Skip to main content
Logo: Te Ara - The Online Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Print all pages now.

Canoe traditions

by  Rāwiri Taonui

I ngā wā o mua ko te whakapono i tae te Māori ki Aotearoa i roto i tētahi kahupapa nui. E mōhiotia nei e tātou i tēnei rā he maha ngā hekenga mōrearea a ngā waka i heke mai i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Kei ngā kōrero tuku iho ngā whakapapa hono i ngā uri ki ngā rangatira, ki ngā iwi o ngā waka e 40 te tokomaha, atu i te waka o Kurahaupō ka tau ki te hiku o te ika, tae atu ki a Te Uruao ka tau ki Te Wai Pounamu. Kei ngā kōrero nei te āhuatanga o ngā tohu mō te taenga mai o ngā tīpuna o te iwi Māori ki Aotearoa.


The meaning of canoe traditions

Kei roto i ngā kōrero tuku iho ngā whakamārama mō te taenga mai o te Māori ki Aotearoa mai i te wāhi e kārangahia ai, ko Hawaiki. Ka pā ngā kōrero nei ki te tārai waka, ngā rīriri i mua i te wehenga, ngā whakawhitinga i te moana uriuri, ngā ūnga, ngā hōparatanga ki uta ki tai, tae atu ki te whakatūnga o ngā papakāinga ki ngā whenua hōu.

Me mārama, ko te nuinga o ngā kōrero tuku iho nō roto mai i ngā puka i ahu mai i te ariā o Te Tāruru Nui (Te Nōhanga Nui). E ai ki te ariā nei nā Kupe te whenua nei i hura i te tau 925 AD i tana haerenga mai i Tahiti. Ā, ka whai muri mai ko Toitehuatahi i te tau 1150 AD; nō te tau 1350 AD ka tae mai ngā tūpuna o ngā iwi Māori ki Aotearoa mai i Tahiti me Rarotonga, mā runga i ngā waka e whitu. Nā ngā rangahau a David Simmons rāua ko Keith Sorrenson i whakaatu kei te hē te ariā nei. Nā runga i ngā mātauranga o ēnei rā pērā i te radiocarbon (he tikanga pūtaiao hei whakarite pēhea te pakeke o tētahi mea) e whakaae ana te nuinga, i nōhia a Aotearoa e tētahi iwi nō te taha rāwhiti o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. He maha ngā waka i whakatika mai i ngā kaupeka katoa o te tau; i tae mai ngā waka tuatahi ki Aotearoa i te takiwā o te rau tau 1200.

Te hunga whakamōmona kōrero

Hua mai ana te ariā o Te Heke Nui i ngā mahi a Te Mete [Stephenson Percy Smith], he kaimātai momo tangata, rāua ko Hoani Te Whatahoro Jury, he pūkenga o te ao Māori. Nō tana haerenga ki Rarotonga me Tahiti i te tau 1897, ka mārama a Te Mete ki ngā kōrero o reira. Ko tā Te Whatahoro, he kōrero mō ngā waka Māori i Aotearoa. Kātahi ka ‘tāpaea’ e Te Mete ngā kōrero, e whenumi ai ngā kōrero tuku iho ki ētahi kōrero hōu. I whakaputaina ā rāua kōrero ki ētahi pukapuka e rua, The lore of the whare-wananga me Hawaiki. I hē tā rāua whakapae nā Moihi Te Mātorohanga rāua ko Nēpia Pōhūhū te nuinga o ngā kōrero i ngā pukapuka nei i tuku.

He āta titiro ki ngā kōrero tuku iho

Kei te haere tonu ngā tautohetohe mō te tika o ngā kōrero tuku iho. E ai ki a Te Mete mā, he tika ngā kōrero rā, i runga i te whakaaro ko te kupu ‘waka’ e kōrero ana mō tētahi waka kawe tāngata mai i tāwāhi. Heoi, kāore e whāiti te kōrero tuku iho ki reira anake, i te mea he kōrero huna, he tohu kei roto mō ētahi mea noa atu. E kī ana ētahi kōrero tuku iho, e iwa putu (e 2.7 mita) te tāroaroa o ētahi o ngā tūpuna a te Māori, ko ētahi tūpuna i rere i te rangi, i kauhoe i te wai, i eke taniwha rānei kia tae mai ki Aotearoa. He kupu whakarite te waka a Aoaonui mō te whānautanga mai o te tamaiti ki te ao; ko ngā waka a Rangikēkero rāua ko Rangitōtohu he kupu whakarite mō ngā waka kawe i te hunga mate ki te okiokinga i Te Ao Wairua.

Heoi, arā anō ngā whakaaro o ētahi pērā i a Margaret Orbell e mea ana, he mea whakakotahi noa iho te kōrero tuku iho i te iwi, hei whakaara ake hoki i te tuakiri o te iwi, ehara i te mahinga tūturu. Engari kāore te ariā nei e whai whakaaro ki ngā taunaki hītori, pērā i te ōrite o ētahi ingoa tohu whenua a te Māori ki ērā o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ka whakahē te tumu kōrero a James Belich i ēnei ariā e rua. Ko tāna, he pono tonu kei roto i ngā kōrero tuku iho ahakoa kua hurihia te nuinga hei pūrākau.

Ngā heke i roto i Aotearoa

E ai ki ngā pūkenga pērā i a David Simmons, tērā pea ko te tokomaha o ngā kōrero mō ngā hekenga a ngā waka e kōrero ana mō ngā heke mai i tētahi wāhi i Aotearoa ki tētahi atu wāhi i Aotearoa. E ai ki a Roger Duff rāua ko Janet Davidson, hei ia hekenga o ngā tūpuna a ngā Māori ka heria ā rātou kōrero ki tēnā moutere, ki tēnā moutere o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa. Nā reira tērā pea e puritia ana kei ngā kōrero tuku iho o ngā waka ngā kōrero mō ngā haerenga ki roto o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, te hekenga mai o ngā waka ki Aotearoa, te huringa haerenga hoki o ngā waka tōmua i Aotearoa nei. Mēnā koinei te mea tika kāti, kua mārama te take i whenumi ai ngā kōrero tika ki ngā kōrero pūrākau i roto i ngā kōrero tuku iho.

Kōrero tuku iho mō ngā waka

Nāwai rā, ka whai wāhi ngā kōrero tuku iho mō ngā waka ki te tuakiri o te Māori. Mā te whakapapa ki ngā waka ka toitū ngā mana o ngā iwi ki runga i te whenua, ka taea hoki ngā hononga i waenganui i ngā iwi. Hei tauira, he maha ngā iwi ka hono ki a Tainui, ko ētahi iwi pērā i a Te Arawa ka tapaina ki tō rātou waka. Ina tū ana he tangata ki runga marae, kāore e kore ka whakahuatia e rātou tō rātou waka i te tīmatanga o tā rātou whaikōrero.

Nā reira kāore ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā waka e kōrero mō te takenga mai o te Māori anake, engari ka whakapuaki i te mana, te tuakiri, ngā whenua, ngā hononga hoki o te tangata. Ka nūmia te mōteatea ki te tōrangapū, te hītori ki te pūrākau, te kōrero tika ki te kōrero noa.


Canoes of the northern tide

Kurahaupō

Ko Pōhurihanga te rangatira, ko Kurahaupō te waka, ko Ngāti Kurī o Muriwhenua te iwi. Ko tōna ūnga ko Takapaukura, e pātata ana ki Te Rēinga. Ka moe a Pōhurihanga i a Maieke, ka noho ā rāua tamariki ki Kapowairua, te whanga o Pārengarenga, me Murimotu.

Ngātokimatawhaorua rāua ko Māmari

I muri i te hokinga a Kupe ki Hawaiki mā runga i a Matawhaorua, ka tāraitia anōtia te waka, ka whakaingoatia e tōna rangatira hōu e Nukutawhiti, ko Ngātokimatawhaorua. Ka whai ngātahi mai ko Māmari i raro i a Ruanui. Nō te ūnga ki Hokianga ka waihangahia e ngā rangatira nei ō rāua whare wānanga. Ka oti tōna whare, ka tomokia e Ruanui, ka mahue te tatari kia oti tō Nukutawhiti whare. Whai atu ko te pakanga mākutu, ā, ka karakia ngā tohunga a Ruanui kia pae he tohorā nui ki uta. Ka karakia ngā tohunga a Nukutawhiti, kia puta taua tohorā ki waho ki te moana. Ka pau ngā karakia a Ruanui, ka hiki te iwi o Māmari ka wehe i te takiwā o Hokianga. Ka ū a Māmari ki Ōmāmari, me Whāngāpē, kei reira tonu ngā uri o Ruanui i ēnei rā. E maumaharatia ana te pakanga mākutu nei ki te ingoa o Hokianga-whakapau-karakia. He waka nui a Ngātokimatawhaorua me Māmari ki a Ngāpuhi rātou ko Te Rarawa, ko Te Aupōuri.

Tinana rāua ko Te Māmaru

Ko Tinana te waka matua o Te Rarawa me Ngāti Kahu. Nō muri ka whakaingoatia anōtia te waka ko Te Māmaru. Ko Tūmoana tōna kaihautū, ka pae mai te waka ki te pito o Tauroa, e pātata ana ki Ahipara. Ka hoki te waka ki Hawaiki, ka tapaina ko Te Māmaru e Te Parata, te irāmutu a Tūmoana. Kātahi ka hoki mai te waka ki Muriwhenua. Ko te maunga o Pūwheke te whenua tuatahi kia kitea e te iwi, e tū ana ki te kūrae o Karikari. Kātahi ka tere te waka ki Rangiāwhiao me Whatuwhiwhi i mua i te ūnga ki Te Ikateretere, e tata ana ki te pūaha o Taipā. Ka moe a Te Parata i a Kahutiaterangi, te tipuna taketake o Ngāti Kahu.

Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi

Ko Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi te waka nui o Ngāti Whātua. E noho ana tēnei iwi i Kaipara, kei waenganui i ngā rohe o Hokianga me Tāmaki-makau-rau. E ai ki te kōrero, nō muri i ngā pakanga whenua ka heke a Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi mai i Waerota, i Waeroti, i Mata-te-rā hoki. Ko ngā kai o runga i te waka ko te uwhi, ko te kūmara, ko te taro. I ū a Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi ki te taha rāwhiti o Te Tai Tokerau ka toro i te takutai ki Whangaroa, ki Tākou, ki Whangaruru. Kei ētahi o ngā kōrero e kī ana i āmio te waka i Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi me Te Tai Rāwhiti i mua i tōna hokinga ki Pārengarenga. Atu i konei ka huri te waka i Te Rēinga ka piki i te tai hauāuru o Te Tai Tokerau.

E ai ki te iwi o Te Roroa o Waipoua, ko Whakatau te kaihautū o te waka o Māhuhu ka ū ki Kawerua. Ka moe a Rongomai te tama a Whakatau, i a Takarita, he tangata whenua. Ko Te Pukenui-o-Rongo tō rāua pā, i tū ki runga ake i te tauranga o Māhuhu.

E ai ki te kōrero a Te Uri-o-Hau rāua ko Te Taoū (nō Ngāti Whātua o Awaroa me Tāmaki), ko Rongomai te rangatira o Māhuhu; ka ū te waka ki Tāporapora, he moutere i tū i ōna rā ki te kūrae o Kaipara. Nāwai rā, ka aituā a Rongomai i tētahi haerenga ki te hī ika. Ka kainga tōna tinana e te araara me te tāmure, ka ākina e ngā toka i Waikāretu. Taka rawa ki ēnei rā e mōhiotia ana tēnei takiwā, ko Te Ākitanga o Rongomai. E ai ki ētahi kōrero i hoki a Māhuhu ki te whanga o Rangaunu i te raki, ka tanumia ki tētahi manga, ko Te Waipopo-o-Māhuhu te ingoa.

Mataatua

He tino kaha ngā pānga o Mataatua ki Te Moananui-a-Toitehuatahi. Nō te tau 1986 ka whakakotahi mai ngā iwi e rua o ngā takiwā nei. E ai ki a Ngāpuhi i mua i te haerenga o Mataatua ki Te Tai Tokerau ka ū te waka ki Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. Nō muri i te wehenga i Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi ka huri te waka mā Te Rēinga ki te tai hauāuru kia tau ki Hokianga. Mai i Hokianga ka tōia te waka ki Kerikeri kia tau ki ngā wai o Tākou. Ko ētahi atu kōrero e mea ana i tōia te waka mā Te Waka Tō i Tāmaki-makau-rau kia puta ki te tai hauāuru. Kei ētahi kōrero a Ngāpuhi e kī ana, i tau tuatahi a Mataatua ki te raki, nō muri kē ka heke ki Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. He kōrero anō e mea ana ko Puhi rātou ko Wahineiti, ko Miru ngā kaihautū o tēnei waka. Ko Miru te tangata i huri āmio i Te Ika-a-Māui mā runga i a Mataatua.


Other northern canoes

Tākitimu, Riukakara, Waipapa, Ruakaramea

E ai ki ngā iwi o Muriwhenua i tau a Tākitimu ki Awanui i Kaitāia; ko Tamatea te tangata o runga. E ai ki ngā iwi o Kaipara i tau anō a Tākitimu ki reira. He maha ngā awa o taua takiwā i whakaingoatia mō ngā tāngata o runga i te waka - a Tamatea, a Kahukuranui, a Ruawharo, a wai atu. Ka tau a Riukakara ki Mangonui; ko Pāoa te tangata o runga. Ko Ruakaramea anō tētahi waka i ū ki Mangonui, ko Moehuri rāua ko tana tama a Tukiato ngā kaihautū. Ko Kaiwhetu rāua ko Wairere ngā kaihautū o Waipapa, ka ū ki te kūrae o Karikari.

Tūnui-ā-rangi, a Moekākara, a Te Wakatūwhenua

Tūnui-ā-rangi te iwi o Ngāi Tāhuhu i mau ki Aotearoa. E kī ana te kōrero ko Motu-kōkako ki roto o Pēwhairangi te wāhi i tau mai ai te waka nei. Atu i reira ka pakaru whakatetonga te waka mā te ākau ki Ngunguru, ki Whāngārei. Ka toro a Ngāi Tāhuhu i te mata o te whenua ka noho i ngā whenua atu i Tāmaki ki Rākau-mangamanga.

E rua ngā kōrero mō te waka nei a Moekākara. E ai ki tētahi i ū mai te waka nei ki te moutere o Te Kawau e pātata ana ki Mahurangi, koinei te taenga mai o ngā tūpuna o te iwi o Te Kawerau ki te rohe nei. Ko tētahi atu kōrero e kī ana ko Manaia kē te rangatira o te waka, ka ū ki Rākau-mangamanga; koinei te take i tau mai ai a Ngāti Manaia ki ngā whenua i waenganui o Rākau-mangamanga me Whāngārei. Arā anō te kōrero e kī ana ko Manaia te rangatira o te waka o Ruakaramea.

I ū mai a Te Wakatūwhenua ki Cape Rodney, takiwā ki Mangawhai. Ko te kōrero, i te mate ngā tāngata o runga, ko te whakapae, i te pāngia rātou ki te mate tūwhenua (leprosy).

Te Tō Waka

E 200 mita te whenua kūiti e wehe ana i te awa o Tāmaki me ngā wai o te whanga o Manukau ki Tāmaki. I mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā, koinei te tō waka whakahirahira rawa atu, i te mea koinei te tuwheratanga atu ki te tai hauāuru. Ka taea anō te haere ki Waiuku ka tō i ngā waka kia taka atu ki te awa o Waikato, ki te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ko ērā waka ka whiti mā te uru ka haere mā te awa o Tāmaki ki roto o Te Waitematā. Kei tua atu i konei ko Whāngārei i te raki me te kūrae o Moehau i te rāwhiti. Arā anō he huarahi mō ngā waka ki Riverhead, kei te taha whakarunga o Te Waitematā, ā, whakawhiti atu i tētahi tō waka kia taka iho ki roto i te whanga o Kaipara. Atu i konei ka taea a Hokianga, a Pēwhairangi, a Whāngārei hoki mā te taha raki o te awa o Te Wairoa. E ai ki te kōrero, i kūmea katoatia a Matahourua (a Matawhaorua rānei), te waka o Kupe, a Aotea, a Tainui, a Mataatua, a Tokomaru i Te Tō Waka.


Canoes of the Bay of Plenty

Mataatua, Te Aratāwhao, Hīnakipākau-o-te-rupe

I tua atu i ōna pānga ki Te Tai Tokerau, he pānga anō ō Mataatua ki Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. E ai ki te kōrero, ka tae mai a Hoaki rāua ko Taukata i Hawaiki mā runga i te waka a Hīnakipākau-o-te-rupe. Ko tā rāua ka heri mai he kao kūmara. Ko ēnei kai ka hoatuna mā Toi, tētahi o ngā kaitoro nui, taketake ake hoki o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ka tonoa e Toi a Tama-ki-hikurangi kia haere ki Hawaiki kia tiki i te kūmara mā runga i te waka a Te Aratāwhao. Ka noho atu a Tama i Hawaiki, ka whakahokia mai te kūmara ki Aotearoa e Toroa rātou ko tana teina a Puhi, ko tana tuahine a Muriwai, ko ana tamariki a Wairaka rāua ko Ruaihona mā runga i te waka a Mataatua. Ka ū te waka ki Whakatāne. He pērā te whakaingoa i taua wāhi i muri i te mahi a Wairaka, a Muriwai rānei ki te whakaora i te waka o Mataatua, i maunu atu i tōna tauranga. Ka whakapuakina e te wahine rā aua kupu rongonui, ‘Kia whakatāne au i ahau!’

Ko ngā uri o Mataatua i toitū ki te rohe. Ka tū mai ngā uri o Wairaka, o Awanuiarangi, o Tūhoe-pōtiki hei rangatira nui mō Ngāti Awa rāua ko Tūhoe. Ko Muriwai te tipuna whakahirahira o Te Whakatōhea. Nā te whawhai a Puhi rāua ko Toroa mō ngā mahinga ka wehe atu a Puhi me te waka ki Tākou i Te Tai Tokerau. Ko Puhi tētahi o ngā tīpuna nui o te iwi o Ngāpuhi.

Tīwakawaka rāua ko Māku

Ko Te Aratauwhāiti te waka, ko Tīwakawaka te kaihautū. Ko ia tētahi o ngā waka tōmua i ū ki Whakatāne. Ko rātou o runga e maumaharatia ana ko Haumianui, te wahine a Tīwakawaka, ko ana teina ko Toi-kai-rākau me Hīrawe, ko ētahi atu kaihoe ko Māku, ko Areiawa, ko Turuturu, ko Tokomauku, ko Hīmoki. I tapaina ētahi toka kei te pūaha o te awa o Whakatāne mō rātou. Nā te iwi nei te pā o Kaputerangi i waihanga i runga ake i te tāone o Whakatāne. Kei ētahi atu kōrero e kī ana i tae a Māku mā runga i tētahi atu waka, i mua rānei, i muri rānei o Tīwakawaka.

Ētahi atu waka e whitu

He kōrero anō mō ngā waka e whitu nei i Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi:

  • Ko Tamatea te tangata o runga i a Tākitimu; ko ia te tipuna o Ranginui, te tipuna taketake o Ngāti Ranginui o Tauranga.
  • Ko Te Paepae-ki-Rarotonga te waka, ko Waitaha-ariki-kore te rangatira. I ū te waka nei ki Matatā.
  • Ko Te Rangimātoru te waka, ko Hape-ki-tū-matangi-o-te-rangi te tangata. I ū te waka nei ki Te Moana-a-Tairongo (Ōhiwa). Koinei te waka tipuna o ngā iwi o Te Hapūoneone rāua ko Ngāi Tūranga.
  • Ko Arautauta te waka, ko Tarawa te tangata. E rua ngā taniwha ka whai mai ki tōna taha ki Aotearoa. I pae te waka ki Waiōtahe, kei waenganui i Ōpōtiki-mai-tawhiti me Te Moana-a-Tairongo (Ōhiwa). Nō tana ūnga ka purua e Tarawa ana taniwha ki roto i tētahi puna, ka whakaingoatia ko Ōpōtiki-mai-tawhiti. I muri mai ka hiki ia ki te awa o Mōtū i te tuawhenua, ki reira tūtaki ai, moe ai i a Manawa-ki-aitu; ka noho rāua hei tīpuna nui mō te iwi o Te Whakatōhea.
  • Ko Ōtūrereao te waka, ko Tairongo te rangatira o runga. I pae tēnei waka ki Ōhiwa. Arā anō te kōrero ko Taikehu kē te rangatira o te waka.
  • Ko Tauira te waka, ko Mōtatau-mai-tawhiti te tangata. I ū te waka nei ki Te Kaha i te taha rāwhiti o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. Ko ēnei tāngata ngā tīpuna o ngā iwi o Te Panenehu rāua ko Te Whānau-a-Apanui.
  • Ko Tūwhenua te waka, ko Tamatea-mai-tawhiti te tangata. Nō Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi anō tēnei waka.

Tāwhirirangi

Ko Tāwhirirangi te waka o Ngāhue. I tau a Ngāhue ki Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi kātahi ka toro haere ki ngā takiwā o Aotearoa. E ai ki ngā kōrero ko Ngāhue te tangata tuatahi kia kite i te pounamu me te moa ki Te Wai Pounamu. Nō tana hokinga ki Hawaiki ka mauria e ia ētahi toki pounamu hei hahau i ngā waka rongonui ka heke ki Aotearoa ā tōna wā.


Te Arawa and Tainui

Te Arawa

Ka tipu te raruraru i waenganui i a Houmaitawhiti rātou ko ana tama a Tamatekapua rāua ko Whakatūria ki a Toi rāua ko Uenuku mō ngā mahinga kai, ka wehe mai a Te Arawa i Hawaiki. Nō te matenga o Whakatūria ka wehe atu a Tamatekapua me tōna iwi mā runga i a Te Arawa. Nāna i kāhaki a Whakaotirangi, te wahine a Ruaeo, he rangatira nui. Kia puta atu ki te moana, ka tahuri a Tama ki te raweke i te wahine a Ngātoroirangi (Ngātoro). Hei utu ka meatia e Ngātoroirangi te waka kia totohu ki Te Korokoro-o-te-Parata. Ka pukuaroha atu a Ngātoroirangi ki ngā tangi o te iwi, ka tukuna e ia kia ora. E ai ki ētahi nā tētahi arawa (momo mango) te iwi i puta i te mate. Nō muri mai ka whakahuahia ai te waka, ko Te Arawa.

Nō te ūnga o te waka ki Whangaparāoa ka pōhēhē a Taininihi he kura ngā hua o te rātā me te pōhutukawa e kānapanapa mai rā ki tātahi. Ka porowhiua e ia tōna ake hutukawa. Ko ngā takiwā i haerea e Te Arawa ko Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi, ko Moehau, ko Tāmaki. Ko Maketū i Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi tōna tauranga otinga.

Arā anō ngā tīpuna o Te Arawa i takahi i ngā huarahi ki uta. Ka haere rā a Īhenga rāua ko Kahumatamomoe ki Rotorua, ki Waikato, ki Whāingaroa, tae atu ki ngā whanga o Manukau, o Kaipara hoki; i mātaki rāua i te rohe o Pēwhairangi i mua i te hokinga ki Maketū. Mā te tai rawhiti rāua hoki ai. Ko Ngātoro rāua ko Tia ka kuhu whakaroto ki te moana o Taupō. Ka tae a Tia ki te ngahere o Pureora, ka kake i te maunga o Tītīraupenga; ka piki a Ngātoro ki te tihi o Tongariro. Ka tata mate a Ngātoro i te anuanu me te mātaotao. I tana karanga atu ki ana tuāhine kia tukua he ahi hei whakamahana i a ia, ka wera ngā takiwā atu i Whakaari ki Tongariro.

Ka toitū ngā uri o Hei rātou ko Waitaha, ko Tapuika ki Maketū. Mātoro katoa atu ngā tamariki a Rangitihi ki ngā takiwā o Rotorua. Ko ngā uri o Ngātoro i noho tonu ki Taupō, ā, ka ngaro tō rātou tuakiri ki roto i te iwi o Ngāti Tūwharetoa.

Tainui

Ko Tainui te waka, ko Hoturoa te tangata. I te ūnga o te waka ki Whangaparāoa, i reira anō a Te Arawa. Nō te paenga o te parāoa ki reira ka tapaina taua wāhi ko Whangaparāoa. Ka tahuri ngā iwi rā ki te taunaha i te parāoa rā, ōna kiko, āna kōiwi, ōna rei, hei kai, hei taonga, hei whao, hei rākau patu tangata. Arā anō te kōrero e mea ana, nā tētahi o ngā iwi nei, nā rāua tahi rānei ā rāua taura i wera kia tūturu ake te āhua ki ngā taura o tētahi, e taea ai e tētahi te taunaha i te ika nā te tawhito o te taura e here ana i te parāoa.

Ka tere a Tainui atu i Whangaparāoa ki Tōrere, ki Tauranga, ki Moehau me Tāmaki. Kei ngā wāhi ka tū te waka, ka makere ētahi tāngata. Ka ū te waka ki Te Haukapua (Torpedo Bay) e tūtata ana ki North Head i Tāmaki-makau-rau, ka piki whakarunga mā te awa o Tāmaki ki Ōtāhuhu. Mā Te Tō Waka ka taupae atu te waka ki roto i te whanga o Manukau. Ka puta atu te waka i Manukau ki te tonga mā te tai hauāuru. Ka makere ētahi o ngā kauhoe ki Whāingaroa me Mōkau i mua i te tāpuketanga o te waka ki Te Ahurei kei Kāwhia Moana. E rua ngā toka e tohu ana i tōna takotoranga whakamutunga.

E ai ki ngā kōrero i whakarerea te tohunga a Rakataura ki Hawaiki, ā, i ū mai ia ki Aotearoa mā runga i tētahi taniwha; ko ētahi e kī ana i hīkoi mai ia i raro i te whenua. Ko te āhua nei, he maha ngā tautohetohe i waenganui i a Rakataura rāua ko Hoturoa. Tērā te kōrero i riri a Hoturoa ki a Rakataura nā te whākitanga o tērā i ngā mahi pūremu a tana wahine a Marama me tētahi ware. Arā anō te kōrero i ngana a Hoturoa kia kaua e moe tana tamāhine a Kahurere ki a Rakataura. E ai ki tētahi anō kōrero, i te hahautanga o te waka, ka patua a Kōwhitinui, te tama a Rakataura, ka tāpukehia a ia ki ngā maramara o te waka.

Ngā Māhanga a Tuamatua

E kī ana te kōrero he ingoa tawhito a Ngā Māhanga a TuamatuaTainui rāua ko Te Arawa. Nā Tā Āpirana Ngata te korero, he waka hourua kē ngā waka nei, ko Hoturoa te rangatira o tētahi takere, ko Tamatekapua te rangatira o tētahi takere. E ai ki a Ngata, nō te taenga pea o te waka ki Aotearoa ka wāhia ngā takere o te waka kia wehe. E tautokohia ana te ariā nei e te maha o ngā ōritenga i ngā kōrero tuku iho. He tupuna whakahirahira a Tuamatua, nō Tamatekapua rāua tahi ko Hoturoa. Kei ngā kōrero o ngā waka e rua a Ngātoroirangi e kōrerohia ana, tae atu anō ki a Whakaotirangi me tāna kete kūmara. Kōrero ai a Te Arawa mō ‘te kete-rokiroki-a-Whakaotirangi”; ka kōrero kē ngā iwi o Tainui mō ‘te-kete-rukuruku-a-Whakaotirangi’. Arā anō ngā kōrero mō te tohorā i pae ki Whangaparāoa, me te whakareretanga o ngā kura ki te moana. E whakapae tonu ana ngā taha e rua nei nā rātou a Mumuhou rāua ko Takeretou i waiho ki te moutere o Repanga. He ōrite anō ngā tau whakatere i ngā waka nei.

Tōtara-i-kāria rāua ko Aotearoa

E ai ki te kōrero, nā Ngātoroirangi te waka a Tōtara-i-kāria i whakahoki ki Hawaiki, ka pakanga ki a Manaia i Ihumotomotokia me Whatatiri. Ka patua e ia a Manaia, ka hoki ia ki tōna pā i Mōtītī i Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. Heoi anō, ka tae mai ki Aotearoa ngā waka e kawe ana i ngā mōrehu o te iwi o Manaia e ranaki ana i ō rātou mate. Ka karakia a Ngātoro, ka kino te moana, ka whakangaromia taua iwi ki te pō. He waka tawhito a Aotearoa i arahina e Mokotōrea, ka tau ki Aotea i mua i te ūnga o Tainui ki reira.


Canoes of the East Coast

Nuku-tai-memeha, Nukutere me Paikea

E ai ki a Ngāti Porou, ko te waka a Māui, ko Nukutaimemeha tō rātou waka taketake. E ai ki ngā tikanga, e noho huripapa ana a ia ki runga o Hikurangi.

Ko Whironui te tipuna tuatahi kia tae mai mā runga i tōna waka a Nukutere. Ko Whiro (ki Hawai’i, ko Hilo, ki Tahiti ko Hiro, ki Rarotonga ko Iro) te kaihōpara rongonui rawa o te pito rāwhiti o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ko Araiara tana wahine. Ka moe tā rāua tamāhine a Huturangi i a Paikea. Ka tae mai a Paikea mā runga i te tohorā. I te wā e heru ana a Uenuku i ngā makawe o ana tama i te whakarewanga o tō rātou waka hōu, ka nanao ia ki te heru tapu hei heru i ngā makawe o Kahutiaterangi (Paikea). Kia tae mai ki tērā o ana tama a Ruatapu, ka mea atu a Uenuku mā Ruatapu tonu e kimi heru hei heru i ōna makawe, i te mea he tama meamea noa iho a ia. Ka mate a Ruatapu i te whakatakariri, ka werohia e ia he puare ki tō rātou waka ka whakapurua. Nō te putanga atu o tō ratou waka me ana teina ki waho ki te moana, ka tangohia e ia te puru, ka kī te waka i te wai, ka taupoki. Ko Paikea (Kahutiaterangi) anake te mōrehu.

Ka taki a Paikea i ana karakia ki ngā kaitiaki o te moana kia manaakitia ia. Ka tae mai he tohorā, ka kawea ia ki te moutere o Ahuahu (Great Mercury Island). Atu i konei ka rere ia ki Whakatāne, tau rawa atu ki Whāngārā, ki roto o Te Tai Rāwhiti. Ka moe a Paikea i a Huturangi, te tamāhine a Whironui kia puta ngā tīpuna taketake o Ngāti Porou. E kī ana te kōrero, kua hurihia te tohorā nāna a Paikea i kawe mai ki Aotearoa hei toka kei waho i te one o Whāngārā.

Horouta

Ko Toi te tangata tūhura whenua o Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa; ko ia te rangatira o tēnei waka. I tētahi rā ka tae mai he manuhiri nō Hawaiki, ko Kahukura tōna ingoa. He kao kūmara tāna. Kāore anō te tangata whenua kia kai i tēnei kai te kūmara. Nō konei ka tono a Toi kia hoki a Kahukura ki Hawaiki mā runga i a Horouta ki te tiki i te kūmara. Ka riro mai ngā kūmara, ka tonoa e Kahukura a Pāoa (Pawa rānei) hei rangatira mō te waka i tōna hokinga ki Aotearoa.

Ka ū te waka ki Ahuahu (Great Mercury Island), ka heke a Kanawa ki te tiki aruhe mā te iwi. Ka ranua e ia te aruhe ki te kūmara. He hapanga nui tēnei, i te mea he kai rangatira te kūmara, kāore e pai kia kīnakitia ki tētahi atu kai. Waihoki ka porowhiua a Kanawa ki te moana ki waho o Whakatāne. I konei ka tuki a Horouta i te tāhuna, ka whati te haumi. Ka tōia te waka ki uta. Ka whakatika a Pāoa me tōna iwi ki te kimi i tētahi rākau tika hei tapitapi i te waka. Ko Awapaka mā ka haere ki te hopu manu hei kai mā te hunga e whakatikatika ana i te waka. I noho a Rangitūroua mā ki te waka.

Ka kitea e Pāoa he rākau tōtika i tētahi maunga, ka tapaina ko Maunga Haumi. Nā te pāpaku o ngā kōawa hei whakatere i ngā rākau ki te moana, ka mimi a Paoa kia rere ngā awa o Waioeka, o Waikohu, o Waipāoa, o Mōtū. Ka whakatikangia te waka, ka huri āmio i te Whanga-o-Kena (East Cape) kia tae ki Tūranganui. Ka hīkoi a Awapaka rāua ko Pāoa mā raro ki Tūranganui. Ko tētahi atu o runga i te waka, a Hinekauirangi i hīkoi mā Ōhiwa ki te kōawa o Tapuwaeroa, ki Tūranganui i te tonga. Ko ngā uri o tēnei waka ko Ngāti Ruapani, ko Rongowhakaata, ko Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki, ko Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti.

Tākitimu

He maha ngā takiwā e mōhiotia nei te waka a Tākitimu. E kī ana ngā kōrero o ngā iwi o te taha raki o Te Tai Rāwhiti, ko ngā taupatupatu i waenganui i ngā iwi o Uenuku, o Ruawharo me Tūpai, te take i wehe ai a Tākitimu i Hawaiki. E kī ana te kōrero ka kahakina a Tākitimu e Ruawharo rāua ko tana teina a Tūpai i te hoariri, ka rere ki Aotearoa. Ko Ruawharo te kaihautū me te tohunga o te waka. Ka tau te waka ki Whanga-o-Kena (East Cape) i Te Tai Rāwhiti. Nō muri mai ka whanake te waka ki Nukutaurua; ka makere iho ngā tāngata i reira. Ka noho a Ruawharo ki Te Māhia, ka haere a Puhiariki ki Muriwhenua, ko ētahi ka haere ki Tauranga.

Ki tā ngā iwi o Te Tai Rāwhiti ki te tonga, nā ngā tautohetohe mō ngā māra kai, a ‘Tawarunga’ rāua ko ‘Tawararo’ ka wehe a Tākitimu i Hawaiki. Ko Whāngārā te wāhi i tāraitia ai te waka. Ko Tamatea Arikinui tōna kaihautū. Ka ū te waka ki Tauranga ka makere a Tamatea. Nā ētahi atu te waka i whakatere ki Te Tai Rāwhiti; ka whakarerea he tāngata ki te awa o Waiapu, ki Ūawa, ki Tūranganui, ki Nukutaurua (Te Māhia), ki Te Wairoa, ki te awa o Mōhaka, ki Pōrangahau hoki. Nō muri ka hīkoi a Tamatea ki Te Māhia, ki Tūranganui ki te taunaha i te whenua.

E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau me Tauranga, kotahi anake te tipuna nei a Tamatea; kei ngā kōrero tuku iho a Ngāti Kahungunu e mea ana he mokopuna tā Tamatea Ariki Nui, ko Tamatea–pōkai-whenua, pōkai-moana. I a ia ka noho ki Kaitāia, ka whānau mai te tama a Tamatea-pōkai-moana, ko Kahungunu. Ko ia te tipuna taketake o Ngāti Kahungunu.


Canoes of the west coast and lower North Island

Tokomaru rāua ko Tahatuna

Kei ngā kōrero tōmua o Taranaki e mea ana, i tipu mai te riri ki Hawaiki nō te raweketanga o Rongotiki, te wahine a Manaia e te rōpū mahi huata a Tūpenu. Ka patua e te iwi o Manaia ngā kaimahi rā, ka riro i a Manaia te waka a Tokomaru, ko Rākeiora te tohunga. Ka tae te waka ki te pito rāwhiti o Te Ika-a-Māui, ka whakahipa i Te Rēinga, ka whakawhiti rānei i Te Tō Waka i Tāmaki-makau-rau, ka rere ki Tongapōrutu i Taranaki.

He kōrero anō tā Taranaki e kī ana ko Manaia te rangatira o te waka a Tahatuna, ko Whata te rangatira me te kaitārai o te waka a Tokomaru. Ko Rākeiora rāua ko Tama-ariki ngā kaiurungi, ka ū te waka ki te awa o Mōhakatino. Ko Tama-ariki te tipuna taketake o Ngāti Tama. I te matenga o Rākeiora, ka whakanuia a ia hei atua mō te kūmara.

Kurahaupō

E kī ana ngā iwi o Taranaki, ko Te Moungaroa te rangatira o te waka a Kurahaupō. Ka tuki te waka i Hawaiki, i Rangitāhua rānei. Ka mauria ngā kauhoe ki Aotearoa mā runga i a Mataatua me Aotea. E ai ki te iwi o Rangitāne, ko Whātonga kē te rangatira o tēnei waka, ā, ko Te Māhia te wāhi i tuki ai te waka. E whakaae ana a Ngāti Apa i ū te waka ki Te Māhia, engari ko Ruatea kē te rangatira. I haere a Whātonga i tana haerenga roa atu i Te Māhia ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, whakawhiti i Te Moana-o-Raukawa ki te tauihu o te waka a Maui, piki i te tai hauāuru ki te awa o Rangitīkei. He kōrero anō mō tēnei waka kei Te Tai Tokerau.

Aotea me Te Rīrino

Nā ngā kōwhetewhete i waenganui i a Turi me Uenuku, ka wehe te waka o Aotea i Hawaiki. Ka mauāhara a Uenuku mō te koha i tukuna e Turi ki a ia, ka patua e ia a Pōtikiroroa te tama a Turi. Hei utu, ka patua e Turi a Awepōtiki, te tama a Uenuku, ka tunua tōna manawa, ka kohahia ki a Uenuku, ka kainga e tērā. Nō tana mōhio ko tana tama tērā i kainga e ia, ka whakaara a Uenuku i tana ope taua hei kōkiri i a Turi. Ka riro mai i a Turi a Aotea, te waka o tōna hungarei a Toto, ka wehe atu ki te moana. Ka whai atu a Te Ririno ki tōna taha. Ka ngaro a Te Ririno ki Te Moana Tāpokopoko a Tāwhaki. Ka ū a Aotea ki Hawaiki-iti, he kokori kei te whanga o Aotea, kei te taha raki o Kāwhia.

I te ūnga mai, ka whakarerea te waka, ka hīkoi te iwi ki te tonga. Ko ngā awa me ngā kōawa i kite rātou ka tapaina ki ngā mahi a Turi i te haerenga nei. Kia tae a Turi me tana tira ki te awa o Pātea, ka tau te iwi nei. Ka rumaki kūmara a Rongorongo, te wahine a Turi ki konei. Ka moe tana tamāhine a Tāneroroa i a Uenuku-puanake, ka noho ō rāua uri ki te taha raki o te awa o Pātea. I tōna wā, ka tū rātou ko Ngāti Ruanui. Ka nōhia e ngā uri o tana tama a Tūranga-i-mua te awa o Pātea ahu atu ki Waitōtara i te tonga me te awa o Whanganui; i reira ka taka rātou ki raro i a Ngā Rauru. Ko te whakataukī rongonui o tēnei waka inā, ‘E kore e ngaro te kākano i ruia mai i Rangiātea’. Ko te whakapono koinei te moutere o Rangiātea e pātata atu ana ki Tahiti, e kōrerotia nei.

Kahutara, Taikōria, Ōkoki

Arā anō tētahi kōrero o Taranaki e mea ana, i tau mai ētahi o ngā iwi tōmua o Aotearoa i ngā waka e toru ka ū ki Ngāmotu, arā a Kahutara, a Taikōria, me Ōkoki. Ko Maruiwi rātou Ruatāmore, ko Taitāwaro ngā rangatira. Ka maumahara anō ki ngā rangatira a Pohokura (te teina a Taitāwaro) rātou ko Panenehu, ko Tāmaki. Ka mōhiotia ngā uri o ngā waka nei ko Te Tini-o-Maruiwi, ko Te Tini-o-Ruatāmore, ko Te Tini-o-Taitāwaro, ko Te Tini-o-Te Panenehu, ko Koaupari, ko Te Wīwini.

Pangatoru, Motumotuahi, Te Rangiuamutu, Te Wakaringaringa, Te Kōhatuwhenua

E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā iwi o Ngāti Ruanui me Ngā Rauru, e rima atu ngā waka me ō rātou rangatira; arā ko:

  • Rākeiwānangaora nō runga i a Pangatoru
  • Puatautahi nō runga i a Motumotuahi
  • Tamatearokai nō runga i a Te Rangiuamutu (ko Tairea anō tētahi o ōna ingoa)
  • Māwakeroa nō runga i a Te Wakaringaringa
  • Taikehu nō runga i a Te Kōhatuwhenua.

Canoes of the South Island

Mānuka me Ārai-te-uru

Ka hoki a Mānuka ki Hawaiki ki te tiki i te kūmara. Ahakoa i riro mai he kūmara kīhai ngā kōpura i tipu nā te mātao o Te Wai Pounamu.

E kī ana te kōrero nā Roko, (Rongo-i-tua rānei) tētahi momo kūmara i mau mai i Hawaiki mā runga i te waka a Ārai-te-uru. Heoi, ka totohu, ka tahuri te waka ka taka ētahi o ngā kauhoe ki te moana. E whā ngā ngaru nui i tuki i te waka, ko aua ngaru e tū ana hei puke ki te pae maunga o Pakihiwitahi i te raki o Ōtākou. Ka taka ētahi o ngā kūmara ki Kaihīnaki me Te Whatapāraerae, e mōhiotia nei i ēnei rā, ko ngā toka o Moeraki (Moeraki Boulders). Ka pakaru a Ārai-te-uru ki Matakaea i te tonga, ka huri hei tāhuna.

Uruaokapuarangi

Ko Uruaokapuarangi (Uruao) te waka, ko Rākaihautū te tangata o runga. Ka whai mai tana wahine a Waiariki-o-āio rāua ko tana tama a Rakihouia i a ia. Ko Whakatū te wāhi i ū mai te waka nei. Nō te ūnga o te waka, ka heke a Rākaihautū me ētahi atu ka ahu ki te tonga mā te tuawhenua. I a ia ka haere, ka keria e ia ngā roto o Te Wai Pounamu (ko Rotoiti me Rotoroa) ki tana kō, ko Tūwhakarōria te ingoa. Arā anō ngā roto i hangaia e ia ki tana kō – a Pūkaki, Ōhau, Tekapō ki te taha tonga o Waitaha, a Wānaka me Hāwea i Ōtākou, a Wakatipu me Te Ānau ki Murihiku. Nō tana taenga ki Te Ara-a-Kiwa (Foveaux Strait) ka haere a Rākaihautū mā te takutai o te taha rāwhiti o Te Wai Pounamu, he tūhura whenua te mahi.

I taua wā anō e whakatere ana a Rakihouia i a Uruao mā te taha rāwhiti o Te Wai Pounamu ki te tonga. Ko tana mahi he taunaha i te whenua. Ko tōna ingoa mō ngā paripari i Kaikōura, ko Te Whatakai-a-Rakihouia. Ka poua ana pou ki ngā pūaha i te takutai o Waitaha, hei tohu ki tōna mana ki runga i ngā mahinga tuna, ko Kā Poupou-o-Rakihouia ērā. Ka tūtaki a Rakihouia ki tōna matua, ka heke rātou ki Horomaka (Banks Peninsula), ka poua e Rākaihautū tana kō ki tētahi puke (ko Pūhai), ka tapaina anōtia ko Tuhirangi. Ka noho ō rātou uri ki ngā raorao o Waitaha, ka whakaingoatia taua takiwā, ko Kā Pākihi-whakatekateka-a-Waitaha.

Tākitimu rāua ko Kāraerae

He kōrero anō kei Te Wai Pounamu mō Tākitimu. Ka haere a Tamatea ki Te Tai Poutini kia kite i aua whenua. Ka pakaru te waka ki Te Waewae i te pito tonga o Te Wai Pounamu; i ēnei rā, kua huri te waka hei pae maunga, ko te pae maunga o Tamatea. He kōrero anō e mea ana, nō te pakarutanga o Tākitimu, ka hangaia anō e Tamatea he waka hōu, ko Kāraerae. Koinei te waka i hoki ai a Tamatea ki Te Ika-a-Māui.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Rāwiri Taonui, 'Ngā waka tere moana', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-waka-tere-moana/print (accessed 14 December 2019)

He kōrero nā Rāwiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005