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Ngā Rauru Kītahi

by  Taituha Kīngi

I ahu mai te ingoa o te iwi o Ngā Rauru Kītahi i tō rātou tipuna a Rauru. Nā te rongo, he tangata toa, he tangata kōrero ia, ka karangahia ia, ko Rauru Kītahi. Me he tangata kī tahi koe, arā, he tangata whakamana i āu kupu, kua mihia koe ki te kōrero nei.


Early history

Te Pūtake

Ko ngā kōrero tuku iho ka kī, ka heke te iwi o Ngā Rauru i te waka a Aotea me tōna rangatira a Turi. Ko te kōrero ināianei, i heke a Ngā Rauru i tētahi iwi i noho ki te takiwā o Waitōtara ki te taha tonga o Taranaki, i mua i te taenga o Aotea. I ahu mai te iwi nei i te tai rāwhiti o te Ika-a-Māui; ka hoea te moana e rātou kia pae ki Pātea me Waitōtara. Ko tō rātou ingoa, ko Te Kāhui Rere. Nō te taunga o Aotea ki te taha tonga o Taranaki, ka moe ngā uri o Turi ki te iwi o Te Kāhui Rere. Koinei te take i tū ai te kōrero e kī ana, i ahu mai te iwi o Ngā Rauru i te waka a Aotea.

Te ingoa o te iwi

I tapaina a Ngā Rauru ki te ingoa o te tupuna, a Rauru Kītahi. Ko Rauru Kītahi, he mokopuna nā Toitehuatahi. Koia te mātāmua a Ruarangi rāua ko Rongoueroa. Tērā pea, ko te wāhi i whānau mai ia, ko Whakatāne. Ko te tupuna taketake ake o te iwi o Te Āti Awa, a Awanuiarangi, hei tuakana, teina rānei ki a ia.

He tangata ka mana tana kōrero

Anei he pepeha nā Ngā Rauru:’ Ko Rauru Kītahi, e kore te kupu e whati’

E pā ana te kōrero nei ki a Rauru Kītahi, he tangata iti te kupu, engari pono tonu ki tāna i kōrero ai. Ko tētahi atu pepeha, ‘Ko Rauru koe’, he kupu whakamihi mō te tangata he pono āna kōrero.

I a ia e taiohi ana, hau ana te rongo mōna, inā, he toa, he tangata whakatinana i āna kupu. Huri āmio rātou ko tōna iwi i ngā rohe o Aotearoa puta noa. I a ia ka kaumātua, ka tau ia ki te tonga o Taranaki noho ai, mate noa. Nō muri, ka hurihia e taua iwi o te tonga o Taranaki tō rātou ingoa ki a Ngā Rauru.

Ngā rohe whenua o nehe

Ko te rohe whenua o Ngā Rauru i te tau 1840, atu i ngā kāinga e ono o Kaihaukupe (Castlecliff, Whanganui), ahu atu ki Kaierau (ko St Johns Hill, Whanganui ināianei), toro atu ki Tawhitinui (e aro nui ana ki Rānana, kei tērā taha o te awa o Whanganui), ki ngā pae maunga o Matemateaonga, kei reira te mātāpuna o te awa o Pātea. I ngā rā o mua, he maha ngā pā, ngā kāinga i te awa o Pātea, mai i tōna pūaha, rere tika atu ki Kaihaukupe.

Ngā pāhekoheko me ngā iwi

I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 1800, ka tomokia te rohe e ngā taua o ngā iwi mai i te raki - a Ngāpuhi, a Ngāti Toa - i te rapu whenua hōu, rawa hoki mō rātou. I te tekau tau atu i 1820, ka tīmata ngā heke o Ngāti Toa me ngā iwi o te taha raki o Taranaki – a Ngāti Tama, a Ngāti Mutunga, a Te Āti Awa. Ka tapahi tō rātou huarahi ki Te Whanganui-a-Tara mā ngā whenua o Ngā Rauru. Nō te tau 1822, ka whakaekea e Te Rauparaha o Ngāti Toa a Te Ihupuku, te pā matua o Ngā Rauru. I te tekau tau atu i 1840, ka whakaekea a Ngā Rauru e Ngāti Tūwharetoa, heoi, nō te taenga o ngā iwi o Taranaki ki te awhi i a Ngā Rauru, ka parea atu te hoariri.


European settlement

Ngā ātete ki te hoko whenua

Nō muri i te taenga o ngā mihinare me ngā tāngata whai Pākehā ki te rohe o Taranaki, ka whirinaki atu a Ngā Rauru ki te whakapono Karaitiana. Whāia, ka ora te iwi i ngā mahi tauhokohoko. I te tau 1848, ka hoko te kāwanatanga i ētahi whenua i te taha tonga o Taranaki. I te tekau tau atu i 1850, ka whai ētahi o Ngā Rauru i ō rātou huānga o Taranaki ki te ātete i ngā hoko whenua. Ka ātete ngā Māori i te hoko whenua ki Waitara; kīia ai rātou, he tāngata whakakeke. I te mutunga, ka pakaru mai te riri ki te taha raki o Taranaki. Ka tautoko tētahi wāhanga o Ngā Rauru i ngā iwi e whawhai ana mō ō rātou whenua.

Ngā pakanga ki te taha tonga o Taranaki

I te tau 1859, ka whakaaetia e tētahi wāhanga o Ngā Rauru te hoko i te poraka whenua o Waitōtara ki te kāwanatanga. Ahakoa ngā ātete a te rahi, nō te tau 1863 ka mana te hoko. Ka pakaru mai anō te riri i taua tau, tae rawa ki te tau 1867. Ka tau te urupatu o te kāwanatanga, ka tahuna ngā kāinga me ngā mahinga kai o te iwi. Tokomaha ngā tāngata o Ngā Rauru ka hinga i ēnei pakanga, nui te whenua i raupatutia. I te tau 1865, ka raupatutia neke atu i te e 150,000 (e 60,700 heketea) o ngā whenua o Ngā Rauru.

Te pana

I te tau 1868, ka pakaru mai anō te riri ki te rohe o Taranaki, ka tautoko a Ngā Rauru i a Tītokowaru o Ngāti Ruanui. Ka whāia a Ngā Rauru e ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga ki te tuawhenua rā anō; ka pāhuatia ngā mahinga kai, ngā kararehe, ngā whare. I mua i te tau 1873, kāore i whakaaetia kia hoki a Ngā Rauru ki ō rātou kāinga. I ngā tau tōmua o te tekau tau atu i 1870, ka riro i te Karauna ngā whenua o Ngā Rauru kei waho atu o te rohe raupatu, ā, kīhai i tika te rangahau nō wai te mana whenua. Nā te kore whenua, ka kore he oranga mō te iwi.

Parihaka

I tautoko a Ngā Rauru i ngā kaupapa a Te Whiti-o-Rongomai rāua ko Tohu Kākahi ki Parihaka i te pū o Taranaki. Ko tā rāua take, he ātete aumārie i te noho a ngā tāngata whai ki ō rātou whenua i raupatutia. Ko ētahi o Ngā Rauru i roto i te rahi i panaia i Parihaka e ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga i te tau 1881, ka heria mauheretia ki Te Wai Pounamu.

Ngā paremata kore take

I te tekau tau atu i 1880, i whiwhi paremata ngā iwi o Taranaki - tae noa ki a Ngā Rauru - mō ngā whakawhiu a te Karauna i a rātou. He maramara whenua noa iho ka whakahokia ki te iwi. Ko te mate kē, i taka ngā whenua nei ki raro i ngā whakahaere o te Public Trustee. Kāore i arotia nuitia ngā tikanga pupuri whenua a te Maori, ka mutu, ko ētahi o ngā whenua i whakahokia ki a Ngā Rauru, i hokona, i rīhitia rāneitia ki ngā tāngata whai mō ake tonu atu. I ngā tau 1926–27, i whakawhiwhia e te Kōmihana Sim tētahi paremata iti ki a Ngā Rauru.

Ngā rōpū tōrangapū, ngā hāhi: Rātana me Te Māramatanga

Nō muri i ngā pakanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, ka puea ake ētahi tirohanga tōrangapū, whakapono hōu. Ka whai ētahi o Ngā Rauru i te whakapono Pai Mārire. Ka haere tonu ngā rangahau mō tētahi whakapono ka rite ki te wairua Māori. Atu i te tau 1920, he tokomaha ngā uri o Ngā Rauru i whai i ngā akoako a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana, nāna nei te hāhi Rātana. Nō muri, ka whānui ana kaupapa ki ngā mahi tōrangapū. Heoi, i manawapā ētahi, i tō rātou whakaaro kei te tawhiti rawa te hāhi Rātana i ngā akoranga a te Karaiti. Nā tēnei āhuatanga, ka waihangahia te hāhi, a Te Māramatanga, ka whāia e Ngāpiki Hākaraia rāua ko tana tāne, a Hoani. Mai i te tekau tau atu i 1940 i Kai Iwi te pokapū o Te Māramatanga, heoi, ka paheke haere te hāhi nei i te tekau tau atu i 1950. Kei te whakapono ngā pononga o tēnei hāhi, tērā te wā ka ara ake he kaiārahi hōu ki te whakaora anō i te hāhi.


The 21st century

E 4,000 ngā uri o Ngā Rauru i te tau 2013, nō ngā hapū 14.

Ka pā ngā hapū ki ngā marae e whai iho nei, arā, ko:

  • Rangitāwhi, ko Pūkorokoro, ko Ngāti Hine, ko Kairākau, ko Ngāti Maika, ko Manaia – te marae o Wai-o-Turi
  • Ngā Ariki – te marae o Waipapa
  • Ngāti Pourua – te marae o Takirau
  • Ngāti Hou Tipua – te marae o Kaipō
  • Hine Waiatarua – te marae o Te Ihupuku
  • Ngāti Ruaiti – te marae o Tauranga Ika
  • Ngāti Maika – te marae o Pākaraka
  • Pūkeko/Iti – ngā marae o Te Aroha, o Kai-iwi me Taipake
  • Hine Waiata – te marae o Whenuakura
  • Ngāti Tai – te marae o Wairoa Iti.

Ko te māngai o te iwi, ko Te Manatū o te Iwi o Ngā Rauru.

Ngā whakatau i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi

I te tau 2000, ka tīmata ngā kōrero i waenganui i te iwi me te Karauna hei whakaea i ngā whakamau i roto i ngā tau, tae noa ki ngā tāngata i mate, ngā whenua me ngā taonga i murua i ngā pakanga o te tekau tau atu i 1860, me ngā pēhitanga i pā i te hokonga o ngā whenua o te iwi. I tīmata mai ēnei whakaritenga i muri i ngā whakawhitiwhitinga kōrero, ngā tāpaetanga tono, ngā tono kia pono te Karauna ki tāna i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Nō te marama o Noema, 2003, ka hainahia te whakataunga, whai muri i te whakaaetanga o te iwi katoa. Ko ngā wāhanga o te whakataunga, ko te whakapāha a te Karauna ki a Ngā Rauru, ko te whakamana i ngā tikanga a Ngā Rauru mā te whai wāhi o Ngā Rauru ki ngā kaupapa tiaki i ngā whenua rāhui kei raro i ngā whakahaere a Te Papa Atawhai i te taha tonga o Taranaki, ko te utu moni hoki. Kei te iwi anō te mana tuatahi ki te hoko, ki te kore hoko rānei i ngā whenua o te Karauna.

Ngā rā kei te tū

Ka oti te taha ki te Tiriti, ka tahuri te iwi ki te whakaora i te Ngā Raurutanga – ngā uara, ngā whakapono, ngā tikanga ake o Ngā Rauru. Kei te whakapakari te iwi i tōna matatau ki te reo Māori, kei te whakanuia te wāhi ki ngā marae me te iwi. Kei te hiahia anō te iwi ki te whakapakari i te taha ōhanga. Ko tētahi umanga a te iwi ko te kato me te hoko i ngā rongoā Māori.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Ngā Rauru (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

  • tatauranga o 1991: 2,187
  • tatauranga o 2001: 3,090
  • tatauranga o 2006: 4,047
  • tatauranga o 2013: 4,179

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Manawatū–Whanganui: 1,278
  • Taranaki: 717

 


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Taituha Kīngi, 'Ngā Rauru Kītahi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-rauru-kitahi/print (accessed 21 May 2019)

Story by Taituha Kīngi, published 8 Feb 2005, updated 3 Mar 2017