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Ngā tupu mai i Hawaiki – plants from Polynesia

by  Louise Furey

I te haerenga mai o te Māori ki Aotearoa, ka mauria mai ētahi o ngā tipu i Hawaiki. He nui te wāhi ki te kūmara; whakamahia ai te hue hei pupuri wai, pupuri kai hoki. Heoi, nā te makariri rawa o Aotearoa, kīhai ētahi tipu i whanake.


From Polynesia to New Zealand

Ngā tipu hou a te Māori

Nō te taenga o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, e ono ngā tipu hou a te Māori. Arā ko te:

  • kūmara (sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas)
  • hue (gourd, Lagenaria siceraria)
  • aute (paper mulberry, Broussonetia papyrifera)
  • taro (Colocasia esulenta)
  • uwhi (yam, Dioscorea species)
  • tī pore (Pacific cabbage tree, Cordyline fruticosa).

I mauria ēnei tipu hou ki Aotearoa e te Māori i te hekenga mai ki Aotearoa i te takiwā o 1250 -1300. Ko te whakapae, tērā pea i mauria mai ētahi atu momo tipu pērā i te arrowroot, te panana, te pōporo, te niu, te sugar cane. Hāunga, kāore i kaha te tipu ki tēnei whenua āhua mātao. Tērā pea i heriheria mai ētahi tipu i tēnā moutere, i tēnā moutere i tēnā wā, i tēnā wā.

Ngā momo tipu i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa

Ka whakatipuria e te Māori ētahi tipu i kawea mai e o rātou tīpuna mai i Āhia i te uru kia tae ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i te rāwhiti. Ka nui te whakatipu i te taro ki ngā wāhi ka kaha ua, pērā i a Hāmoa. Ka tipu te uwhi ki ngā moutere pērā i a Tonga, arā, he kaupeka marangai, he kaupeka paki. Me kī, kaha te tipuria o te pōporo me te panana ki ngā Marquesas me ngā moutere o Kuki ki te tonga.

Ka tahuri ngā tāngata whenua o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ki te whakataurite i ngā kaupeka o te tau me ā rātou tikanga ki te whanake o ngā tipu.

Taunakitanga ririki rawa

Kua kitea i ētahi māra tahito, ngā taunakitanga ririki mō te ahuwhenua a te Māori onamata. Kitea ai ēnei mea - ngā hahae, ngā māngaro maramara (starch grains ki te reo Ingarihi) me ngā phytoliths (he silica meroiti ka kitea i ngā tā o ngā tipu) e ngā tohunga pūtaiao. He āwhina nui ēnei mahuetanga ririki ki ngā tohunga pūtaiao hei tohu ki ngā wāhi tipu. Kua tūhuratia ngā hahae o te hue me te aute i roto i te one. Kua kitea ngā maramara māngaro me ngā pūtau xylems (he iho mau wai) o te kūmara ki ngā oneone i ētahi rua. Waihoki, he nui ngā maramara māngaro o te taro me te uwhi kua kitea i Te Tai Tokerau.

Kūmara

He rerekē te kūmara ki ērā o ngā tipu hōu, arā, i ahu mai i te tonga o Amerika kē, kāpā nō te uru. E ai ki ngā rangahau whaipara tangata, nō waenganui i ngā tau 900AD me 1100AD ka tae te kūmara ki roto i a Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. He nui ngā waka hourua o ngā Māori tōmua, he tohunga ki te hōpara i te moana uriuri, mai i tētahi motu ki tētahi. Ko te whakapae i tae ētahi ki te tonga o Amerika rā anō tiki ai i te kūmara ka whakahoki i te kūmara ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Ehara i te mea ko te kūmara anake te tipu noa ki te tonga o Amerika, nā reira ka toko te pātai; he aha i tohungia ko te kūmara te mea hei whakahoki ki te wā kāinga? E kī ana te kaimātai whaipara tangata a Helen Leach, i tangohia pea te kūmara, nā te ōrite o ngā rau me ngā kōpura ki ō te uwhi (kua tipu kē ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa). Heoi, ko te rerekē o te kūmara i te uwhi, ka tipu te kūmara i te roanga o te tau, ka taea hoki te whakatō i te rarau pihipihi, kāpā ko te kōpura.

Mō te nuinga o ngā moutere, ehara ko te kūmara te tipu nui – ko Te Pito-o-te-henua (Rapanui) me Aotearoa anake ngā moutere i tino kaha rawa atu te tipuria. Ko ngā mahi me ngā tikanga e pā ana ki te whakatipu uwhi i whakamahia mō te whakatipu i te kūmara.

Ka tohu ngā tātai o te reo me ngā taunakitanga whaipara tangata, tērā pea i ahu mai te kūmara o Aotearoa i Tahiti, i Mangaia rānei i ngā Kuki Airani.

Hue

Ko te whakapae i ngā rā o mua, i ahu mai te hue i te tonga o Amerika. Heoi, ka tohu ngā rangahau mātauranga pītau ira nō ngā tau tōmua o te mano tau 2000, tērā pea i ahu mai ngā hue o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa mai i ngā hua kākano whakauru mai Amerika me Āhia. Akene pea i heria mai te hue e ngā tipuna o te Māori i Ahia me Amerika. Heoi, whakapae ana ngā tohunga pūtaiao, tērā peā i pōteretere tētahi hue i te moana uriuri kia tau ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ka whakatipuria ngā kākano i roto.

Ka taunga te tipu ki Aotearoa

Ko te tikanga ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ka pūkai te one hei whakatipu i te kūmara me te uwhi. Hei pupuri i te waiwai haukū, ka tipuria te hue me te taro ki ngā wāhi kua whakaawaawatia. Ka whakatūria he pātū kōhatu hei wharau, hei tohu ki ngā ripa tauārai. Ka whakatūria hokitia ngā taiepa me ngā awakeri pāpaku.

He mea heri katoa mai ēnei tikanga ki Aotearoa, ā, ka tere ako ngā Māori tōmua ki te whakahāngai i ēnei tikanga whakatipu ki tēnei whenua mātao atu. Ka whāiti ngā mahi whakatipu ki te kaupeka mahana o te tau. Ka whakawhenumi te kirikiri ki te oneone, hei pana wawe i te wai, hei whakamahana ake i te one kia roa ake ai te wā o te tipu. Nui te whakamahia o ēnei tikanga ki ngā rohe o Wairau tae rawa ki Hakaroa i te tonga (kāore e tipu te kūmara ki kō atu).


Kūmara, hue and aute

Kūmara

He nui ngā tikanga kia pai ai te whakatō, te tipu, te hauhake i te kūmara (sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas). He rerekē ngā momo kūmara tahito tērā i ngā momo o ēnei rā – he pōruru ake, iti noa ngā wene, ka mutu, he roa, he kōrahirahi ngā kōpura. Mehemea he mā te kiri, ka mā hoki te kiko; waihoki, mehemea he whero te kiri, ka waiporoporo te kiko. I te koanga ka whakatōhia ngā kōpura ki te one ka pūkai, ā, hei te ngahuru ka hauhaketia, i mua i te takoto o te hukapapa. E ai ki ngā Pākehā tōmua, inā te tau me te pai o te āhua o ngā māra kūmara.

Whai muri i te hauhake ka wehea, ka whakatahangia ngā kōpura tūpuhi, ka purua ngā kōpura pai ki roto i ngā rua kia rite ai te mahana, kia noho pai ai i te roanga o te takurua. Ka pai te kai i ēnei kōpura i te hōtoke me te ngahuru, ka whakatō i ngā kōpura i te tau i muri mai.

Hue

Whakatipuria ai te hue kia pai ai te tango i te hua hei tahā. I ngā raumati ka kainga ngā hua kāore anō kia pakari. Ka whakatipuria ngā hue ki ngā wāhi hōpuapua, ngā wāhi haukū, ko ngā aka he mea here ki ngā pou. I te tau 1769, ka kōrero te tākuta o runga i te Endeavour, William Monkhouse, mō ngā whare ki Anaura i Te Tai Rāwhiti kua tipuria katoatia ki te aka o te hue. E kī ana ngā kōrero tuku iho a te Māori ka ahu mai te hue i a Pū-te-hue, he tamaiti nā Tāne.

Aute

He rākau iti te aute, hōrapa te tipu ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, heoi kāore i kaha te tipu ki Aotearoa. He nui te aute nā te mea ka taea te tango tapa. Ka tīhore te kiri mai i te tā, ka paopaohia ki te patu. Iti noa te tapa i auahangia ki Aotearoa nei – ka kite ngā Pākehā i Pēwhairangi e mau ana hei hoi taringa. Kua kitea ngā rākau pao tapa ki Taranaki i te tonga, he tohu pea koinei te moka ki te tonga i tipu ai te aute.


Taro, uwhi and tī pore

Taro

Whakatipuria ai te taro mō tana kōpura māngaro, kīia ai he kai nā te rangatira. Ka tohu te kaihōpara tōmua rā a Te Koreneho ki ngā momo tuangahuru o te taro ki Te Tai Tokerau, ko ētahi momo taro i rāhuitia mō ētahi kaupapa ake. I tua atu, ka tohu ia ki ētahi momo taro e iwa mai Te Tai Rāwhiti me Te Matau-a-Māui. Ka wehea ngā taro i runga i te korahi, te reka, te tae.

Ka pai rawa atu ki te taro ki te haukū te oneone. I tūhurangia e ngā tohunga pūtaiao te mea, whakatipuria ai te taro ki ngā repo i tāpiri ngā awakari, kia noho haukū ai te oneone. He āhua rite ēnei wāhi ki ngā whenua ahuwhenua haukū i ētahi moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Tae rawa ki te paunga o te rau tau atu i 1700, kua kore e whakamahia tēnei tikanga whakatipu taro. Ko te whakatipu taro ki runga whenua maroke anake te tikanga whakatipu i kite ai ngā Pākehā tōmua; me kī, whakatipuria ai te taro ki ngā wāhi hōruarua me ngā wāhi papatahi.

Uwhi

Iti noa ngā kōrero mō te tipu o te uwhi (yam, Dioscorea) ki Aotearoa. E waru marama te roa kātahi anō ka pakari te uwhi (e rima marama mō te kūmara). Nā reira, torutoru noa ngā wāhi ka tipu te uwhi, ka mutu, ko te whakapae iti noa ngā hua. E ai ki ētahi Pākehā tōmua, tipu ana te uwhi ki Te Tai Tokerau, tae atu ki ngā whanga o Ūawa me Anaura i Te Tai Rāwhiti. He tāwhiwhi te tipu o te uwhi, ka pūkai te oneone, pērā i te whakatipu kūmara. Heoi, nō te taenga mai o ngā hua whenua pērā i te rīwai, ka kore haere te uwhi.

Taenga ki Aotearoa

He kōrero kei tēnā iwi, kei tēnā iwi mō te taenga mai o te uwhi ki Aotearoa. Tērā te kōrero, nā Horouta i kawe mai te kūmara, te taro, te hue me te uwhi. Hei tā Ngāti Whātua nā te wahine a Tumutumu-whenua nā Kui te taro me te hue i mau ki Aotearoa. Tērā te kōrero nā te waka o Tainui kē te hue, te aute me te kūmara i mau mai.

Tī pore

Ka whakatipuria te tī pore (Pacific cabbage tree, Cordyline fruiticosa) mō tana more, inarā, whai muri i te paopao me te tao ki te hāngī, ka reka rawa atu hei kai. Kainga pēneitia anōtia ai te rito nui me te iho. Kua kore te tī pore ki Aotearoa ināianei, engari kaha te tipu ki ngā moutere o Raoul me Kermadec. Ko te whakapae, nā ngā tīpuna o te Māori te tī pore i whakatipu ki aua moutere i ngā heke ki Aotearoa i te tonga. I whakatipuria te tī pore mai te tipu, kāpā te kākano, ka mutu, kia hipa ētahi tau kātahi anō ka pakari. Te āhua nei whakatipuria ai te tī pore ki te hiku o te ika a Māui. Ka utaina te ingoa tī ki runga i ngā momo rākau tī o Aotearoa ake, inarā nō te kāhui Cordyline te katoa o ngā tī. He rite te tunu i ngā more, heoi, kāore i āta whakatipuria pērā i te tī pore.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Louise Furey, 'Ngā tupu mai i Hawaiki – plants from Polynesia', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-tupu-mai-i-hawaiki/print (accessed 7 June 2020)

He kōrero nā Louise Furey, i tāngia i te 24 Nov 2008