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Ngā waewae tapu – Māori exploration

by  Rāwiri Taonui

He nui ngā kōrero a te Māori mō ngā hōparatanga me ngā taiāwhiotanga i te whenua o Aotearoa. I huri taiāwhio ngā tangata tōmua i ō rātou waka i te takutai o ngā moutere o Aotearoa. Nāwai a, ka tīmata ētahi te hīkoi ki uta, ka taunaha i ngā awa, ngā pae maunga, me ki, ngā tohu o te whenua.


Exploration traditions

Ka ū ngā Māori ki Aotearoa, ka huri āwhio i te takutai i ō rātou waka. Nō muri ka hīkoi ki te tuawhenua.

Ngā kōrero a ngā iwi

Kei ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori ngā mahinga nui a ngā kaihōpara. Whakamārama ai ēnei kōrero i ngā tapatapa whenua me ngā taunaha whenua.

Ko ētahi o ngā kōrero tuku iho mō te tipuna kotahi me āna haerenga. Ko ētahi kōrero ka whakahāngai i ngā taunahatanga whenua o ēnei rā ki ngā wā onamata. Ka whakapae ētahi iwi, mā konei whai mana ai te noho ki runga i te whenua. Hei ētahi wā kei tēnā iwi, kei tēnā iwi he whakamārama mō te pito whenua kotahi, e aha ai, e mana ai te noho. Hei tauira, e rua ngā kōrero mō te tapa i te tihi o Te Aroha i te pae maunga o Kaimai. Ko tētahi kōrero e mea ana nā Kahupekapeka o Tainui i taunaha Te Aroha-o-Kahu, whai muri i te matenga o tana tāne. Heoi, arā anō te kōrero nā Kahumatamomoe o Te Arawa kē i taunaha.

Ka neke ana he iwi ki rohe kē, kawea ai ā rātou tikanga, ā rātou kōrero tuku iho. Koirā pea te take he rite ngā kōrero kei ētahi rohe mō tētahi waka kotahi, ehara i te mea kapi katoa ai te whenua i te waka kotahi te taunaha.

Ngā tohu i te taiao

Kei roto i ngā kōrero tuku iho ngā auahatanga a ngā kaihōpara i te taiao. Inarā nā ngā ahi i kawea mai e āna tuāhine a Ngātoroirangi i whakaora i te kakenga i te maunga o Tongariro.

Arā anō ngā kōrero mō ngā tūpuna i auaha i te whenua, i whakatō rānei i te kai. Hei tauira, nō te mīinga a Pāoa te rangatira o runga i a Horouta, ka rere ngā awa; nā Tamatea ngā kōura ki te awa o Moawhango. Mā ēnei kōrero ka nui atu ai te mana o te iwi ki tōna rohe.

Ngā haerenga a ngā tipua

E ai ki te kōrero, he tipua ētahi o ngā tūpuna heke. Hei tauira, he māhanga a Reitū rāua ko Reipae, i eke manu ka rere atu i tō rāua kāinga i Waikato ki Te Tai Tokerau. Ko ēnei momo kōrero eke manu tāwhana whenua hei whakamārama i ngā whenua kāore he pānga o ngā uri.

Te tangata, te whenua

Tērā ngā kōrero tuku iho mō te hanumitanga o te tangata me te whenua. Hei tauira, tērā ētahi motu i Te Whanganui-a-Tara, a Matiu rāua ko Mākaro. E ai ki te kōrero, i ngā rā onamata he tamāhine rāua nā Kupe.


Coastal explorers

Kupe

Tino nui te tū a Kupe hei kaihōpara ki Aotearoa.

He maha ngā kōrero a ngā iwi o te raki mō Kupe. E ai ki a Ngāti Kurī, ko te kitenga tuatahitanga a Kupe i a Aotearoa, ko te maunga o Houhora; ka pōhēhē a Kupe he tohorā ke. Ko te kōrero a Ngāti Kahu, nā Te Aukānapanapa a Kupe i ārahi kia tau ki te take o te maunga o Whakarārā i te whanga o Matauri i Te Tai Tokerau. Kei te mau tonu ana a Te Aupōuri rāua ko Te Rarawa ki te kōrero i ū mai a Kupe ki Te Hokianga.

E kī ana a Ngāpuhi nā te rama o Te Ramaroa a Kupe i taki ki roto o Te Hokianga. Ka noho tana iwi ki ngā takiwā o Kohukohu, o Te Pouahi, o Whānui, o Pākanae, o Whirinaki. Ko te kōrero a ngā iwi o te raki, i hoki a Kupe ki Hawaiki mai i Hokianga – inarā te ingoa ake, a Te Hokianga-a-Kupe.

E ai ki ngā iwi o Hauraki i tae a Kupe ki Moehau, ā, kei reira ngā ingoa whakamahara pērā mōna i a Taputapu-ātea me Te Whitianganui-o-Kupe. Ko tā Ngāti Ruanui, i tae a Kupe ki te pūaha o te awa o Pātea. E ai ki Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi, ka ū te tipuna rā ki te ngutuawa o te awa o Whanganui, ki te wāhi kīia ai ko Te Kaihau-a-Kupe.

Ngā waka hōpara

I te taenga ki Aotearoa mai i Hawaiki, ka huri āwhio ētahi o ngā waka i te takutai.

Tainui rāua ko Te Arawa

I haere ngātahi a Tainui me Te Arawa i Whangaparāoa atu i te rāwhiti o Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi ki te kūrae o Whangaparāoa, kei te raki o Tāmaki-makau-rau. Ka whakawhiti a Tainui i te tō waka i Tāmaki-makau-rau kia tapotu ki te tai hauāuru, ki reira hōpara haere ai i waenganui i ngā whanga o Manukau me Mōkau. Ka hoki a Te Arawa ki Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi ka ū ki Maketū.

Horouta rāua ko Aotea

Ka hoe a Horouta ki Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi ka huri i te Whanga-o-keno kia ahu atu ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. I hoe a Aotea i te whanga o Kaipara me te awa o Tāmaki ka ū ki te whanga o Aotea i Te Tai Hauāuru. I reira ka hīkoi te iwi ki te tonga kia tae ki te pūaha o te awa o Pātea.

Mataatua

Ka torotoro haere a Mataatua i te takutai kei waenganui i Whakatāne i Te Moana-a-Toi, tae rawa atu ki Tākou kei Te Tai Tokerau. E ai ki ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau ko Puhi te kaihautū, ā, i ū te waka ki reira i te tuatahi. Heoi, arā ngā iwi o te takiwā o Whakatāne me tā rātou whakapae, ko Toroa kē te rangatira, ko Whakatāne te ūnga o te waka. He kōrero anō hoki kāore i te nui te rongohia e kī ana, ko Mirupōkai te tangata o runga i a Mataatua, i huri āwhio te waka i Te Ika-a-Māui me Te Wai Pounamu.

Kurahaupō

Puritia ai ngā kōrero mō Kurahaupō ki Te Tai Tokerau, ki Taranaki, ahu atu ki ngā takutai ki te tonga o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ka whakapae ētahi, e toru kē ngā waka tapaina ai ki te ingoa Kurahaupō. Ko ētahi e kī ana i tae te waka ki ngā takiwā e toru nei. Tērā pea i ū a Kurahaupō ki tētahi wāhi ake, nō muri ka kawea te kōrero ki rohe kē.


Northern explorers

Tōhē

He rangatira a Tōhē o Ngāti Kurī. Noho ai te iwi ki Maunga Piko i Kapowairua i te hiku o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ka kaumātua a Tōhē, ka puta tōna whakaaro kia kite i tana tamāhine kotahi a Rāninikura, i moe i te tāne nō Kaipara i te tonga. Nā tōna kaumātua, ka īnoi te iwi kia kaua ia e haere. Ko te whakautu a Tōhē, 'Whakarua i te hau e taea te karo, whakarua i taku tamāhine, e kore e taea te karo.'

Ka haere a Tōhē i tōna haerenga. Neke atu i te 100 ngā wāhi nāna i taunaha i te tai hauāuru o Te Tai Tokerau. Heoi, ka mate a Tōhē ki ngā pari i Maunganui, i mua i tana kite i tana tamāhine. Ka tū tonu ngā ingoa nāna i taunaha hei maharatanga mō Tōhē. Ko ngā ingoa rongonui rawa ko Te Oneroa-a-Tōhē me Kapowairua, mō tana kupu ōhākī ki tōna iwi.

Nukutawhiti rāua ko Ruanui

I te hokinga o Kupe ki Hawaiki, ka tāraia houtia tōna waka a Matawhaorua. Ka tapaina e tōna kaihautū hōu e Nukutawhiti, ko Ngātokimatawhaorua. Nānā te waka i whakahoki ki Hokianga, i te taha o Māmari, ko Ruanui te tangata o runga. Ka tau a Mamari ki Ōmāmari me te whanga ki Whāngāpē.

He nui ēnei waka ki ngā iwi o Ngāpuhi, o Te Rarawa, o Te Aupōuri.

Hineāmaru

Ko Hineāmaru te tipuna nui o Ngāti Hine. Ka hau te rongo ki ngā tōpito o Te Tai Tokerau mō tana hīkoi atu i Waimamaku i Te Hokianga ki Waiōmio i Pēwhairangi. Ka haere rātou ko tōna iwi mā uta - Waimā, Te Hāwera (Mataraua i ēnei rā), Awarua, Tautoro, Pouerua, Ngāwhā, Mōtatau, kia tatū rawa ki Waiōmio. Ka moe a Hineāmaru i a Koperu, ka whānau tā rāua tama hauā ko Whē. Nō muri, ka marara te aitanga a Whē ki ngā puke e ahu atu ana ki Whatitiri me Whāngārei i te tonga. Nō konei whakamaua ai te ingoa ki te iwi, a Ngāti Hine-pukerau.

Rāhiri

Ehara i te mea kotahi anake te kōrero i tukuna ihotia mō te kaihōpara nei a Rāhiri. Kātahi tētahi haerenga roa rawa atu ko tā Rāhiri; atu i te hiku o Te Ika-a-Māui ki Tāmaki-makau-rau (ka tapaa e ia a Maungawhau [Mt Eden] mō te mahi a te rākau whau), ka haere whakatetonga ka whakawhiti i te paeroa o Kaimai. E ai ki te kōrero, i reira ka tapaa a Te Aroha, hei maharatanga i ōna whanaunga o Te Tai Tokerau, tae atu ki Te Moana-o-Toitehuatahi. Ka takahi haere a Rāhiri mā te takutai kia tae ki Tauranga, ki Whakatāne, huri rawa ki Horoera, Wharekāhika, Waiapu, Tūpāroa, Tawhitiroa, Tokomaru, ū ai Tūranganui-a-Kiwa i Te Tai Rāwhiti. Atu i konei, ka haere ia ki te tonga mā Te Wairoa, mā Ahuriri kia tae rawa atu ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara. I konei, ka huri tōna tira ki te raki, mā Taranaki me Kāwhia i Te Tai Hauāuru.

Kātahi tētahi haerenga nui ko tēnei. Whai anō ka hau te rongo mō tēnei tipuna taketake o Ngāpuhi i Te Tai Tokerau, o Ngāti Rāhiri-tumutumuwhenua i Hauraki, o Ngāti Ruanui me Ngāti Rāhiri i Taranaki (ko Rāhiri-pakaraka tōna ingoa ki reira).


Tainui and the Waikato

Rakataura rāua ko Kahurere

Ko Rakataura te tohunga i runga i a Tainui. E ai ki tētahi kōrero, i te wehenga o Tainui i Te Māhia, ka whakarērea a Rakataura ki reira. Kātahi ka ruku a Rakataura mā raro i te whenua kia ea ake ki Kāwhia i Te Tai Hauāuru, i mua noa atu i te taunga o Tainui ki reira.

Tērā anō te kōrero, i te ūnga o Tainui ki Tāmaki-makau-rau, ka tono a Rakataura ki te rangatira a Hoturoa mō tana tamāhine a Kahurere hei wahine māna. Kāore i whakaaetia tana tono. Whāia, ka rere a Rakataura ki te tonga mā Te Tai Hauāuru, ka tahutahu ahi ki te pūaha o te awa o Waikato, ki Whāingaroa, ki Aotea, ki Kāwhia hei aha, hei aukati i te waka tērā ka kuhu.

Ka haere te wā, ka tau te rangimārie i waenganui i a Hoturoa me Rakataura. Ka ū a Tainui ki Kāwhia, ka moe a Kahurere i a Rakataura. Ka huri āwhio te tokorua nei i ngā rohe o Waikato, pikitia rawatia ngā maunga o Pirongia, o Kakepuku, o Hākarimata, o Pureora, o Puke-o-Kahu (ka mate a Kahurere ki konei), tae rawa ki Te Aroha i te paeroa o Kaimai. Ka moe a Rakataura i a Hinemarino ki Te Aroha.

Kahupekapeka

He tipuna a Uenga nō ngā iwi o Tainui. Ka mate ia, ka haere, ka taunaha tana pouaru a Kahupekapeka me tā rāua tama a Rakamaomao i ngā rohe maha o Waikato. Ka mahue te kāinga i Kāwhia, ka toro mā te raki-mā-rāwhiti, ka kake i te maunga Te Pirongia-o-Te Aroaro-o-Kahu. Haere tonu ana, ka kite i tētahi maunga ka tapaina e ia ko Te Kakepuku-o-Kahu. Whāia, ka takahi atu te tokorua rā ki roto o Hauraki ka pikitia te tihi teitei rawa o tērā takiwā. Tapaina ai e ia taua maunga ko Te Aroha-o-Kahu hei maimai aroha mō Uenga me tō rāua kāinga. Nō konei ka huri te ara o Kahu ki te tonga, ka taunahatia ngā pae maunga e toru; Te Whakamaru-o-Kahu, pātata ki te awa o Waikato; Te Hurakia-o-Kahu, kei te uru o te moana o Taupō; Te Rangitoto-o-Kahu, pātata ki Te Kūiti. Ka mate a Kahupekapeka ki Te Puke-o-Kahu, kei waenganui i a Rangitoto me Pureora.


Te Arawa explorers

Ngātoroirangi rāua ko Tia

I tae a Ngātoroirangi rāua ko Tia ki Aotearoa mā runga i te waka a Te Arawa, i ū ki Maketū rā i Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. Taro ake, ka takahi rāua ki te tonga, ki ngā rohe i te puku o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ka haere a Tia mā te uru, ka whai i te awa o Kaituna ki te tāhuna o Mamaku, kia tae ki Ātiamuri me Te Aratiatia i te awa o Waikato. Ka haere tonu, ka mātaki atu ia i ētahi paripari ka rite ki tōna korowai taupō te āhua. Nā reira ka tapaina e ia taua wāhi ko Te Taupō-nui-a-Tia. Ka hipa te wā, ka noho koirā te ingoa o taua moana.

Ka huri āwhio a Tia i te moana. Nō muri ka noho a ia ki Tītīraupenga i te ngahere o Pureora.

Te ara o Ngātoroirangi

Ka wehe a Ngātoroirangi i Maketū i Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi, ka ahu ki te rāwhiti. Kia tae ki te awa o Tarawera, ka tapaina anōtia e ia, ko Te Awa-a-te-atua. Kātahi ka toro whakauta ia ka kake ki runga o Ruawāhia, tērā o ngā tihi o Tarawera kei te pito raki. Whāia, ka hīkoi ia i te mānia o Kāingaroa tae atu ki ngā tahataha o te awa o Waikato, mā reira ki te tihi o Tauhara, ki reira mātakitaki ai i te moana o Taupō me te maunga o Tongariro e rehurehu mai rā i te tonga.

Te auahatanga i ngā waiariki

Ka pikitia e Ngātoroirangi te maunga o Tongariro. I te pikinga, ka rongo te tohunga rā i ngā naku o te tonga, ka karanga i āna tuāhine i Hawaiki kia tukua mai te ahi whakamahana, ‘Kua riro ahau i te hau tonga’ – no konei te ingoa o te maunga o Tongariro. Heoi, ka tukuna te ahi e ngā tuāhine, ka pupū ake ki Whakaari, ki Moutohorā, ki Rotorua, ki te maunga o Tarawera, ki te ika whenua o Paeroa, ki Ōrākei Kōrako, ki Tokaanu, kātahi anō ka tae ki Tongariro, ka ora a Ngātoroirangi.

Kahumatamomoe rāua ko Īhenga

He tama a Kahumatamomoe nā Tamatekapua, rangatira o runga i a Te Arawa. I ū mai rātou ko tana irāmutu a Īhenga mā ki Maketu. Nāwai ā, ka toro rāua ki uta ka taunaha i ētahi roto, Te Rotoiti-kite-a-Īhenga me Te Rotoruanui-a-Kahumatamomoe. Whai muri iho, ka haere rāua ki Te Tai Tokerau kia kite i ngā tuākana o Īhenga, a Taramainuku, a Warenga, a Huarere.

Ki Waikato, ki Te Tai Tokerau

Ka haere whakatetonga te tokorua rā kia tae ki te awa o Waikato i te wāhi tapaa ai e rāua, ko Te Whakamaru-o-Kahumatamomoe. Ka ahu tō rāua ara ki Whāingaroa i te uru, ka whai i te takutai ki te raki. Ka tapaina e rāua te whanga o Manukau, ko Te Mānuka, i te mea ka poua e Kahumatamomoe he pou hei kokoraho i te takiwā. Taihoa, ka tae rāua ki Poutō, e tata ana ki te pūaha o te awa o Wairoa i Kaipara. Ka tapaina e Kahumatamomoe te whanga ko Te Kaiparapara-a-Kahumatamomoe, mō te momo kai nei te kaipara nā Taramainuku i hora ki mua i tō rāua aroaro.

Ko Kahumatamomoe anake

Ka tae ki te wā, ka wehe a Kahumatamomoe, ka mahue iho ko Īhenga ki Poutō. Ka tere te waka o Kahu ki te tonga, mā ngā awa o Kaipara me Kumeu, ka whakawhiti i Te Waitematā kia tae ki Moehau, ki te kāinga o Huarere, tērā o ngā tuākana o Īhenga. Ka kake a Kahu ki te tihi o te maunga teitei rawa o te paeroa o Kaimai, ka tapaa e ia ko Te Muri-aroha-o-Kahu, te aroha-tai, te aroha-uta, hei maimai aroha ki ōna uri o Rotorua, o Taupō, o ngā tai o te raki, tae rawa ki Moehau.

Ka haere tonu a Īhenga

Ka wehe a Īhenga i te whanga o Kaipara, ka piki i te awa o Wairoa, whakawhiti ana i te whārua o Mangakāhia me te mānia o Waimate, kia tae ki Kawakawa i Pēwhairangi, ki te kāinga o tērā o ōna tuākana a Warenga. Ka taunahatia e Īhenga ētahi wāhi o te takiwā, pērā i a Ruapekapeka, i a Mōtatau. Whāia, ka huri te ara o Īhenga ki te tonga ki Whāngārei. I reira ka piki ia i tētahi maunga i te wā e papā ana te whaitiri; tapaina ihotia e ia taua maunga ko Whaitiri. Ka hoki atu a Īhenga i Whāngārei ki Moehau, tatū rawa atu ki Maketū.


Western North Island

Turi

Ka ū te waka o Aotea ki te koko iti o Hawaiki-iti, kei te whanga o Aotea i Te Tai Hauāuru. I reira ka heke, ka hīkoi a Turi me tōna iwi ki te tonga mā te takutai i Taranaki. I te ekenga i te puke i Aotea, ka kite, ka tapaa e Turi te whanga nui o Kāwhia, ko Te awhinga o Turi. Ka tapaa e ia te whanga i tua atu ko Marokopa, i te takokitanga o tana waewae i te kakenga i tētahi hiwi poupou. Whāia, ka tapaa e ia ngā awa o Moekau (te wāhi i whakanā a Turi), o Urenui, o Waitara, o Mangatī (mō te rahi o te tī). Ko te awa whakamutunga ka tapaina e ia ko Te Pāteanui-a-Turi (mō tōna korowai rahi).

Ko Tūranga-i-mua, ko Pōtiki-roa, ko Tāneroroa ngā tamariki a Turi. Nōhia ai e rātou ngā rohe i ngā tahataha o te awa o Pātea, kia hua ai ngā iwi o Ngāti Ruanui, o Ngā Ruahine, o Ngā Rauru.

Haunui

He tipuna a Haunui nō ngā iwi o Aotea me Kurahaupō. I pūremutia ia e tana wahine a Wairaka. Ka rere te wahine me te nanakia rā, ko Haunui kei te aru i ō rāua tapuwae. I tana haerenga, ka tapaina e Haunui ētahi awa i te pito tonga o te uru: ko Whanganui (mō te rahi me te hōrapa o taua awa); ko Whangaehu (mō te waikohu ka rere i te maunga o Ruapehu), ko Rangitīkei (ka taea te hīkoi inā pāpaku), ko Manawatū (i oho te manawa o Haunui nā te kaha o te ia me te hōhonu o te wai); ko Ōhau (tapaa mōna anō); ko Waikanae (mō te nui o te kanae).

Tae rawa atu ki Pukerua, ka mau te tokorua rā, ka hurihia e Haunui hei toka tū ki te moana. Kātahi ka kake a Haunui i te ikawhenua o Tararua, tapaina ai e ia ko Te Pae-a-Whaitiri. Ka tū ia ki te tihi, ka kite a Haunui i tētahi roto e mira mai rā, ka tapaa ko Te Wairarapa. Nō konei ka eke ia i te unahiroa, ka hoki ki tōna kāinga i te raki.

Matanginui

He tipuna a Matanginui o ngā iwi o te Rangitīkei. I toro ia i ngā whenua i waenganui i a Te Wairarapa me Taihape. Ko te take o tana hōpara haere, he whai i tētahi pōkai manu. Ka whai haere a Matanginui i te pōkai manu rā ki te raki, atu i te awa o Ruamāhanga i Te Wairarapa, whai haere i te taha rāwhiti o te pae maunga o Tararua kia tae ki Pāhiatua. I reira ka whakawhiti i te pae maunga mā te ara kīia ai i ēnei rā ko te ara o Pāhiatua, kia tae ki Aokautere (tata ki te whare wānanga o Pūrehuroa – Massey University i ēnei rā). Kātahi ka huri tana haere ki Tāhuna-a-rua (tata ki Te Papa-i-ōia). Ka hāngai tana ara ki Te Aorangi, ki Pūrākau, tae atu ki te ngahere o Te Rākauhou. Ka whai haere tonu a Matanginui i te kāhui manu rā i te taha mauī o te awa o Rangitīkei. Ka moea te pō ki Te Whakamoetakapū (te arawhiti rerewē o Kākāriki i ēnei rā). Ka poua tana rākau ki Tokorangi, he puke kei te tonga o te kōmititanga o te kōawa o Waituna ki te awa o Rangitīkei. Ka rukuhia tētahi āpiti, ka rongo a Matanginui i ngā manu rā i runga i tētahi hiwi nana i tapa ko Parorotangi. Waihoki, ka whakatangi e Matanginui tana pūtōrino i tētahi hiwi nāna i tapa ko Pūtōrino (kei waenganui i a Hunterville me te awa o Rangitīkei.

Taea rawa te tihi o Rangitoea (tonga-mā-rāwhiti o Taihape), kua pau te hau o Matanginui. Heoi, kua pau hoki ngā hau o ngā manu rā, kīhai e taea te whitirere. Ka hopukina, ka patua aua manu e Matanginui me āna tamariki. Whaia, ka nōhia te whenua e te whānau rā, ka moemoe ki roto o Ngāti Apa me Ngāti Hauiti.

Ka hipa te wā roa, ka hoki a Matanginui ki Te Wairarapa kia kite i ōna uri. Ka whakawhiti ia i te pae maunga o Ruahine i te tihi o Hikurangi, ka whai i ngā tarahanga o Rangi, o Waipawa. Ka tae ki te pārae o Waipawa i te rāwhiti, ka tapaa e ia te pae maunga o Whakaara (Whakarara i ēnei rā). I konei ka huri ia ki te tonga, ka hoki ki Te Wairarapa.


The Bay of Plenty

Tāneatua

Ko Tāneatua te tuakana o Toroa, te rangatira o runga i a Mataatua. Ko Tāneatua tonu te tohunga i a Mataatua. Ka ū te waka ki Whakatāne, ka heke, ka haere a Tāneatua kia torotoro ki ngā whenua ki uta, ki te wao nui o Te Urewera. Ka tīmata āna hīkoi katoa i te puke o Ōtarahioi, kīia ai ko Te Kurī-a-Tāneatua. Kitea tonutia ai tēnei puke kei waenganui pū i te tāone o Tāneatua.

Te hīkoi tuatahi

I tana haerenga tuatahi ki roto o Te Urewera, ka piki a Tāneatua i te awa o Ōwhakatoro, tae rawa atu ki tōna pūkaki; tapaina ai e ia ko Te Waipōtiki-a-Tāneatua. Whāia, ka toro i te awa o Whakatāne, tapaina ai e ia ko Hinemataroa, mō tōna hoa wahine. He maha ngā wāhi nāna i tapa i te awa, pērā i Ngā Māhanga-a-Tāneatua (ngā kōawa o Kānihi me Ōhora). Ka waiho e Tāneatua te puhi o Mataatua ki Pūrākau, ka whakatūria he kāinga ki ngā tahatika o te kōawa o Tāneatua. Ka tae rā anō ia ki te tihi o Whakataka i te pae maunga o Huiarau. Ka pikitia e Tāneatua a Maungapōhatu i mua i te hokinga ki Ōtarahīoi.

Te hīkoi tuarua

I tana haerenga tuarua, ka piki a Tāneatua i te awa e mōhiotia nei i ēnei rā ko Te Waimana, tapaina ai e ia ko Tauranga. I konei ka huri, ka whai a Tāneatua i te kōawa o Waiiti ki te rāwhiti, kia tae ki tētahi tāhuna nāna i tahu kia wātea ai mō te whakatipu aruhe. Ka tapaina e ia taua wāhi ko Te Wera-a-Tāneatua. Ka whakanōhia e ia he kaitiaki, he tipua ki ngā awa, ngā kōawa, ngā wairere nāna i kite.


Wairarapa and Wellington

Kupe

E ai ki ngā kōrero mai te iwi o Te Āti Awa, ka hōpara a Kupe i Te Tai Hauāuru o Te Ika-a-Māui, atu i Tāmaki-makau-rau i te raki ki Te Moana-o-Raukawa i te tonga. Ko te kōrero a ngā iwi o te tonga o Te Ika-a-Māui, i ū a Kupe ki te pito raki o te takutai ki Te Wairarapa, ka toro mā te tonga kia tae ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, whakawhiti ki te tauihu o te waka a Māui. Ka tapaina e Kupe ētahi toka i te pito tonga rawa o te takutai o Te Wairarapa, ko Te Mātakitaki-a-Kupe, i te mea ka kite atu ia i a Tapuae-o-Uenuku, te maunga teitei rawa ki te pae maunga o Kaikōura.

Nāwai ā, ka kuhu a Kupe kia torotoro i ngā tahatika o Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ka tapa i ngā moutere o Matiu me Makaro mō āna tamāhine. He toka kei te pūaha o Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ko Te Ure-o-Kupe.

Whātonga

Ko Whātonga te rangatira i runga i a Kurahaupō, i ū mai ki Te Māhia. Ka torotoro ia i te takutai o Te Wairarapa me te tauihu o te waka a Māui, kātahi ka hoe ki te raki mā te tai hauāuru. Ka tae ki te pūaha o te awa o Manawatū, ka heke a Whātonga i te waka, ka hīkoi whakarunga i te awa rā, kia whakawhiti i te pae o Tararua, kia tae ki Tāmakinui-a-Rua. Ka tapaina e Whātonga tēnei takiwā ko Te Taperenui-o-Whātonga.

Tara rāua ko Tautoki

Ka moe a Whātonga i a Hotuwaipara kia puta ko Tara-ika ko Tara-nohu rānei (nā te tū o te ringaringa o tōna whāea ki te tara ika). Nō muri ka whānau mai tana teina a Tautoki, ko Reretua tōna whāea. Ko Tara te tipuna o Ngāi Tara, i noho ki ngā rohe o Te Whanganui-a-Tara me te tauihu o te waka a Māui.

Kia hoki ki a Tautoki. Nā Tautoki ko Rangitāne, te tipuna taketake o te iwi o Rangitāne.

Ka taiāwhio a Tara rāua Tautoki i te tonga o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ka tīmata te heke a te tokorua rā i Te Māhia, ka ahu ki te tonga mā Rangiwhakaoma, Ōkoriwa, Parangārehu. Ka tae ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara, ka pikitia a Te Awakairangi. Whāia, ka tahuri rāua ki te uru ka tae ki Porirua, ka whai haere i te takutai ki te raki, ā, ko te pūaha o te awa o Rangitīkei. Ka whai a Tara rāua ko Tautoki i te awa o Rangtīkei kia tae ki te tūtakitanga ki te awa o Hautapu, ka whai i tēnei awa kia tae ki Waiōuru, ka ahu atu te tokorua rā ki Moawhango, ki Tongariro, tae rawa atu ki Taupō i te puku o te ika. I konei ka huri ki te rāwhiti, ka whakawhiti i te pae o Maungaharuru i Tītī-o-Kura, ka hoki atu ki Nukutaurua i Te Māhia.


The East Coast

A Pāoa rātou ko Kiwa, ko Awapaka, ko Hinekau-i-rangi

Ko Kiwa rāua ko Pāoa ngā rangatira o te waka a Horouta, ka ū ki Ahuahu. Nō muri ka hoe ki Ōhiwa, ki reira tapitapia ai te haumi. Ka heke, ka hīkoi a Pāoa, ka kake i a Maunga Haumi ki te kimi i te rākau tika hei auaha haumi anō. Nā te taumaha o te rākau, kīhai i taea te neke. Waihoki, ka mimi a Pāoa, ka rere ngā awa o Waipāoa, o Waioeka, o Mōtū, ka pōtere te rākau rā, ka tae ki tai. Ka haere ētahi o ngā tāngata ki te ngahere ki te hopu manu.

Ka oti te whakatikatika i te waka, ka hoea e Kiwa mā Whangaōkeno kia tae ki tētahi wāhi nānā i tapa mōna anō, ko Tūranganui-a-Kiwa. He pari kei te rāwhiti o Turanganui-a-Kiwa, kīia ai ko Te Kurī –a-Pāoa. Ka haere te ara o Pāoa mā Waioeka - tapaina e ia ko Te Whai-a-Pāoa - kia tae ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa.

Tērā tētahi wahine i runga i a Horouta, ko Hinekau-i-rangi tōna ingoa. Nāna tētahi tira nui i ārahi ki Tōrere, ka whakawhiti i te awa o Mōtū, ka kake i te pae maunga o Ruakūmara, heke i te awa o Tapuwaeroa kia taka rawa iho ki te awa o Waiapu, mā reira ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa i te tonga.

Taketake ai a Ngāti Ruapani, a Rongowhakaata, a Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki, a Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti i te waka a Horouta.

Tamatea

Ko Tamatea tētahi o ngā tāngata hōpara nui rawa o Aotearoa. Ko ētahi o ōna ingoa ko Tamatea-pōkaiwhenua, ko Tamatea-pōkaimoana.

Ka kapi Te Ika-a-Māui

E ai ki ngā iwi o Te Tai Tokerau, ka torotoro a Tamatea i ngā whanga o Kaipara me Hokianga, kātahi ka haere ki Awanui me Kaitāia i te whanga o Rangaunu, ki reira noho ai.

E ai ki ngā iwi o Tauranga, i tae a Tamatea ki reira rā anō. Ka tū tōna pā ki runga o Maunga Tawa, ā, ka mahue iho tana tama a Ranginui, kia tū hei tipuna matua mō Ngāti Ranginui.

Haere tonu ana a Tamatea, ka torotoro i ngā rohe o Te Tai Rāwhiti, tae ana ki Tūranganui-a-Kiwa, Te Māhia, Te Wairoa, Ahuriri, Heretaunga, Pōrangahau. Nō konei ka whai a Tamatea i te awa o Mangakōpikopiko, whakawhiti i te pae o Tītī-o-kura mā Pohokura, kia tae rawa atu ki te moana o Taupō. Tērā te repo me te awa o Ōtamatea, kei waenganui i ngā pae maunga o Ahimanawa me Huiarau, i tapaina mōna.

E ai ki ngā kōrero ā Ngāti Whitikaupeka rātou ko Ngāti Hauiti, ko Ngāti Apa, i toro a Tamatea i te awa o Ngaruroro, ka whakawhiti ki te awa o Rangitīkei i tōna hikuwai, ka kuhu ki Waiōuru me Taihape. Ka tukua e ia he kōura ki te awa o Moawhango. Hei tāpiri atu, ko Tamatea te ingoa o tētahi tapa tāone i Ahuriri.

Ka kapi Te Wai Pounamu

Ko ngā kōrero onamata o ngā iwi o Te Wai Pounamu kei te kī, i hoea e Tamatea ngā tai o te rāwhiti. Kia tae ki te pito tonga rawa o Te Wai Pounamu ka pakaru tōna waka, ka huri hei pae maunga tapaina ai, ko te pae maunga o Tākitimu. Ka huri te ara o Tamatea ki te raki, ka tae ki Kaiapohia, e tata ana ki Ōtautahi. I reira ka tono a Tamatea ki a Tongariro kia āwhina mai ia. Ae mārika, ka tuku ahi te maunga rā, kia karia te awa o Whanganui me te moana o Raukawa, tae atu ki Kaiapohia. Ka kawea e Tamatea te ahi rā ki te raki, ka waiho ki ētahi wāhi i te takutai, ka whakawhiti i te moana o Raukawa kia toro haere i te awa o Whanganui.


The South Island

Rākaihautū rāua ko Rokohouia

E ai ki ngā kōrero o te iwi o Waitaha, ko Rākaihautū te tipuna, ko Uruao te waka, ko Whakatū te tauranga. Nā Rākaihautū ngā roto o te puku o Te Wai Pounamu i keri me tana kō nui whakaharahara. Nāwai ā, ka tau, ka noho a Rākaihautū ki Hakaroa. Ka huri tana kō hei maunga, ko Tuhiraki tērā, he maunga whakahī ki Hakaroa.

Ka taiāwhio a Rākaihautū rāua ko tana tama a Rokohouia i Te Wai Pounamu, he taunaha whenua te kaupapa. E pātata ana ki Kaikōura ngā pari kīia ai, ko Kā Whatakai-a-Rokohouia, nā te mea i kohia e Rokohouia he hua karoro ki reira. Ka hopu e rāua ki tētahi awa te momo tuna kīia ai he hao, tapaina tonutia atu taua awa, ko Waihao. Tapaina ai ngā roto kei te tonga ko Kā Puna-karikari-a-Rākaihautū.

Ngāhue me te tauhokohoko pounamu

He tipuna a Ngāhue nō ngā iwi o Te Arawa. Ko te kōrero i a Te Arawa, i ū mai a Ngāhue ki Tūhua i Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. Whāia, ka hōpara a Ngāhue i ngā rohe i te puku o Te Wai Pounamu. Ka kite ia i te pounamu ki te awa o Arahura. Ka auaha he toki i ēnei pounamu. Nā ēnei toki a Te Arawa rāua ko Tainui i tārai. Nā āna mahi nui whakaharahara, ko tētahi anō ingoa mō te pounamu, ko Te Ika-o-Ngāhue.

He wāhi nui te motu o Tūhua mō te matā. Ko te whakapae, ko te mahinga nui a Ngāhue, he tauhokohoko pounamu mai Te Wai Pounamu me te matā mai Te Ika-a-Māui.

Poutini rāua ko Tamaāhua

Ka tohu ngā kōrero tuku iho mō Poutini me Tamaāhua ki ngā wāhi kei reira te pounamu. He taniwha a Poutini, ā, koia te kaitiaki o Ngāhue i te takutai. Ka taka ki tētahi rangi, i te whakanā a Poutini i te motu o Tūhua, ka kite i a Waitaiki e kaukau ana. Nā te nui o tana mīharo, ka kāhakina e Poutini te wahine pūrotu rā, ka rere ki uta, ki te tuawhenua. Ka matika a Tamaāhua, te tāne a Waitaiki, ki te whai.

Ka whai haere a Tamaāhua i te ara o Poutini i Te Ika-a-Māui, ā, tae rawa atu ki Te Tai Poutini. Kei tēnā wāhi he momo kōhatu, kei tēnā wāhi he momo kōhatu, pērā i a:

  • Tahanga i Moehau (he ōnewa hei auaha toki)
  • Whangamatā kei Taupō (he tūhua)
  • Rangitoto (D’Urville Island) (rangitoto hei hanga toki)
  • Whangamoa kei Whakatū, Te Onetahua (rangitoto)
  • Pāhua kei te Tai Poutini (matā)
  • Takiwai kei Piopiotahi (tangiwai)
  • Awa o Arahura (pounamu hei auaha toki).

I te mautanga o Poutini ki te awa o Arahura, ka makaia e ia a Waitaiki ki te wai, ka huri hei pounamu. Kātahi ka rere a Poutini kia puta ki te moana. Tae rawa ki tēnei rā, kei reira a Poutini hei kaitiaki o te pounamu. Tērā ētahi puke kei ngā tahatika o te awa o Arahura, i tapaina ko Tamaāhua rāua ko Tūhua.

Ka tautoko ngā taunakitanga a ngā tohunga mātai whaipara tangata i ngā kōrero tuku iho mō ngā ara tauhokohoko pounamu. Me kī, he kupu whakarite ngā kōrero e pā ana ki a Poutini rāua ko Tamaāhua mō te tauhokohoko i te matā me te ōnewa o Te Ika-a-Māui mō te pounamu o Te Wai Pounamu. Tērā pea ka hāngai te kōrero mō te pakanga i waenganui i te tangata me te taniwha ki ngā taukumekume i waenganui i ngā pokapū tauhokohoko kōhatu.

Ngā ara pounamu

I mua noa atu i te taenga o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, kua takahia ngā rohe o Te Wai Pounamu e te tapuwae Māori. Kua oti noa atu te whakatakoto ara hei kawe pounamu atu i Te Tai Poutini ki Waitaha i te rāwhiti hei tauhokohoko ki ngā iwi o Te Ika-a-Māui. Ko ētahi o ngā wāhi ka haere ngā ara pounamu, ko te tāone o Heaphy i ēnei rā, ko Wangapeka, ko ngā awa o Kawatiri, o Māwhera, o Īnangahua, o Maruia, tae atu ki ngā ara kūiti o Noti Taramakau, o Ōtira me Waimakariri, o Amuri, o Hope, o Tiori-pātea. Tērā hoki ngā ara kei te takiwā o Whakatipu.

E rua ngā ara kūiti uaua rawa atu, a Noti Raureka me Ō-Tū-te-kawa. I hurahia a Noti Raureka e tētahi wahine o Ngāti Wairangi, ko Raureka te ingoa. Nā te mōiriiri rā nā Tū-te-kawa te ara pounamu o Ō-Tū-te-kawa i tūhura.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Rāwiri Taonui, 'Ngā waewae tapu – Māori exploration', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-waewae-tapu/print (accessed 29 September 2020)

He kōrero nā Rāwiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 24 Sep 2007