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Ngāi Tūhoe

by  Rangi McGarvey

Ko Te Urewera te kāinga, te toi whenua o Ngāi Tūhoe. Ka moe a Te Maunga i a Hine-pūkohu-rangi, ka puta a Pōtiki, he tipuna nui o te iwi. Ko Maungapōhatu te maunga tapu o te iwi. Ko Waikaremoana te wai kaukau a ngā tīpuna. Ko Tauranga, Ōhinemataroa, Rangitāiki, Whirinaki ngā awa. Ko Ngāi Tūhoe te iwi.


The first peoples

Nō Toi rāua ko Pōtiki te whenua
Nō Tūhoe te mana me te rangatiratanga.

Ngā Pōtiki

He iwi tawhito a Ngā Pōtiki, nō mua rātou i te taenga o Mataatua ki Aotearoa. E noho ana a Ngā Pōtiki ki te pokapū o Te Urewera – ki ngā takiwā o Maungapōhatu, o Ruatāhuna, o Maungataniwha. Kāore e nui ngā kōrero mō Pōtiki, ki a Te Pēhi te tūmū korero, nō te wā o Toitehuatahi (Toi) rāua ko Hape-ki-tumanui-o-te-rangi (Hape) a ia. Ko ētahi o ngā wehenga o Ngā Pōtiki ko Ngāti Rākei, ko Ngāi Tuahau, ko Tama-kai-moana, ko Ngāti Papa, ko Ngāi Tūmata-rākau.

Te Tini o Toi

Ko tētahi atu whakaheke o Ngāi Tūhoe, mai i a Toitehuatahi (ko Toi, Toi-kai-rākau, Toi-te-Hurumanu rānei).

Ko Kaputerangi te pā o Toi, kei ngā pari i runga ake o Whakatāne. Ko Toi te tipuna o ngā iwi maha o tēnei rohe; ka kīia taua kāhui iwi ko Te Tini o Toi. Ko ēnei iwi, ko Te Tini o Awa, Te Mārangaranga, Te Tini o Tuoi, Te Tini o Taunga, Ngāi Tūranga. Ka huri pānga whenua o Te Tini o Toi mā Te Waimana ki Rangitāiki i te uru, ki Kūhā Waea i te tonga, tatū ki Te Whāiti.

Te Hapū-oneone

Ko Hape-ki-tumanui-o-te-rangi (Hape) te tipuna o Te Hapū-oneone. Ka whakaheke ngā whakapapa i a Hape tatū iho ki a Tūhoe. I haere mai a Hape i Hawaiki, i ū ki Ōhiwa i Te Moana-a-Toi; ko Rangimatoru tōna waka. I huri te rohe o Te Hapū-oneone atu i Ōhiwa ki Te Waimana i te tonga, whakawhiti atu i te pae maunga o Taiarahia ki Rūātoki i te uru, ka hoki ki Ōhiwa i te raki. Ko ētahi wehenga o Te Hapū-oneone ko Ngāti Raumoa, ko Ngāi Te Kapo, ko Ngāi Tūranga.


Toroa and Tūhoe-pōtiki

He pepeha mō te iwi

E whakatū ana i te āhua o Tūhoe inā:

Tūhoe moumou Kai
Moumou Taonga
Moumou Tangata ki te Pō.

Toroa

Nō ngā whakapaparanga e 18-20 ki mua ka ū a Mataatua ki Aotearoa. I haere mai te waka i Hawaiki. Ko Toroa te rangatira o runga, ko Tāneatua te tohunga. Ko ētahi i haere ake ko tana teina a Puhi, tana tuahine a Muriwai, me ngā tamariki a Toroa, a Ruaihona rāua ko Wairaka.

I te taenga mai i Hawaiki, ka tau a Mataatua ki Whangaparāoa (Cape Runaway) i te pito rāwhiti o Te Moana-a-Toi, kātahi ka haere mā te uru kia tatū ki Te Mānuka Tūtahi i te pūaha o te awa o Ōhinemataroa (Whakatāne rānei). Ka kite rātou, he iwi kē kei tēnei rohe, ko Te Hapū-oneone, e noho ana i ngā rohe atu i Whakatāne ki Ōpōtiki; ko Ngāi Tūranga e noho ana ki Rūātoki me Ōpouriao; ko Ngā Pōtiki kei te takiwā ki Ruatāhuna; ko Te Mārangaranga i te pito whakarunga o te awa o Rangitāiki.

Ka noho a Toroa mā ki Whakatāne. Nā te aha, ka tohe a Toroa rāua ko Puhi mō ō rāua māra kai. I te mutunga iho ka heria e Puhi a Mataatua me te nuinga o ngā tāngata ki Te Tai Tokerau, kia tū mai te iwi o Ngāpuhi. Ko Toroa, ko tōna whare ariki anake i noho ki Te Moana-a-Toi. Ka noho a Toroa rātou ko tōna whānau ki ngā takiwā o Whakatāne; ka moemoe rātou ki roto i ngā iwi tawhito, kia puta te tuakiri o Ngāi Tūhoe.

Tūhoe-pōtiki

I ahu mai te ingoa o Ngāi Tūhoe i a Tūhoe-pōtiki, te whakapākanga o ngā tamariki a Tamatea-ki-te-huatahi (te mokopuna a Toroa) rāua ko Paewhiti. Nō Ngāi Tūranga te whāea o Paewhiti, ko Tāneatua tōna matua. I noho a Tūhoe rātou ko ōna tuākana a Ue-imua rāua ko Tānemoeahi, ko tana tuahine a Uenuku-rauiri ki te whārua o Rūātoki. E 32 kiromita te tawhiti o tēnei whārua i te ngutuawa o Ōhinemataroa. Ko Te Mauku me Ngā Taumata ngā pā o Tūhoe-pōtiki, ko Pūtiki tō Tānemoeahi, ko Kākā-tarahae tō Ue-imua.

Ko te ingoa i mōhiotia ai rātou, ko Te Tokotoru a Paewhiti. Ka wehi ngā iwi o te takiwā ki a rātou, e tauiratia ana i te kōrero nei.

Kainga te kai, kei te haere te tokotoru a Paewhiti!

Tāria, ka tipu te raruraru i waenganui i a rātou mō ō rātou mahinga kai i te kōawa o Ōwhakatoro i Rūātoki. Ka kangaa e Ue-imua a Tūhoe-pōtiki, me tana kī, ka patua e ia a Tūhoe. Heoi, ka tū te pakanga, ka tū kotahi a Tānemoeahi rāua ko Tūhoe-pōtiki. Ka patua a Ue-imua, ka kainga tōna manawa e Tūhoe, hei tohu kua riro e ia te mana o Ue-imua.

Ka haere te wā, ka hōhā a Tūhoe i ngā pakanga mutunga kore, ka wehe atu ia ki te rā tō. Ka noho ia mō tētahi wā ki Ngongotahā i Rotorua, i te taha o tētahi puna kīia ai, ko Te Puna-a-Tūhoe. Ka hipa te wā, ka hiki a Tūhoe-pōtiki ki te rohe o Waikato, ko te whakapae, i haere pērā a ia kia kite i a Māhanga, tōna matua kēkē. Ka noho a Tūhoe ki Kāwhia i te tai hauāuru, ā, mate atu. Kei tērā takiwā tētahi ana e mōhiotia ai, ko Te Ana o Tūhoe. Ka noho ana tamariki mokopuna ki te pupuri i ngā whenua i mahue rā ki Te Urewera.


The land and environment

Me manaaki tātou i tō tātou whāea e takoto iho nei, a Papatuanuku.

Te rohe whenua

Ko Te Urewera te rohe whenua o Ngāi Tūhoe. Ka haere whakateuru mā Maungapōhatu ki Ngā Māhanga i te awa o Ōhinemataroa, atu i Ngā Māhanga ka rere tonu ki Te Ikawhenua-a-Tamatea kei waenganui i ngā awa o Ōhinemataroa me Rangitāiki, ka rere te paenga atu i reira ki kō paku atu o Tarapounamu i te tonga, ka haere tonu i konei ki Maungataniwha, ki te awa o Waiau, kātahi ka whai i te pae maunga o Huiarau ki Whakataka, ka hoki ki Maungapōhatu.

Nā ngā pakanga me ngā whakapākūhā, ka hōrapa te mana o Ngāi Tūhoe ki Waikaremoana me Te Pāpuni i te rāwhiti, ki Te Whāiti, ki Whirinaki, ki Te Houhi i te uru, ki Ōpouriao, ki Te Waimana, ki Te Hūrepo i te raki. Ka huaki mai he putanga ki ngā kai o Te Moana-o-Tairongo i Ōhiwa.

He whenua pukepuke, ngāherehere a Te Urewera. I tua atu i ngā wāhi papatahi pēnei i a Ngā Māhanga, a Hanga-mahihi, a Ōhāua-i-te-rangi, kāore he tino rahi ngā wāhi pai hei whakatipu kai. Nā tōna pukepuke, ngāherehere, tawhiti, mātao, nō te paunga o te rau tau 1800 kātahi anō te Pākehā ka arotahi ki ngā whenua o Te Urewera.

Te wao

He nui te wao ki a Ngāi Tuhoe; hei pātaka kai, hei tango kākahu, rongoā. Koinei te tāwharau o te iwi i ngā wā o te riri. Nā tō rātou tawhiti i te moana, kāore i nui te kaimoana. Waihoki, kāore te kūmara e tipu ki te nuinga o Te Urewera. Nā reira, ka nanao te iwi ki ngā kai me ngā rawa o te wao hei oranga mō rātou.

Ngā maunga

He tapu ki a Ngāi Tūhoe ōna maunga. Ko ngā maunga ngā takotoranga a ngā tīpuna, ngā rua kōhā o te iwi. Ka tū ngā maunga hei tohu ki te mana o ō rātou iwi, whakahuatia ai i runga i ngā marae, i roto i ngā whaikōrero, waiata, haka.

Kei tēnā kāinga, kei tēnā hapori o Ngāi Tūhoe tōna ake maunga ka whakanuia e ngā hapū o taua takiwā. Heoi, ko te maunga nui ki a Ngāi Tūhoe ko Maungapōhatu e tū mai rā i te puku o Te Urewera. .I te waihangatanga a Rua Kēnana i tana whakapono, ka whakaritea ko Maungapōhatu hei pokapū mōna i te mea ‘… koinei te Maunga o Īhowa, me ō mātou Kaumātua.’ 1 Ko ētahi maunga o Tūhoe, ko Huiarau, ko Panekire, ko Tāwhiuau, ko Te Ikawhenua-a-Tamatea, ko Maungataniwha, ko Puke-nui-o-raho, ko Taiarahia, ko Hikurangi.

Ngā awa

Ko Tauranga, ko Ōhinemataroa, ko Whirinaki, ko Rangitāiki ngā awa nui o te rohe o Ngāi Tūhoe. I tua atu i ngā kāinga i Waikaremoana, kei ngā whārua o ngā awa ngā papakāinga o Tūhoe – arā, a Ruatāhuna me Rūātoki i te awa o Ōhinemataroa, a Matahī me Te Waimana i te awa o Tauranga, a Waiōhau i te awa o Rangitāiki, a Te Whāiti i te awa o Whirinaki. I te horapa o te iwi ki waho o Te Urewera, ka whai rātou i ngā awa nei.

Waikaremoana

Ko Waikaremoana te whaitua o te rohe pōtae o Tūhoe ki te tonga mā-rāwhiti. E ai ki ngā kōrero, na Haumapuhia te moana i auaha i tana okeoke kia puta ki te moana. Nā tōna matua nā Māhū a ia i toremi, ka huri i a ia hei taniwha.

I te tīmatanga o te rau tau 1800, i te pakanga a Ngāi Tūhoe rāua ko Ngāti Kahungunu i Waikaremoana. Ka toa a Ngāi Tūhoe, ka karangahia ngā hapū i ngā takiwā o te rohe pōtae ki te whakatūturu i te noho a te iwi ki Waikaremoana. Ka whakamoea ngā uri o Ngāi Tūhoe ki ngā hapū o Waikaremoana hei aha, hei whakakaha i te hononga. Nā te pakari o ēnei whakaritenga, ka kaha te Tūhoetanga ki roto ngā hapū o reira, tatū rawa ki ēnei rā. Nā te taenga mai o te whakapono Karaitiana, me te hiahia tonu o ngā iwi, ka whakatūhia te tatau pounamu kei waenganui i a Ngāi Tūhoe me Ngāi Kahungunu: hei tohu, ka whakamoea ngā maunga arā, a Kūhā Tārewa (Ngāi Tūhoe) rāua ko Turi-o-Kahu (Ngāti Kahungunu).

Footnotes
  1. Judith Binney, Mihaia. Auckland: Auckland University Press/Bridget Williams, 1987, p. 45. › Back

The impact of Europeans

Ngā tūtakitanga tōmua

Kīhai i te mōhiotia te tau i tūtaki tuatahi a Tūhoe ki te Pākehā. I rongo pea rātou mō te taenga atu o Kāpene Kuki ki Tūranga i te tau 1769, me tana huringa hei muri atu ki Te Moana-a-Toi. Kia pahure ngā tau e rima tekau pea ka tūtaki anō a Tūhoe ki te Pākehā, arā i te taenga mai o ngā kaihokohoko me ngā mihinare.

Nā te tawhiti o Ngāi Tūhoe ki ngā wāhi hokohoko, tāpae atu ki ngā rīriri ki ngā iwi noho ki tai, kāore a Tūhoe i tauhokohoko me te Pākehā. Ahakoa tēnei, i te mōhio tonu te iwi he aha ngā taonga a te Pākehā. I te whakaekenga o Ngāpuhi ki Te Moana-a-Toi i te wā 1819 ki te 1823, ka rongo a Ngāi Tūhoe i te wehi i ngā pū a te Pākehā. Ko te rīwai me te poaka ngā rawa tuatahi ka riro mai i a Tūhoe. Nō te tau 1820 pea ka riro mai te kānga.

I ngā wā ka tareka, ka haere a Ngāi Tūhoe ki tawhiti kia tauhokohoko ki iwi kē mō ngā taonga Pākehā. Ka tauhokohokona te muka, te huahua, te taurekareka mō te pū, te paura, te kākano, he taputapu, he poaka. Nā ngā rīriri i waenganui i a Tūhoe me Ngāti Awa, ka haere a Tūhoe ki Tāmaki-makau-rau, ki Hauraki, ki hea atu ki te tauhokohoko.

Te riri

Kia tae ki ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1860, kua rongo a Tūhoe mō te pakanga ka tū pea i Waikato. Ko te kōrero, kua tae ngā hōia a te Karauna ki te paenga raki o te rohe o Waikato. Kāore a Tūhoe i tino hiahia kia tautoko i te pakanga ki reira. Ka kī tētahi o ngā rangatira: ‘Kia tāwharautia a Mataatua’, arā, me tatari kia tae rawa ngā hōia ki te rohe o Tūhoe kātahi anō ka tūtakina. Heoi, ka tae mai rā ngā hōia ki te rohe o Tūhoe; mō te matenga o Te Wākana (Carl Sylvius Völkner) i Ōpōtiki, me te haerenga o Ngāi Tūhoe ki te pakanga i Ōrākau.

Ōrākau

Hei te tau 1863, 1864 ranei, ka haere a Rewi Maniapoto, te kaingārahu o Ngāti Maniapoto ki Te Urewera ki te tono āwhina i a Tūhoe mō ngā riri ki Waikato. I tana tono, ka kōrero a Rewi mō ngā hononga tata i waenganui i a Tūhoe me Waikato, arā, te haerenga a Tūhoe-pōtiki ki Kāwhia, mate atu; te tuku mātātahi a Te Purewa o Tūhoe rāua ko Peehi Tūkorehu o Ngāti Maniapoto i Te Whāiti i ngā tau whā tekau ki mua; te kupu tautoko a Tūhoe k te Kīngitanga i te hui nui i tū ki Pūkawa i Taupō i te tau 1856; ngā pānga a Ngāti Whare (hapū nō Tūhoe) ki a Tainui.

Whāia, ka wehe te ope taua a Tūhoe ki Waikato. Kotahi rau tō rātou kaha – tāne mai, wāhine mai, tamariki mai. Nō te taenga atu ki te riu ki Waikato, ka tono a Rewi kia tatari rātou, kia kaua e whakatū pokanoa ki te pakanga. Ka whakautu ngā mea o Ngāi Tūhoe, kīhai rātou i takahi te mata o te whenua me ā rātou pū mō te kore noa iho. Ahakoa āna māharahara mō Ōrākau hei papa mo te riri, ka whakaae a Rewi ki te tono a Tūhoe.

Mō ngā rā e toru, atu i te 31 o Māehe ki te 2 o Āperira 1864 ka pakanga a Tūhoe i te taha o Rewi Maniapoto ki Ōrākau. Nā te tini o te hoariri me te nui o a rātou pū ka hinga ngā Māori. E 60% te nui o ngā mate o Tūhoe, tae atu ki tō rātou rangatira ki a Piripi Te Heuheu.

I te hokinga o ngā mōrehu ki Ruatāhuna, ka taunuhia rātou e ngā pouaru. I hāngai tika ā rātou kanga ki a Te Whenuanui, nā rāua ko Piripi Te Heuheu hoki te ope o Ngāi Tūhoe i ārahi ki te riu ki Waikato. Kei te hakaina tonuhia taua pātere i ēnei rā.

Te Patunga o Te Wākana (Reverend Carl Sylvius Völkner)

I te marama o Māehe 1865, ka patua te mihinare a Te Wākana ki Ōpōtiki. I whakapae a Te Whakatōhea he heri kōrero a Te Wākana ki te kāwanatanga. Nā te Hauhau nā Kereopa Te Rau a Te Whakatōhea i whakakīkī kia patua a Te Wākana. I haere mai a Kereopa i Taranaki ki te kauhau i te whakapono Hauhau ki ngā iwi o Te Moana-a-Toi me Te Tai Rāwhiti. I tāronatia a Te Wākana ki kō tata mai o tōna whare karakia. Ko te rerenga tērā o Kereopa ki roto i a Te Urewera. Ahakoa te kī a Ngāi Tūhoe kāore ia i whai wāhi ki te patunga o Te Wākana, kāore te kāwanatanga i aro ake, ka whakapae tonu a ia i uru a Ngāi Tūhoe ki te patunga o Te Wākana.

I te wāhanga tōmuri o tēnei tau, ka patua a Hēmi Te Mautaranui (James Fulloon) e Ngāti Awa ki Whakatāne. He kaiwhakamārama reo, he āpiha a Te Mautaranui nā te kāwanatanga. Ka riri a Tūhoe mō tēnei patunga i te mea he uri a Te Mautaranui nō rātou. Ka hua te kino ki a Ngāi Tūhoe i ēnei matenga. Otirā, ka tau mai te ope taua o te kāwanatanga ki ngā whenua o Ngāi Tūhoe.


Resistance: 1866 to 1872

Te raupatu

I te tau 1866 ka raupatuhia e te kāwanatanga e 448,000 eka (188,000 heketea) mai i ngā iwi ‘whakakeke’ o Te Moana-a-Toi – a Ngāi Tūhoe, a Te Whakatōhea, a Ngāi Awa. Nō muri ka heke tēnei ki te e 211,000 eka (85,387 heketea). Ka raupatuhia te e 14,000 eka (5,700 heketea) o ngā whenua o Ngāi Tūhoe i Ōpouriao me Te Waimana, ka katia te putanga ki te moana i Ōhiwa. He pakanga kei te haere.

Te Kooti

I te marama o Hune 1866 ka mauherehia a Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Tūruki o Rongowhakaata i Tūranga, ka kawea ki Wharekauri. I whakapae te kāwanatanga he pūrahorua a ia nā ngā Hauhau. I a ia i Wharekauri, ka puta he whakaaturanga ki a ia. He maha ngā taunga o te wairua ki runga i a ia. Nō te marama o Hūrae 1868 ka kahakina e Te Kooti me ngā mau herehere e 298 te kaipuke Rifleman hei whakahoki mai i a rātou ki Te Ika-a-Māui. I tā rātou taunga ki Te Tai Rāwhiti, ka kawea e Te Kooti tana riri ki te motu.

Ka tuki a Te Kooti ki ngā ope taua a te kāwanatanga i Tūranga, kāore a ia i toa. Nō konei, ka huri a Te Kooti ki Te Urewera hei tāwharau i an ia. Ka tono a ia ki a Ngāi Tūhoe kia manaakitia mai a ia me tana rōpū. Whāia, i te marama o Māehe 1869 i tētahi hui nui i Tāwhana, ka whakawhirinaki a Ngāi Tūhoe ki a Te Kooti, ka tukuna ngā whenua ki raro i a ia. Ka kōrero a Te Kooti ki te iwi, ka tangohia e ia ngā kupu a te Atua ki a Mohi, inā:

‘Ka tango ahau i a koutou hei iwi mōku ā, ko ahau hei Atua mō koutou ā, ka mōhio koutou ko Īhowa ahau. Ko koe hoki te iwi o te kawenata.’ 1

Te whai-a-te-motu

Ka kino te pakanga a ngā ope taua a te kawanatanga ki a Ngāi Tūhoe rāua ko Te Kooti ki. I te rapunga mō Te Kooti i roto i Te Urewera i te wā 1869 ki te 1872, ko ngā iwi hoa riri o Ngāi Tūhoe te ringa kaha o te kāwanatanga; ko ngā kūpapa ēnei. Ko te hiahia o te kāwanatanga ki te haukoti i ngā manaakitanga a Ngāi Tūhoe mō Te Kooti. Nā reira, ka pāhuatia a Te Urewera, ka patua, ka mauheretia ngā tāngata, ka tahuna ō rātou kāinga, ka whakaputua ā rātou kai, ā rātou kararehe. I te tau 1872 ka puta te ihu o Te Kooti ki Te Rohe Pōtae. Nō te tau 1883, ka murua te hara i a Te Kooti e te kāwanatanga. Ahakoa te mea kua hau te rongo mō tana toa ki te pakanga, ki tā Ngāi Tūhoe titiro, koia te matua tangata, nāna i hanga te whakapono nui ki a Ngāi Tūhoe, ko te Hāhi Ringatū tērā.

Footnotes
  1. Judith Binney, Redemption songs: a life of Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki. Auckland: Auckland University Press/Bridget Williams, 1997, p. 154. › Back

Self-imposed isolation

Te Whitu Tekau

Nō te takiwā o te tau 1872 ka mutu te pakanga i waenganui i a Tūhoe me te kāwanatanga. Ka whakatūria te kaunihera o Te Whitu Tekau hei whakahaere i ngā kaupapa a te iwi. Ko ā rātou mahi, he tiaki i ngā whenua o te iwi, he whakatakoto ture mō te tangata, he aukati atu i te Pākehā me ana mahi. Ko ā rātou ture pēnei, kaua te rori, kaua te rūri, kaua te rīhi, kaua te hoko.

Ka whakatūhia e Ngāi Tūhoe he pou ki ngā ara e kuhu ana ki Te Urewera, hei ārai, hei whakatūpato i te rāwaho me te Pākehā. Ko Eru Tamaikoha te kaingārahu o ngā hapū o Te Waimana i te raki o Te Urewera. Ko tana kupu whakatūpato i te rāwaho ka kuhu ki ōna whenua, ‘Ka kainga te mea ka takahi i taku kupu’.

Rua Kēnana

I te tau 1905 ka hau te rongo mō ngā mahi poropiti a Rua Kēnana Hepetipa. He wāhi nui tōna i roto i ngā nekeneke a Ngāi Tūhoe. Ko te kōrero a Rua, koia te Mihāia, te tangata hei whakakī i te tūranga o Te Kooti. Kia tae ki te tau 1907, ka whakatūhia e ia tōna hapori ki Maungapōhatu, te maunga tapu o Tūhoe. Kīia ai e ia ko Hiruhārama Hōu.

Ko ngā tohutohu a Rua, kia aweke ki te riri, kia tū motuhake. I ngana a ia ki te whakatuwhera i ngā mahi tauhokohoko, ahuwhenua ki te iwi. Ka whakatūhia he pēke, ka titiro a ia ki te keri maina. Ki tā te tumu kōrero ki tā Judith Binney, ‘I roto te iwi i te pōuri, te tūpuhi, kāore he huringa mō rātou. Ka haere mai a Rua ka hiki o rātou wairua. He aha te hē o tēnā?’ 1

Ki te titiro a te Pākehā, he kino ngā mahi a Rua, arā, tana hoko waipiro me tana kore e whakaae kia haere ana tāngata ki te pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. I te tau 1916 ka whakaeke ngā pirihimana ki runga i Maungapōhatu ki te mauhere i a ia. Nā te aha rā, ka raruraru. I te pakūtanga o ngā pū, e rua ngā Māori i mate, ko te tama tonu a Rua tētahi. Ka mauherehia, a Rua me ētahi atu, ka kawea ki Tāmaki-makau-rau ki reira whakawāngia ai e te kōti. Ka whiua a Rua e te kōti, kia kotahi tau te whakataumaha i a ia, mutu ana tērā, kia 18 marama anō a ia ki te whare herehere.

Nō Āperira 1818 ka puta a Rua i te whare herehere, ka hoki a ia ki Maungapōhatu. Nā te whakaekenga o ngā pirihimana, ngā whakawātanga i te kōti, te mauhere o Rua me ētahi o ana tāngata, te nui o te utu mō ngā rōia, kua kahakore tana hapori. Koinei te paheketanga o Rua me tana whakapono. Ka mate a ia i te tau 1937. Kei Matahī a ia e takoto ana.

Footnotes
  1. Judith Binney, Mihaia. Auckland: Auckland University Press/Bridget Williams, 1987, p. 189. › Back

Future challenges

E hoki ki ō maunga
Kia purea koe e ngā hau a Tāwhiri-matea.

Ngāi Tūhoe i ēnei rā

I te tau 2013 e 34,890 te nui o te taupori o Ngāi Tūhoe. Nā reira ko Tūhoe tētahi o ngā iwi āhua nui. E 5,000 te tokomaha o Ngāi Tūhoe e noho ana i te rohe pōtae. Ko te nuinga o te iwi kei ngā tāone nui me ngā tāone pātata ki Te Urewera – a Murupara, a Rotorua, a Whakatāne, a Ōpōtiki, a Tūranga, a Te Wairoa. He wero nui tēnei ki te iwi, arā, kia pupuri ki tō rātou Tūhoetanga. Kei te kaha ngā taura here o Tūhoe i ngā tāone nui pēnei i a Tāmaki (Te Tira Hōu), a Te Whanganui-a-Tara (Tūhoe-ki-Pōneke), a Kirikiriroa (Te Hono-a-te-kiore). Hokihoki ai ngā uri ki ngā kāinga mō ngā tangihanga, rā whānau, mārena, hura kōhatu, ngā hui marae, aha atu. He iwi kaha a Tūhoe ki te kōrero i te reo Māori; e ai ki ngā tatauranga o te tau 2013, e 37% te nui o te iwi ka taea te kōrero Māori. Koinei te tatauranga nui rawa o ngā iwi.

I tēnei wā kei te huri haere Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi i ngā hapori o Te Urewera, ki te whakarongo ki ngā kerēme me ngā tono a ngā whānau, hapū, iwi mō ngā mahi hē a te Karauna i roto i ngā tau tatū rawa ki ēnei rā. Ahakoa ngā tūmanako a te iwi, kāore te Karauna mō te whakahoki i ngā whenua kei roto i Te Rohe Tāpui ā-Iwi o Te Urewera i tēnei wā.

Te Hui Ahurei a Tūhoe

I ngā tau toru tekau ki mua, ka tipu te māharahara ki ngā pākeke me ngā kaumātua o Ngāi Tūhoe mō ā rātou tamariki mokopuna e nuku ana ki ngā tāone nunui ki te rapu mahi, kei ngaro i a rātou te reo me ngā tikanga o Ngāi Tūhoe. Ka whakarite rātou me whakatū hui te iwi ia rua tau hei kukume mai i ā rātou tamariki ki te wā kāinga kia rongo ai rātou i te mahana o te matemateāone.

I te tīmatanga o te tekau tau atu i 1970, ka tū te hui tuatahi a Ngāi Tuhoe. Whāia, ia rua tau, ka tū te hui ahurei ki tētahi o ngā kāinga o Ngāi Tuhoe. He kapa haka, he tautohetohe, he hākinakina, he whakaaturanga hoahoa ētahi o ngā kaupapa. He wā tēnei ki te tūtakitaki i ngā hoa me ngā whanaunga. Neke atu i te e 25,000 ngā uri ka rauhī mai mō ngā rā e toru. Ka tū ēnei hui hei ngā rā o te Āranga.

Te wāhi nui ki Te Urewera

He wāhi nui a Te Urewera ki te iwi o Ngāi Tūhoe. Kei te noho tonu ōna uri i runga i ō rātou whenua i roto i te rohe; kei te whai tonu i ngā tapuwae me ngā tikanga tuku iho a ō rātou mātua, tīpuna. Kei te tautoko te iwi i ētahi take whakaora manu ki roto i wao. Kei Waikaremoana i te tonga e whakahaerehia ana tētahi kaupapa whakaora i te kiwi; kei Te Waimana i te raki e whakahaerehia ana tētahi kaupapa whakaora i te kōkako. Kua pakari i roto i ngā tau te haere o ētahi umanga ārahi wae tāpoi (tūruhi) ki te wao. Ko te nuinga o te iwi kei raro iho i te 25 te pakeke. E anga atu ana te titiro ki ngā tuwheratanga hei tau kei te tū, me te pupuri i ngā taonga a ngā mātua, tīpuna.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Ngāi Tūhoe (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ko 1901 te tau whakamutunga rawa i pātaihia ai te Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou. Heoi kāore i pātaihia kia whakatakotohia ngā iwi maha.

  • tatauranga o 1901: 1,094 (ko Urewera te whakatakoto i roto i te tatauranga)
  • tatauranga o 1991: 24,522
  • tatauranga o 2001: 29,259
  • tatauranga o 2006: 32,670
  • tatauranga o 2013: 34,890

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Moana a Toi: 11,127
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 6,228

 


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Rangi McGarvey, 'Ngāi Tūhoe', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/ngai-tuhoe/print (accessed 18 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Rangi McGarvey, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 1 Mar 2017