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Ngāpuhi

by  Rāwiri Taonui

Nā te rama porehu i te maunga o Te Ramaroa a Kupe i ārahi kia kuhu i te whanga o Hokianga. He maha noa atu ngā maunga tapu e tautoko ana i te whare o Ngāpuhi. He wāhi nui tō Ngāpuhi i roto i te hītori whānui o te Māori.


Lands

Ko Ngāpuhi te iwi nui rawa o Aotearoa. Ko te manawa o tō rātou rohe kei waenganui pū i Te Tai Tokerau. Totoro atu ai te rohe ki te taha uru me te taha rāwhiti, atu i te whanga o Hokianga ki Pēwhairangi, kātahi ka ahu ki te tonga ki te pari o Maunganui, tae atu ki Whāngārei. E whai ake nei te pātere e whakatakoto ana i ngā tohu whenua o te rohe o Ngāpuhi:

Te whare o Ngāpuhi
He mea hanga tēnei tōku whare
Ko Ranginui e titiro iho nei te tuanui
Ko Papatūānuku te paparahi
Ko ngā maunga ngā poupou
Pūhanga Tohorā titiro ki Te Ramaroa
Te Ramaroa titiro ki Whiria
Ko te paiaka o te riri, te kawa o Rāhiri
Whiria titiro ki Panguru-Papata
Ki te rākau e tū papata ki Te Tai Hauāuru
Panguru Papata titiro ki Maungataniwha-whakarongorua
Maungataniwha titiro ki Tokerau
Tokerau titiro ki Rākau-mangamanga
Rākau-mangamanga titiro ki Manaia
Manaia titiro ki Tūtāmoe
Tūtāmoe titiro ki Maunganui
Maunganui titiro ki Pūhanga Tohorā
Ko tēnei te whare tapu o Ngāpuhi-nui-tonu

Kei tēnā maunga, kei tēnā maunga āna ake kōrero e hāngai ana ki te whare tapu o Ngāpuhi. Anō te maunga o Pūhanga Tohorā, e kiia nei hoki ko Pīhanga Tohorā, he tohorā. He hōpua tapu kei tōna tihi, ko te tāpihapiha o te tohorā tēnā. Ko Te Ramaroa te maunga i whāia e te kaumoana e Kupe kia uru ai ia ki te whanga o Hokianga. Ko Whiria te kāinga o ngā whānau taketake o Ngāpuhi.

He maunga tū tahi a Panguru rāua ko Papata, kei te taha raki o Hokianga; ina pūhia kahatia e te hau, anō he ana hau. Nā te kaha whiu o ngā hau tuauru i te tārua e hono ana i ngā maunga nei, kua piko ngā rākau ki te rāwhiti.

Ko Maunga-taniwha-whakarongorua (te taniwha whakarongo i ngā tai o te uru me te rāwhiti) anake te maunga kei te rohe o Ngāpuhi e taea ai te kite i ngā tai e rua. He tautiaki a Tokerau rāua ko Rākau-mangamanga e tū ana i te pito raki, i te pito tonga o Pēwhairangi. Ko Manaia te tipuna maunga o ngā hapū o Whāngārei, i tapaina ki te ingoa o tētahi o ō rātou tīpuna tawhito. Ko Tūtāmoe te kaitiaki o ngā hapū i te takiwā o te tāone o Tākiwira.

He maunga tapu a Maunganui e tū ana kei waenganui i ngā whanga o Kaipara me Hokianga. Kei reira te takotoranga whakamutunga o ētahi o ngā rangatira nui me ngā tohunga nui o te iwi.


Canoes

Matawhaorua

Ko Matawhaorua te waka, ko Kupe te tangata. He wāhi nui tō ngā kōrero nei ki roto i te hītori o te iwi o Ngāpuhi.

Nā te ataata o te rama o maunga Ramaroa a Kupe i ārahi ki roto i te whanga o Hokianga. E ai ki ngā kōrero, ka pā te wehi ki a Kupe nā te kaha tīrama mai o te māramatanga ki taua wāhi, ā, ka whakaingoatia e ia te whanga ko ‘Te Puna-o-te-ao mārama’. Nō te kanapa o te rama ki te raki o te whanga o Hokianga, ka tapaina e Kupe ko Te Pouahi.

Ko Kohukohu, ko Te Pouahi, ko Whānui ngā kāinga kei te raki o Hokianga i nōhia tuatahitia e Kupe. Ko Koutu, ko Pākanae, ko Whirinaki ōna nōhanga kei te taha tonga o Hokianga. I te hokinga o Kupe ki Hawaiki ka kī ia, ‘Ka hoki ahau. E kore ahau e hokianga mai.’ Nō reira te ingoa a Te Hokianga-a-Kupe.

Ngātokimatawhaorua e Māmari

Ka tāraihia anō te waka o Kupe ka huaina he ingoa kē, ko Ngātokimatawhaorua. Ko Nukutawhiti te rangatira o runga te waka. I hoki te waka nei rāua ko Māmari, te waka o Ruanui, ki Hokianga. Ka pae ngā waka nei ki uta, ka whakatūria e ngā rangatira ō rāua whare. Ka oti i a Nukutawhiti tōna whare te hanga, ka whanga mō te otinga o tō Ruanui, kia tākina ngātahitia ai ngā karakia whakatuwhera. Heoi, i te otinga o te hanga o tōna whare, kīhai a Ruanui i tatari i a Nukutawhiti, ka whakahaua wawetia e ia āna tohunga kia tāngia te kawa o tōna whare. Ka karakia ngā tohunga kia puta he tohorā nui rawa atu hei whakahere; ehara, pae atu ana te tohorā ki te one.

Nō te kitenga atu o Nukutawhiti i tēnei āhuatanga, ka whakahauhia e ia āna tohunga kia tākina ō rātou karakia hei pana i te tohorā ki te moana. Nāwai ā, ka pau ngā karakia a Ruanui, ka wehe atu a Māmari me tōna iwi i Hokianga. Kei te maumaharatia tēnei āhuatanga i te ingoa a ‘Hokianga-whakapau-karakia’.

Mataatua

He nui ngā kōrero e pā ana ki te waka o Mataatua me tōna haerenga ki roto o Te Tai Tokerau. E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā iwi o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi, nō muri o te kōwhetwhete i waenganui i a rāua ko tōna tuakana a Toroa, ka hoea e Puhi te waka atu i Whakatāne ki te whanga o Ōtākou ki te tai tokerau. E ai ki ētahi kōrero o Te Tai Tokerau, i huri a Mataatua mā Te Rēinga ka pakaru ki te tonga mā Te Tai-hauāuru, tau atu ana ki te whanga o Hokianga; mai i konei ka tōia mā te whenua kia tae ki Kerikeri ā, mā reira ahu atu ki te whanga o Ōtākou.

E kī ana te kōrero i tōia te waka mā te tō waka kei Tāmaki i mua i te haerenga ki Hokianga mā te takutai moana. Ko tētahi kōrero tawhito o Ngāpuhi e kī ana i mātua tae ake a Mataatua ki Te Tai Tokerau i mua i tōna hekenga ki Te Moana-a-Toi.

E ai anō ki ngā kōrero, ko Puhi rātou ko Wahineiti, ko Miru ētahi atu rangatira i runga i te waka o Mataatua. E whakaponotia ana nā Miru te waka i ārahi kia huri taiāwhio i Te Ika-a-Māui. E whakaae tahi ana ngā iwi o Ngāpuhi me ngā iwi o Te Moana-a-Toi kei te whanga o Ōtākou te waka a Mataatua e takoto ana. I te tau 1986. Ka tū te hui whakamaumahara a ngā iwi nei.


Ancestors

Rāhiri

Ko Rāhiri te tipuna i takea mai ai te iwi o Ngāpuhi. Whānau mai ana a Rāhiri ki te pā o Whiria ā, hei tamaiti a ia mā Tauramoko rāua ko Te Hauangiangi. He uri a Tauramoko nā Kupe, te rangatira o Matawhaorua, rāua ko Nukutawhiti, te rangatira o Ngātokimatawhaorua. Ko Te Hauangiangi te tamāhine a Puhi, he rangatira nō te waka o Mataatua.

E rua ngā wāhine a Rāhiri. E ai ki ngā kōrero i Hokianga, ko tana wahine tuatahi a Āhuaiti nō Pouērua, e tata ana ki Kaikohe kei te rohe o Taumārere. Nā te tohe a Rāhiri ki āna taokete mō te tipu o ngā hua aruhe, ka whakarerea a Rāhiri e Āhuaiti ki Whiria, ka hoki ia ki tōna iwi. E ai ki ngā iwi o Taumārere i moe a Rāhiri rāua ko Āhuaiti ki Pouērua ka mutu, ko Rāhiri kē i hoki ki Whiria. Heoi anō, e whakaae ana ngā taha e rua i whānau mai tā rāua tama, ko Uenuku.

I muri mai i te wehenga o Rāhiri rāua ko Āhuaiti, ka moe a Rāhiri i a Whakaruru. I noho rāua ki Whiria, ka whānau mai tā rāua tama ko Kaharau.

Ko Uenuku rāua ko Kaharau

Nō te pakeketanga o Uenuku ka haere ia ki Whiria kia riro mai te mana whakaheke. I pakanga rāua ko Kaharau, engari nā Rāhiri i hohou te rongo. I tohua e ia ana tama ki te raranga i tētahi taura harakeke roa rawa atu, e taea ai te maunga o Whiria te taiepa.

Ka herea te taura ki te manu aute ka tukuna kia tau ki runga i te rākau pūriri. Ko te whakaingoatanga tērā o Rāhiri i taua wāhi ko Whirinaki. Ka whakarewahia anō te manu aute ki te rāwhiti kia taupae ki te tahatika o te awa o Taumārere. Nā ngā hau o te rāwhiti te manu aute i pupuhi ki Tāhuna, te wāhi e kīia nei i tēnei wā ko Kaikohe. Ka whakatauhia e Rāhiri koirā te paenga o ngā rohe o Hokianga rāua ko Taumārere. Ka whakatau anō a ia, ko ngā whenua ki Hokianga ka riro ki ngā uri o Kaharau, ko ngā whenua o te rāwhiti ki Taumārere ka riro ki ngā uri o Uenuku.

Ka moe a Taurapoho te tama a Kaharau, i a Ruakiwhiria te tamāhine a Uenuku, ka pūmau te taura tangata. Ko te pepeha whakatau i te kotahitanga inā, ‘Ka tū tahi te tuakana me te teina’.

Ko Korokoro rātou ko Kairewa, ko Waimirirangi

He tuakana teina a Korokoro rāua ko Kairewa; ko rāua ngā tīpuna o ngā hapū tōmua o Ngāpuhi arā, a Ngāti Korokoro me Ngāti Kairewa. Ko ō rāua rohe whenua kei ngā whārua o Pākanae me Whirinaki, kei te taha tonga o Hokianga. Ka moe a Kairewa i a Waimirirangi, tekau ā rāua tamariki. Ka taea e ngā iwi katoa o ngā rohe ahu atu i te raki o Tāmaki te whakapapa ki ngā tīpuna nei. Inā te mana o Waimirirangi, kei ētahi e kīia ana ko ia ‘Te Kuini o te Tai Tokerau’.


Tribal links and movement

Whai pānga anō a Rāhiri ki ētahi atu iwi o Te Ika-a-Māui. Whai muri i te moenga o Rāhiri ki a Āhuaiti rāua ko Whakaruru o Ngāpuhi, ka moe anō ia i a Moetonga, e noho mai rā ōna uri ki te ngahere o Waipoua me te taha tonga o Hokianga. I moe anō a Rāhiri i a Paru, kei ngā takutai mai i Whangaruru ki Whāngārei o rāua uri e noho ana.

Ka wehe a Rāhiri i Whiria kei Hokianga, ka ahu ki Tāmaki-makaurau, ki Te Aroha, ki Whakatāne, ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, ki Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika, ki Taranaki hoki. He nui noa atu ngā kōrero tuku iho mō tēnei haerenga āna. Kei Tāmaki-makaurau, takiwā ki Remuera, ko Maunga Rāhiri (kua keria katoahia). E ai ki ngā kōrero a ngā iwi o Mataatua ki Te Moana-a-Toi, i noho a Rāhiri ki Kaputerangi, he pā tawhito kei runga ake o Whakatāne. He hononga anō tō Rāhiri ki a Ngāti Rāhiri-tumutumu-whenua (kei Te Aroha) me Ngāti Rāhiri-pakarara (kei Taranaki).

I tau te noho o ngā iwi o Hokianga ki raro i a Ngāi Tūpoto. He mea tapa rātou ki te ingoa o te mokopuna tuarua a Rāhiri (te tama a Taurapoho rāua ko Ruakiwhiria). Nā ngā tama a Tūpoto nā Korokoro rātou ko Kairewa, ko Miruiti, ko Tuitū, ko Tūteauru ngā hapū i ārahi kia toitū tō rātou mana ki te rohe o Hokianga.

Te Hōrapatanga

Hōrapa atu ai ngā uri o Māhia te teina o Tūpoto, mai i Kaikohe me Pouērua. Hei tauira atu, ko Auha rāua ko Whakaaria ngā tīpuna i ārahi i o rāua ope taua kia whakaeke i ngā whenua i Taiāmai, i Te Waimate, i Taumārere, i Kerikeri, i Paihia; ka whakawhenumia ngā iwi o Ngāi Tāhuhu, o Ngāti Manaia, o Te Wahineiti, o Ngāti Miru. Ko ngā iwi ka noho ki te taha rāwhiti o te rohe ngā iwi tuatahi kia taka ki raro i te ingoa iwi o Ngāpuhi. Nō te kotahitanga o ngā iwi, ka tau te ingoa nei ki runga ki ngā iwi o Hokianga me Pēwhairangi.

Ngāpuhi-nui-tonu

Ko tētahi ingoa e mōhiotia ai a Ngāpuhi, ko Ngāpuhi-nui-tonu. E kōrero ana tēnei ingoa mō te tini o ngā iwi, ngā hapū, ngā marae o te iwi nei. I ētahi wā whakahuatia ai te ingoa nei mō ngā iwi o Muriwhenua arā, a Ngāti Kuri, a Ngāti Kahu, a Te Rarawa, a Te Aupōuri, tāpae ko ngā iwi e noho ana i te tonga arā, a Ngāti Wai, a Te Parawhau, a Te Roroa, a Ngāti Whātua; kīia ai rātou he huānga iwi nō Ngāpuhi. Heoi, kia tūpato te whakamahi a te tangata i te ingoa nei, nā te mea ko ēnei iwi he iwi tūturu.

I te wā o ngā tau tōmuri o te rau tau 1700 tae noa ki te wā tōmua o te rau tau 1800, ka whanake ngā iwi o Ngāpuhi ki te rāwhiti ki Kawakawa, ki Te Rāwhiti, ki te takutai o Whangaruru, ka whakawhenumia ngā iwi o Ngāti Mānu, o Te Kapotai, o Te Uri o Rātā, o Ngare Raumati, o Ngāti Wai.

Ka whānui ake te rohe o Ngāpuhi ki te tonga ahu atu ki Whāngārei, ki Kaipara, ki reira whakakotahi ai ki ngā iwi whanaunga o reira pēnei i a Parawhau.


Early European contact

Ko Pēwhairangi te tino wāhi haere ai ngā Pākehā tauhokohoko mā runga ō rātou kaipuke. I mōhiotia a Kororāreka (ko Russell ) mō ngā mahi poro haurangi, kairau, me ētahi atu mahi tūkino. I te taenga mai o te minita Mihinare a Samuel Marsden ki te whanga o Rangihoua i te tau 1814, ka kauhautia e ia te kauhau tuatahi ki reira, ka whakatūria e ia te mīhana Karaitiana tuatahi ki reira.

Ngā pakanga mau pū me te riri

He wāhi nui tō Ngāpuhi i roto i ngā pāhekoheko tuatahi me te Pākehā. I te mea ko Pēwhairangi te wāhi haere kaha ai ngā kaipuke Pākehā ka rahi atu ngā pū i riro i a Ngāpuhi i tō ētahi atu. Nō te hokinga mai o te rangatira a Hongi Hika i tāwāhi, kātahi ka kino rawa atu; ka hia rau ngā pū i whakahokia mai e ia.

Atu i te 1818 ki 1823 he nui ngā whakaekenga o Ngāpuhi rātou ko ētahi atu iwi o Te Tai Tokerau i Te Ika-a-Māui. Ko te Āmiowhenua o te tau 1821 te ope taua nui rawa o ēnei haerenga, i ahu whakatetonga atu i Kaipara ka eke ki Tāmaki, ka hōu ki te awa o Waikato, kia toro atu ki Te Matau-a-Māui, ā, tae atu ki Te Ūpoko-o-te-Ika. Mā te tai tamatāne rātou hoki atu ai ki Te Tai Tokerau. Nā te mau pū o Ngāpuhi i nui te mate o ētahi atu iwi. Ko ētahi o aua iwi ko:

  • Ngāti Porou, i whakaekea tō rātou pā a Te Whetūmatarau, takiwā ki Whanga-o-Kena i te tau 1820
  • Ngāti Whātua i te whawhai o te Ika-a-Ranganui, takiwā ki Whāngārei
  • Ngāti Pāoa ki te pā o Mauinaina i Tāmaki-makaurau i te tau 1821
  • ngā iwi o Marutūahu i te pā o Te Tōtara ki Hauraki
  • ngā iwi o Waikato i te pā nui o Mātakitaki i te tau 1822
  • Te Arawa, i te moutere o Mokoia ki Rotorua i te tau 1823.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi

Ko Ngāpuhi anō te iwi i ārahi i ngā mahi tōrangapū me te Pākehā. Nō te tau 1835 hainahia ai e ngā rangatira e 35 o Te Tai Tokerau te Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Niu Tīreni. I aro nui tēnei whakaputanga ki te rangatiratanga o te Māori i Niu Tīreni. Nō te marama o Pēpuere i te tau 1840, ka tūtaki ngā rangatira o Ngāpuhi ki a Rūtene Kāwana Wiremu Hopihana, ki te Rehirenete Ingarihi a James Busby me te mihinare a Hēnare Wiremu (Te Karu Whā), ki te wānanga i te hainatanga o Te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Nā runga i te ārahitanga o ngā rangatira o Pēwhairangi, kāore i manaakitia te tiriti e te nuinga o ngā rangatira heoi, he tokoiti i rata atu, pēnei i a Tāmati Wāka Nene o Hokianga. I te mutunga, nā Hopihana rāua ko Wiremu ngā rangatira ātete i whakarata kia haina i runga i tā rāua oati, ka tiakina ō rātou whenua i ngā Wīwī me ngā tāngata whai nanakia. Nō te 6 o Pēpuere 1840, e 43 ngā rangatira o Ngāpuhi i haina i te tiriti. I ngā marama o muri mai, neke atu i te 100 ngā rangatira o Ngāpuhi i haina i te tiriti.

Te riri i te tai tokerau

I 1845 me 1846 ka pakanga a Ngāpuhi ki te Karauna i tā rātou whakaahunga ki te Tiriti o Waitangi, nā te kuhu pokanoa a ngā tāngata whai, me te pēhi o te mana Ingarihi ki runga i ā rātou whakahaere.

Ko Hōne Heke te rangatira Māori tuatahi kia haina i te tiriti i te tau 1840. Kia hipa te wā ā, ka kino ia ki ngā mahi a te Kāwanatanga, ka turakina e ia te pou haki ki Kororāreka. E toru ngā poronga o taua pou haki i ngā tau 1844, 1845. Nō te 11 o Āperira 1845 ka murua te tāone o Kororāreka e ngā taua o Hone Heke rātou ko Pūmuka, ko Kawiti.

I tū anō ngā pakanga ki Puketutu, ki Ahuahu, ki Ōhaeawai, ki Ruapekapeka. Nā tā rāua nukarau i Puketutu, ka ekea e te taua o Hōne Heke rāua ko Kawiti (e 200 te tokomaha) te taua Pākehā e 400 te tokomaha o ngā hōia Ingarihi, ngā hōia tau moana me ngā tūao.

Heoi, ka hinga a Heke ki Ahuahu i ngā iwi o Hokianga e tautoko ana i te Kāwanatanga he mea ārahi rātou e Taonui rāua ko Tāmati Wāka Nene. I tū te pakanga nei ki waenganui i te Māori anake. Tērā pea i whawhai ngā Māori o Hokianga ki a Heke rāua ko Kawiti nā te mea kāore anō rātou kia rongo i ngā kino a te Pākehā kua pā kē ki runga i ngā Māori o Pēwhairangi. Ina rā kātahi anō a Hokianga ka whakatuwhera ki ngā hua o ngā mahi tauhokohoko a te Pākehā.

Ahakoa tēnei ka ara anō ngā Māori o Pēwhairangi, ka hinga anō ngā Ingarihi ki Ōhaeawai, ahakoa te mea, e ono ngā hōia Pākehā ki te toa Māori kotahi. I te pahūtanga o ngā pū repo a ngā Ingarihi, kei roto kē ngā Māori i ō rātou kōruarua e tatari ana; i te whakaeketanga o te taua Ingarihi ka tukuna te waipū, parekura ana te taua Pākehā.

I tū te riri whakamutunga ki Ruapekapeka i te marama o Hānuere 1846, engari kāore i tatū. Ko te whakapae, e 1300 ngā hōia i te taua Ingarihi, e 600-800 ngā toa Māori; kāore i tū te pakanga, ka whakarērea te pā e ngā Māori.

Nā ngā pakanga i Te Tai Tokerau i whakatakoto te tauira mō ngā pakanga ki ētahi atu wāhi o te motu. Ahakoa te kaha o ō rātou pā maioro me te pai o ā rātou rautaki kawe riri, kāore i taea e te Māori te pakanga ki te Pākehā mō te wā roa; he nui noa atu hoki o rātou hōia, ā rātou pū. I āhei ngā Pākehā ki te whakanoho me te whāngai i ō rātou hōia i te pakanga mō te wā roa; engari anō te Māori, me hokihoki ki ō rātou kāinga ki te ngaki māra, ki te tiaki i ō rātou whānau.

Ngā rironga whenua

Hāunga ngā kī taurangi a te tiriti, he rerekē te āhua ki te whakatū koroni; āta kitea ai tēnei āhuatanga i ngā take whenua. I mua i 1865 ka riro atu i te 72,000 heketea o ngā whenua i Hokianga me Pēwhairangi i te Pākehā; i taea aua whenua te hoko mā ngā kerēme a ngā Pākehā i mua i te hainatanga o te tiriti, mā te rironga atu i raro i te kōrero he whenua tāpiri, mā ētahi atu hokohoko hīanga rānei a te Karauna.

I muri i te tau 1865 neke atu i te 201,000 heketea o ngā whenua o Ngāpuhi i whakawāngia e te Kōti Whenua Māori. I takitahitia ngā taitara whenua e māmā ake ai te hoko a te Karauna me ngā tāngata whai. Kia taka rawa ki te tau 1908, e 61,000 heketea anake ngā toenga whenua kei ngā ringaringa o te Māori e pupuri ana.

Nō te tau 1975 i whakaarahia te take nei e Kahurangi Whina Cooper, he uri whakaheke nō Waimirirangi, i tana ārahi i te hīkoi whenua ki te Paremata. Kia eke a ia ki tōna kaumātuatanga, ka karangahia ia ko ‘Te Whāea-o-te-motu’, mō ana mahi mō ngā tika whenua a te Māori.


Ngāpuhi today

I te tau 2013, e 125,000 ngā uri o Ngāpuhi. E 55 ngā marae kei ngā rohe o Hokianga, o Pēwhairangi, o Whāngārei (kaua ko ngā huānga iwi e noho mai rā i Whāngārei, i Kaipara, i Muriwhenua). E 150 ngā hapū o Ngāpuhi.

Rerenga tahi

I runga i ngā kōrero mō te whanga o Hokianga ki te uru me te awa o Taumārere ki te rāwhiti, e kōrero ana te pepeha e whai ake nei mō ngā hapū o Ngāpuhi arā, te tata o ngā hononga, tētahi ki tētahi. He kupu whakarite te ‘puna’ ki ngā uri ka rere ki te tautoko i a rātou anō i ngā wā o te raruraru:

Ka mimiti ngā puna o Hokianga
Ka totō ngā puna o Taumārere
Ka mimiti ngā puna o Taumārere
Ka totō ngā puna o Hokianga.

Nā runga i te nui o ngā whenua Māori i raupatutia me te paheketanga o ngā hapori, o ngā tikanga tuku iho, o te ōhanga, o ngā mahi tōrangapū, tāpae atu ko te hūnuku a te mātinitini kei ngā tāone atu i te tau 1950, e 25,000 anake ngā uri o Ngāpuhi kei te rohe e noho tonu ana i te tau 2013. Neke atu i te 50,000 ngā uri o Ngāpuhi kei te rohe o Tāmaki e noho ana. I tua atu, e 21,000 e noho ana ki ngā rohe o Waikato me Te Moana-a-Toi.

Nā runga i te ārahitanga o te rōpū whakahaere a Te Rūnanga ā-Iwi o Ngāpuhi i Kaikohe, kua rohea te iwi ki tēnā rohe, ki tēnā rohe arā, ko:

  • Ngāpuhi ki te Hauāuru (kei te tonga o Kaikohe)
  • Taiāmai ki te marangai (ko Te Waimate, ko Waitangi, ko te raki o Pēwhairangi)
  • Ngāpuhi Hokianga ki te raki (te taha raki o Hokianga)
  • Ngā Ngaru o Hokianga (te taha tonga o Hokianga)
  • Te Rūnanga o Taumārere ki Rākaumangamanga (ko Kawakawa, ko te taha tonga o Pēwhairangi)
  • Te Rōpū Takiwā o Mangakāhia (ko Mangakāhia, ko Whāngārei)
  • Te Takiwā o Ngāpuhi ki Whāngārei (Whāngārei)

Hei tohu ki te nui o ngā uri o Ngāpuhi e noho manene ana ki ngā taone nunui, kua whakatūria e Te Rūnanga ā-Iwi o Ngāpuhi ētahi taura here: Te Taura here ki Manurewa ( Te Tonga o Tāmaki) me Te Taura here o Ngāpuhi ki Waitākere (te Raki me te Uru o Tāmaki-makaurau).

Ko te matapae o te rūnanga, ‘Kia tū tika ai te whare tapu o Ngāpuhi’ mō ake tonu. Ko tā te rūnanga he whakarauika i te iwi kia mahi tahi ai ngā hapū, ngā marae, ngā hapori e hua ai he painga ki ngā uri whakaheke katoa.

Nō te tau 1992 whakamanatia ai te Ture Whakatau Take Rawa Ika, e anga ana tana titiro ki ngā tika a te Māori me te wāhi ki a ia i roto i te ahumahi ika i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi. I aro te ture nei ki ngā tika a tēnā iwi, a tēnā iwi ki te hī ika i raro i ngā tikanga tuku iho.

Ko ngā take nui rawa atu ki te rūnanga, ko te toha tika i ngā hua o te whakaritenga Ohu Kaimoana, ko te pupuri i ngā kōrero tuku iho a Ngāpuhi, ko te whakahaere i ētahi take ōhanga tērā ka whai hua i te wā roa, ko te tiaki taiao, ko te whakapiki mātauranga hoki.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Ngāpuhi (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ko 1901 te tau whakamutunga rawa i pātaihia ai te Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou. Heoi kāore i pātaihia kia whakatakotohia ngā iwi maha.

  • tatauranga o 1901: 6,361
  • tatauranga o 1991: 92,973
  • tatauranga o 2001: 102,981
  • tatauranga o 2006: 122,214
  • tatauranga o 2013: 125,601

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 50,580
  • Te Tai Tokerau: 25,026

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Rāwiri Taonui, 'Ngāpuhi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ngapuhi/print (accessed 28 September 2021)

He kōrero nā Rāwiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 3 Mar 2017