found in the greatest numbers in 2013.

  • 1991 census: 1,701
  • 2001 census: 1,833 (includes Ngāti Apa ki Te Rā Tō: 375)
  • 2006 census: 3,156 (includes Ngāti Apa ki Te Rā Tō: 741)
  • 2013 census: 3,813 (includes Ngāti Apa ki Te Rā Tō: 843)

Major regional locations

  • Manawatū–Wanganui: 1,587
  • Wellington: 528

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources

More links and websites


How to cite this page: Grant Huwyler, 'Ngāti Apa', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ngati-apa/print (accessed 25 August 2019)

Story by Grant Huwyler, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017