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Māori prophetic movements – ngā poropiti

by Judith Binney

Ka wana ake ngā whakapono poropiti Māori i te huarahi ki te mana motuhake o te Māori. Mai i te whakapono Pai Mārire tae atu ki tērā i Parihaka, ka tukitukia ngā whakapono e ngā kāwanatanga kaiā whenua.


The first prophet – Te Papahurihia

Ko te tohunga me te poropititanga

Ko te mana o te poropititanga he mea tuku iho ki ngā tohunga me ngā matakite o roto i te ao Māori. Nō te tūtakitakinga ki ngā Karaitiana ka huri te poropititanga tawhito ki ngā whakapono poropiti o te ao hōu. I te tuatahi ka aro atu ki te Kawenata Hōu, heoi nāwai ka aro atu anō ki te Kawenata Tawhito. Nō te paunga o te rau tau 1900 kua puta ake hoki ngā whakaponotanga mano tau.

Hei tauira i te hononga o te tohunga tawhito me te poropiti o te ao hōu, tērā tētahi poropititanga nā te tohunga nā Toiroa i mua tata i te taenga mai o tauiwi:

Tiwha tiwha te pō

Ko te Pakerewhā

Ko Arikirangi tēnei rā te haere nei.1

Ka tohu tēnei poropititanga i te aranga ake o tētahi poropiti nui o te rau tau 18, Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki.

Papahurihia

Ko Papahurihia tētahi o ngā poropiti tuatahi i whāinu i te puna mātauranga o te ao Māori me te ao Karaitiana. Ko tōna ingoa ake ko Pukerenga; hei tāna ko ia te ‘waka’ o te atua o Papahurihia. Mai i te tau 1833, ka tango ia i te ingoa o Papahurihia hei ingoa mōna. He mea tapa ia ki tēnei ingoa i tāna wetewete haere i ngā kauhau a ngā Mihinare ki Rangihoua, te teihana mihinare tōmua rawa o Aotearoa. Whai muri i tōna nekenga mai i Pēwhairangi ki roto o Hokianga i ngā tau tōmuri o te ngahuru tau 1830, ka riro i a ia te ingoa o Te Atua Wera.

Te Nākahi

I puta te rongo o Papahurihia i te wā o ngā iriiri tuatahi a ngā Māori ki roto ki ngā hāhi Karaitiana. Ko tāna kē i kite ko te rangi kī katoa i ngā painga ā te Pākehā me te kai. I ngā riri ki roto o te Tai Tokerau i ngā tau 1845–46, ko ia te mata o te tauā a Hone Heke, ā, nāna i whakahaere ngā kawa i puta ai te reo rerekē o Te Nākahi, he 'whistling sighing kind of sound' (oro whiowhio, he oro mapumapu hoki).2 Waihoki, he poropiti anō ōna mātua a Te Wharetī me tōna whaea a Tūhoehoe. Ko te nākahi tētahi āhuatanga nāna i tango i te karaipiture hei ariā mōna ki te wāhi ngaro.

Te Māori hei Hūrai

Ka whakataurite a Papahurihia i te Māori ki te Hūrai, arā he iwi noho manene. Nāna i whakatau ko ngā rā hāpati a te Hūrai (Hatarei) hei rangi whakamoemiti mōna. Ko tā Papahurihia he whakatū i te tikanga i whāia katoa ai e ngā whakapono poropiti Māori o muri mai; arā, ko te arawhata atu ki te oranga mana Māori. Ka whakanui ia i ngā kōrero a te Hūrai, ā, ka whakaū i te oati a te Atua mō te rironga anō o Kēnana, te whenua i noho manene ai rātou. I kite ia i ēnei kōrero i ngā tuhinga whakamāori me ngā kauhau tōmua rawa ā ngā mihinare.

Tāria ake

I te tau 1898, ka kī ake te rangatira o Hauraki a Hāmiora Mangakāhia, ‘Nga whakatauki me nga kupu Whakarite me nga kupu Poropiti, na o tatau Tipuna hei Tohutohu i a tatau nga Tamariki.’3 Ko Te Toiroa tōna ahurewa, ā nāna te kupu ki a ia, ‘Taria e hohou te Rongo kia tupu i te Miha ki a Kauna ki a Hawaiki, kei tua te Rongo Takekake.’ Ko te haerenga mai o Te Kooti tērā i kitea e Te Toiroa nō mua i te wā i a Kuki.

Papahurihia ka heke ki Hōne Tōia

I te tau 1875 ka mate a Papahurihia. Hāunga e ora tonu ai ana kōrero. I te tau 1856 ka iriiritia ia ki roto ki te Hāhi Wēteriana, ā, ka tapaina te ingoa o Penetana Papahurihia ki a ia. He tino kawa āna kōrero mō ērā poropiti kaingārahu o te tekau tau 1860, ā, ko tā te kāwanatanga mōna he tangata ‘pono ki te kāwanatanga’ noho mārie. Heoi anō nā ana akoranga i hua ake ngā rōpū mautohe mō ngā kaupapa o tērā wā, pērā i te ‘pakanga tāke kurī’ o Mei 1898 ki tōna anō kāinga ki Waimā.

Nā ka puta ake anō a Te Nākahi i ngā kauwhata a tōna kauwaka hou i a Hōne Tōia. Ko te whakahau hoki kia ngangahu ki ngā tāke e kaikino ana. Ka tapaina e Tōia taua whakapono ko ‘Whiowhio’. Ko tētahi taonga o tērā kawa ko te rākau atua, ko Rangi Awhiowhioā. Ko ia te waka o Te Nākahi, he taonga i tuku hekehia ki ngā uri o Tuhirangi, te teina o Hōne Heke. Ko ērā taonga tapu o te whakapono o Te Nākahi tērā i whakakōrerotia e Te Atua Wera, he piringa tahi ki te āwhero o Hōne Heke mā mō te tino rangatiratanga.

Footnotes
    • I takoto ki Judith Binney, Redemption songs: a life of Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Auckland University Press, 1997, wh. 11. Back
    • John Webster, Reminiscences of an old settler in Australia and New Zealand. Ōtautahi: Whitcombe & Tombs, 1908, wh. 261. Back
    • Te Puke ki Hikurangi, 7 Pipiri 1898. Back

Te Ua Haumēne – Pai Mārire and Hauhau

Te Ua Haumēne

Nō te iriiritanga o Te Ua Haumēne e te hāhi Weteriana ka tapā anō ia ko Horopāpera. I te tau 1864, ka huri tōna ingoa ki Te Haumēne (‘tāne hau’), arā, mō āna whakawhitiwhiti me te Atua he mea kawe mai i runga i ngā hau. I te tau 1862, ka tīmatahia e Te Ua te whakapono o te Pai Mārire. Kawea ai ngā kawa o te whakapono hōu ki te pou niu (‘news’), arā he pou i hangaia i ngā tira kaipuke. Kei ngā kapakapanga taura, haki hoki ngā tohutohu a te Atua e mau ana i te hau.

Te kite a Te Ua

I te tau 1862, ka oho te taonga o te matakite ki a Te Ua i te tukinga o te tima kawe mēra a Lord Worsley ki waho tonu o tōna kāinga i te uru mā-tonga o Taranaki. Nā te mea ko ia tētahi rangatira o reira i haumī atu ki Te Kīngitanga, ka whakaū ia i te raina aukati i whakawhitikia e te tima rā. Nā reira i te 5 o ngā rā o Hepetema i te tau 1862, nā runga anō i te āhuatanga ki te takerehaea, ka whakapuaki ia i ngā kōrero a Kaperiera ki a ia, me te whakamōhio ki a ia ki ngā rangi whakamutunga, i takoto kē ki te pukapuka o Te Whakakitenga. I pūmau ngā akoranga a Te Ua ki a Rura (‘ruler’), arā ki a Kaperiera, ā, ko Tama-Rura (‘son-ruler’) hoki, arā ko te Karaiti ngātahi ko te anahera tiaki (Kaperiera). Heoi i ngā wā pakanga, ko Riki tōna anahera haere; he whakarāpopototanga taua ingoa mō Te Ariki Mikaera (‘Mikaera te tino anahera’).

Ua Rongopai – te rongopai a Te Ua

Nō te tau 1863, kua tuhi a Te Ua i te Ua Rongopai, he puka mō ngā kawa me ngā karakia o te hāhi. E ora tonu nā te kape o Ua Rongopai nā Karaitiana Te Korou o Ngāti Kahungunu i tārua. Kei roto e whakamārama ana te rārangi o ngā whakahaere, ngā pūrongo hui ā ngā rangatira o te Pai Mārire ki roto o Taranaki i ngā tau o te 1864-65, tae atu ki ngā tānga pikitia o ngā pou niu i iri ai ngā kara. Nā ka mōhiotia tēnei hāhi ko te ‘Pai Mārire’ ko te ‘Hauhau’ rānei, arā ngā tino kupu e rua ka whakahuangia i te mutunga o ngā īnoi, he kupu anō hoki mō te hā ora o te atua.

Ko te Hauhau

Nā te tipu o tēnei whakapono i roto i te puehu o ngā riri i Taranaki, kei ōna anō mōteatea ētahi karanga hōia (‘Tahi, rua, toru, whā. Taihana!’). Nō te kōkiritanga o ana pononga ki roto i ngā whawhai i pupū ake i te tau 1863, he rongo whakatumatuma te ingoa nei Hauhau: ko tētahi tikanga o te kupu hauhau ko te hahau, engari arā anō ōna tikanga. Nō ngā tau waenga o te tekau tau 1860, ka whakahua te Pākehā i te ingoa Hauhau mō ngā Māori katoa i ātete.

Ngā karere o te Pai Mārire

I te tau 1865 ka torotorona e Te Ua āna karere ki te motu; e mau ana hoki ngā māhunga o ngā hōia Pākehā i haukotia ki Taranaki i te 6 o ngā rangi o Āperira i te tau 1864. Kei tētahi tira hoki e kawea haerehia ana he mauhere hōia. E ora tonu ana ināianei ngā tohutohu a Te Ua ki ērā e kawe ana i te rongopai, arā kia kaua e tūkinotia he Pākehā. Ko tāna whakahau ki te iwi Māori kia mau ki te tika ka wikitōria i ngā tauā hōia; ko ētahi kawa i puta ki te tokomaha ko te ‘ngau’ ūpoko, hei tānoa i te mana o ngā hōia. Heoi ki tā te Pākehā kite ko te harihari ūpoko he mahi ‘mohoao’ tēnei. Ko te kōhurutanga hoki tērā o Wākana ki Ōpōtiki i te Māehe o te tau 1865 i runga i te whakahau atētahi karere a Kereopa Te Rau ka nui ake ai te riri Pākehā. Ko te Pai Mārire he hāhi mō te wā o te rangimārie me te riri. Ko āna tohutohu anake ko te ora tonu o te iwi ahakoa ‘pokea’ ana te whenua; kīhai rātou i rautaki pakanga.

Pai Mārire me Tāwhiao

I te matenga o Te Ua i te tau 1866, ka manaakitia tonu te hāhi Pai Mārire ki roto i te Kīngitanga. Nō te marama o Akuhata i te tau 1864, ka iri tuaruatia e Te Ua te kīngi Māori tuarua a Matutaera ka tapaina hoki ki te ingoa o Tāwhiao. Ka kawe a Tāwhiao i ngā akoranga rongopai ki roto o Te Rohe Pōtae o Maniapoto. Nō te tau 1875 ka huaina tana hāhi ko Tariao. I te marama o Maehe 1885, ka whakatū ia i ngā poukai, arā, he haerenga e toru tau te roa a te kāhui ariki rite ki te kōrero Tiuteronomi 14: 28–29. I mua tata mai i tōna matenga i te tau 1894, ka whakahuangia he waitohu mō Tāwhiao. Kei Te Hopuhopu tēnei taonga, kei te Kauhanganui; he whakairotanga tēnei waitohu o Tāwhiao, ā, e tāiri ana te rīpeka i runga i tōna ūpoko. Kua tāpiripiria anō te angaanga pāua ki tōna rae hei tohu mō te tokowhitu a Matariki. E tohu ana ngā ingoa me ngā kara ki te ao hou, ā, he pānui anō tōna ‘Ko te mana motuhake’.

Tītokowaru

He toa, he poropiti a Rīwha Tītokowaru i whakaaweawetia e Te Ua Haumēne. I te matenga o Te Ua ka piki te mana o Tītokowaru ki roto o Taranaki. I whai wāhi atu hoki ki roto i tōna whakapono ētahi āhuatanga o te Pai Mārire, te Karaitiana me te ao Māori tawhito hoki. Ka hanga hōutia e ia he pā ko Te Ngutu-o-te-manu e 60 hoki ngā whare. I te hūnga o te riri ki te kāwanatanga i te mutunga o te tekau tau 1860 ka whakahokia mai e ia ngā tikanga o te kaitangata me te whāngai hau (ko te manawa o te hoariri hei tohu ki a Tūmatauenga). I muri i te pakanga ka tahuri ia ki te rangimārie. Ka whai kē ia i te maungarongo o ngā poropiti o Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu, ā, he wā hoki ka mauheretia ia.


Te Kooti – Ringatū

Ka tīmata i a Te Kooti te hāhi Ringatū

He hāhi anō i tua atu i te Pai Mārire ka hua ake i waenga i te ngahuru tau 1860. Ko te hāhi Ringatū ka tīmata i a Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki ki runga o Wharekauri, i tōna mauheretanga ki reira i ngā tau 1866-68. He hāhi tū tonu te Ringatū me ōna peka ingoa rerekē e whitu. Ko te ingoa rēhita o tēnei whakapono ko te Hāhi Ringatū.

He tohu nā te Atua

I te marama o Noema i te tau 1865 ka hopukina a Te Kooti mō te mahi pūrahorua ki Waerenga-a-hika, he pā kei waho mai o Tūranga. Heoi ka tukuna ia i te kore kitea o te hē. I te marama o Mei i te tau 1866 ka hopu pokanoatia anō a Te Kooti, ā, ka mauheretia ki Wharekauri me te kore whakawātanga nāna i tono. I te marama o Pepuere i te tau 1867, ka heke ia i te mate kohi. Ka tuhi a Te Kooti i roto i tōna maramataka mō te kōrerotanga a te Atua ki a ia kia ako ai ia i tōna iwi. Nō te 18 o Hune o taua tau, ka whakaatu ia i te tohu o te Atua: arā he ahi hikahika kāre i wera tōna ringa.

Te putanga i te koraha

Nāwai ka ārahi a Te Kooti i ngā mauhere 300 te tokomaha ki te ora i te marama o Hūrae i te tau 1868. I whakaekengia te waka kawe utanga o te Rifleman, ā, ka riro kātahi ka kotahi atu ki Whareongaonga, he whanga iti kei te tai whakarunga o Tūranga. Nā tō rātou hokinga ora mai, ka tū ngā ringa matau ki te Atua mō āna manaakitanga – nō tēnei tohu te ingoa o te hāhi. I te whaitanga a ngā hoia i a Te Kooti me te whakarau, ka pūpūtia te whakapono. I whakaahua a Te Kooti i tōna whakapono mō te mautohe me te haere roa; nō muri mai ka hurihia anō e ia ki te rongopai.

Te whanaketanga o te whakapono

I te whaitanga mai i Te Urewera i te tau 1872, ka noho a Te Kooti ki raro i te taumarutanga o te kīngi Māori tuarua a Tāwhiao me Rewi Maniapoto ki te Rohe Pōtae. I tana noho ki reira ka waihanga ia i te tikanga o tōna hāhi tae atu ki ōna rā tapu. Pērā i a Te Papahurihia, ka waitohu ia i ngā Hatarei hei rā hāpati rite ki ngā akoranga Hūrae. I te tau 1885 ka tohua e ia ngā tekaumārua hei rangi tapu mō ia marama. He maharatanga tēnei ki te whakaaturanga o ngā kawenata o tōna whakapono ki Wharekauri i te 12 o Mei i te tau 1868 ka tahi; i te ūnga o te whakarau ki Whareongaonga i te 12 o Hūrae o te tau 1868 ka rua; ka toru ki tōna tūtakinga ki te Minita Māori ki a Te Pareihe i te 12 o Pēpuere 1883. Ka tae atu a Te Pareihe ki te mihi ki a Te Kooti, kia kitea hoki e unu hara ana te ture hōu a te kāwanatanga i te rangi o muri mai. Arā anō ngā kōrero a ngā tekaumārua e whai pānga ana ki ngā kōrero a te karaipiture, pērā i ngā iwi tekau mā-rua o Iharaira.

I mua atu rā i ngā tau 1875-76, ka tohua e Te Kooti te tahi o Hānuere me Hūrae hei pou mō te tau hāhi. Ka whakanui te tahi o Hānuere i te Kapenga o ngā Toenga o Iharaira; ko te tahi o Hūrae he rā whakanui i te houanga o te kōanga. I te tau 1879 ka tāpirihia e ia te tahi o Hune me Tīhema, arā, ngā rangi o te huamata (kawa whakatō) me te pure (kawa hauhake). Ko ēnei Rā ngā pou e whā o te hāhi Ringatū.

Te wete hara i a Te Kooti

I te unuhanga o ōna hara e te kāwanatanga ka takahi a Te Kooti i te mata o te whenua kia tūtaki ki ōna hoa me ōna hoariri o mua, ka waiho waiata, tohutohu hoki ia ki ia wāhi. He nui āna whakatūpato ki ngā iwi kia matapopore ki ngā whenua, kei mahue ko ō rātou wharenui anake e tū ana. Ko ētahi he kupu whakaari nāna mō tōna tuarua, he tangata nui noa atu te mana i a ia, ā, māna e whakaotioti haere āna mahi Mīhaia. Ka whakatakoto a Te Kooti i ngā wero me ngā kupu whakaari hei whakaari ake i taua tangata nei. Ko tana hiahia kia kaha tonu te iwi ki ngā āhuatanga hurihuri o te wā. Ka whai kupu ia ki ana pononga me anga atu ki te Atua mō te whakahokinga mai o te whenua o Kēnana i manene ai rātou. Ko tāna whakahau, arā, kia kotahi anō huarahi hei hoehoenga, ko te ture: mā te ture anō te ture e āki. Ka mauhere pokanoatia anō a Te Kooti i a ia e hoki ana ki Tūranga. Kore rawa ia i hūnuku i tana tū; i tōna okiokinga i te tau 1893, e mahi kaitakawaenga ana ia mō Tūhoe ki te kāwanatanga.


Te Whiti and Tohu – Parihaka

Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu

He poropiti rongonui a Te Whiti-o-Rongomai rāua ko Tohu Kākahi nō Taranaki. He whanaunga rāua, ā, he teina tuakana ā rāua wahine. I te tau 1862 ka whakaora a Te Whiti i ngā tāngata pāhīhī me ngā kaimahi waka i te taupokinga o te waka Lord Worsley; e whā tau i muri mai ka whakaarahia e rāua te marae o te rangimārie ki Parihaka (ko Repanga kē i mua) i runga anō i te whakaae a Te Ua. Ka hāngai te ingoa hōu ki ngā mōteatea a te iwi.

I ngā rangi 17 (nō muri ko te 18) o ia marama ka hui te hapori kia kōrero i ngā oati a te karaipiture me ngā whenua raupatu o roto o Taranaki. Ko Te Whiti he kākāwahanui, ā, nāna i totohe te mana o te ture Pākehā e tāmi nei i te Māori. I te tīmatanga ka tauwhitiwhiti rāua tahi i ngā whakahaere o Parihaka he ono marama ka whiti; nāwai rā nā ngā taupatu moni, ka wāhiruatia te marae, ko tētahi ki tāna, ko tētahi ki tāna. I te ngahuru tau 1870 ko Parihaka te kāinga Māori nunui rawa o te motu.

Te rūri me te parau

I te tau 1878, ka tīmata te rūri a te kāwanatanga i ngā whenua raupatu kei te taha tonga o Taranaki mō Tauiwi. Ā nō te marama o Mei o te tau 1879, ka whakahau a Tohu i ngā tāne o Parihaka kia kokoraho anō i ērā papatipu mā te parau i te whenua. I te mauhereheretanga, ka whakakīia anō ō rātou tūranga e ētahi atu nō Pātea, Whanganui me Waikato te nuinga. Ka kī ake a Te Whiti, ‘The settlement to be by Europeans and Maories, the Maories on their reserves and the Europeans on the remainder but the Maories being owners of the soil to receive “takoha” [tribute] from the Europeans' (Mā te Pākehā me te Māori te whenua e tatū, ko ngā Māori ki ō rātou whakawhenatanga, ko ngā Pākehā ki ngā toenga whenua. Heoi anō, nō ngā Māori te whenua, nā reira me takoha ngā Pākehā ki ngā Māori).1 Ko tāna ko Parihaka te Iharaira hou mō te Māori, ka whai hoki ia i te tino rangatiratanga i raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Te pāhuatanga o Parihaka

Nā te kaha tautoko o ngā iwi Māori mō Parihaka, i te 5 o ngā rā o Noema i te tau 1881 ka pāhuatia Parihaka e ngā hōia a te kāwanatanga. Ka panaia ngā rāwaho (1,600 e ai ki ētahi) ā ka turakina ngā whare. Ka mauherehia a Te Whiti rātou ko Tohu ko tētahi anō poropiti o Taranaki a Tītokowaru mō te ono marama i a rātou e tatari ana kia whakawāngia. Engari ka whiua atu e te kaiwhakawā o te Kōti Matua te whakapae hara whakapā i runga i a Tītokowaru.

I te kitenga a te kāwanatanga kāore pea e tutuki ngā kēhi whakawā, ka whakature houtia e rātou te mauhere roa o Te Whiti me Tohu. Ka tonoa rāua ki Te Waipounamu mō ngā tau e rua. Ka mutu ka hoki atu rāua kia hanga hōutia Parihaka hei marae hōu mō te hapori.

I te tau 1886 ka mauheretia anō a Te Whiti. I te tau 1887 ka hoki atu anō ia, engari nō te tau 1891 kua pau rawa ana moni. He ahakoa tērā me ngā kōhetehete i waenganui i te tokorua nei, ka tū tonu te kāinga o Parihaka hei marae totohe i ngā ture Pākehā, ā, tae noa ki tō rāua matenga i te tau 1907. E tohu ana te raukura te awe toroa mau ake i te iwi rā i te rangimārie; e kīia ana he tohu tēnei nā te Wairua Tapu i poua ki Parihaka.

Footnotes
    • R. S. Thomson ki Lieut-Colonel J. M. Roberts, 1 Paenga-whāwhā 1880, Le 1 1879/3 (ii), wh. 76, Te Rua Mahara o te Kāwanatanga, Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Back

Other 19th-century prophets

Te Maihāroa

Ki roto o Te Waipounamu i te tau 1877, ka aratakina e Hipa Te Maihāroa te hunga porotēhi kia whakahokia mai ngā whenua o Te Ao Mārama ( e pātata ana ki Ōmārama) kei te taha raki o Ōtākou. Ka karangahia rātou ko ngā Iharaira, ā, ka whakahē rātou i te hoko a te kāwanatanga i Te Waipounamu i te tau 1848. Ko ngā tuawhenua he mea kerēme katoa e rātou. Nō te tekau tau 1860 ka tipu te whakapono i a Te Maihāroa ki raro anō i ētahi o ngā tauira a Te Ua me Te Whiti; ko te ingoa o te whakapono nei ko Kaikākara (Kai-ngāngara) inā hoki ōna kawa he tānoa i ngā wāhi tapu. Nō te tau 1879 ka tono ngā kaipāmu kararehe o Te Waipounamu i ngā pirihimana ki te whakawātea i te iwi ‘kainoho’ rā o Ngāi Tahu. Ka neke a Te Maihāroa ki Korotuaheka; i tōna matenga i te tau 1885, ka turakina te kāinga e kore ai e takatakahia tōna tapu i muri mai. Ka mahue i a ia tōna kupu mō tana kaiwhakakapi, arā he ‘tamaiti nohinohi’ nō roto o Taranaki.

Ani Kaaro

Hau ana te rongo o Te Whiti rāua ko Tohu. I te tekau tau 1880, ka whakataetae ngā wāhine tokotoru o Hokianga ki te amo o Te Whiti. Ko Ani Kaaro tētahi, arā te tamāhine o te rangatira o Ngāti Hao a Patuone. I tūtaki ia ki a Te Whiti, me te whakapae e rite tahi anō tā rāua atuatanga. Ko ōna hoa tauwhāinga ko Maria Pāngari (i mate i te tau 1887) me tōna teina a Rēmana Hana, te kaiārahi o tētahi kāinga i Okaihau. I mau katoa ōna pononga i ngā kākahu mā, hei tohu i te rangimārie. Nā te pupū ake o te raruraru ka riro herehere a Rēmana Hana me tōna matua a Aporo Pāngari i te marama o Hurae 1887 mō te patu pirihimana. I whai tonu a Ani me Rēmana i te huarahi pai e mau tonu ake ai ngā whenua o Ngāti Hao i ngā mahi poro rākau me te noho mai a Tauiwi.

Te Mahuki

Ka whakatūria e Te Mahuki o Ngāti Kinohaku he kāinga hou ki roto o Waikato ki Te Kumi, inā ia ka panaia tahi mai i Parihaka i te tau 1881. Ko tō rātou ingoa ko ana pononga ko te Tekaumārua. I tīkina atu tēnei ingoa i ngā āpotoro tekaumārua me te tekaumārua a Tāwhiao i tonoa e te Kīngi ki Parihaka i te tau 1866. I te marama o Maehe 1883, ka hopu a Te Mahuki i te kairūri a Charles Hursthouse, te tangata i whai wāhi ki ngā whakapae i tau ki runga i a Te Whiti. E rūri ana a Hursthouse ki roto o te Rohe Pōtae o Maniapoto i raro i te mana o ētahi rangatira nui o Ngāti Maniapoto. Nā Te Kooti kātahi nei ka whakawāteangia ana whakapae hara e Te Pareihe, ia i whakaora.

I te tau 1897 ka mauheretia a Te Mahuki mō te weranga o tētahi toa ki Te Kūiti. Ka whiua ia ki te whitu tau mō te whakamātau tahu whare, ā, ka whakawhitia ia ki te whare wairangi ki Ākarana i te marama o Āperira 1899. Ahakoa tana ora pai i tōna taenga atu ki te whare wairangi rā, e ono marama noa i muri mai ka mate ia.

Pāora Te Pōtangaroa

I te ngahuru tau 1880 ka puta ake te poropiti a Pāora Pōtangaroa ki roto o Wairarapa. Nō Ngāti Kahungunu me Rangitāne ia. Nāna i whakarite te whakatūnga o te wharenui ki Te Kaitekateka ki Te Ore Ore, he whare i kīia e kore e mutu i ngā tau e waru. I tōna otinga i te tau 1881 i roto tonu i te waru tau, ka tapaina te whare ko Ngā Tau e Waru.

Ka whakatū a Paora i tētahi toka hei tūāhu mō ōna atua kaitiaki. I te otinga o te whare, ka hua ngā poropititanga maha i a ia, pērā i tērā mō te ahunga mai o tētahi mana nui i roto o te rāwhiti. Ka whatua e ia te haki i mau ai ngā whakamārama ki ōna poropiti. Nāwai, ka kīia tērā he poropititanga mō te haerenga mai o ngā Mōmona. Kei ētahi e pā kē ana tēnei poropititanga ki te hāhi Rātana. Nā Tahupōtiki Rātana tonu te toka tūāhu i tango i te marae.

Pao Miere

Ka hua anō tētahi rōpū i ngā mautohe rūri whenua ki roto o te Rohe Pōtae o Maniapoto. I te tau 1887 ka ārahi a Te Rā Karepe rāua ko Rangawhenua i ngā mahi tārei i te whare o Te Miringa Te Kakara. I whakatūria tēnei whare ki te wāhi i tū ai te whare tawhito me tōna ingoa anō. Nō muri rawa mai i te tau 1983 ka tahuna te whare e tōna kaitiaki. Ko ngā akoranga i reira ka tapaina tēnei whakapono ko Pao Miere, arā he ingoa mō ngā whenua i riro i te reka o te moni. He hononga tēnei whakapono o ngā hāhi o te Pai Mārire me te whakapono ki a Io, te atua nui o te Māori me te Kīngitanga. Ko tōna kaupapa ake ko te rangimārie.

I te wā o te whare tuatahi i te marama o Oketopa 1869, ka whakahē a Te Rā Karepe i te karanga whakaaraara riri anō a Te Kooti. I te matenga o Te Rā Karepe i te tau 1894, ka tanua tana puka akoako ki tētahi o ngā pou o Tokanganui a Noho, te whare rūnanga nā Te Kooti tonu i waihanga mō te tāwharau a Tāwhiao me Maniapoto i a ia. Nō konā kua tuia anō ngā ngā akoranga poropiti rā i ngā mate o Te Rā Karepe, o Te Kooti me Tāwhiao.


Rua Kēnana – Tūhoe prophet

Nā runga i ngā kupu whakaari a Te Kooti arā ngā tāngata i ara ake hei rangatira i muri i a ia. I te okinga o Te Kooti i te tau 1893, ka rere ngā whakapae a ētahi ko rātou tonu tōna tuarua – te ‘Tama’, te Mīhaia. Heoi ko te tangata rongonui o tērā hunga ko Rua Kēnana.

Ka haere a Rua ki Tūranga

I te tau 1906 ka tohia a Rua ki te ingoa o Hepetipa e tutuki ai ngā kupu whakaari a Te Kooti i a ia. Ka tere atu a Rua me ōna rangatira 80 o Tūhoe me Ngāti Awa mā runga hōiho ki Tūranga, kia tūtaki ki a Kīngi Erueti te tuawhitu; i āta tohua te waru tekau hei tūtaki i tērā mahi. Ko tana rautaki kia hokona anō te whenua ki te koura (te taimana rānei) i te tama tonu a Kūini Wikitōria. I te kore puta mai o te kīngi, ka takoto i a Rua te tikanga ake o te haere: ‘Ko au te kīngi. Kei konei au, kei te tu i runga i tewāpu, me te iwi.’1

Maungapōhatu

Ka whakahokia e Rua tana iwi ki te take o te maunga tapu o Tūhoe, arā, o Maungapōhatu, ki reira whakatū i te kāinga hōu. Ko ngā whare whakahirahira i hangaia e ia i te tau 1908 ko ana tauira anō o Hiona me Hiruhārama Hōu ki te tāone o Rāwiri. I tā rātou ū anō ki te maungarongo kore rawa tētahi o rātou i rēhita mō te Pakanga Tuatahi.

Ka mauherehere a Rua

I te marama o Aperira 1916 ka mauherehia a Te Rua mō te hoko huna i te waipiro, he whakapae kanene noa. I te whakaekenga o te kāinga rā ka pūhia e te pirihimana tana tamaiti a Toko rāua ko tōna huanga a Te Maipi. E whitu ngā whakapae ā-ture i whakakorengia, ā, kotahi i ū tonu, arā, mō te whakahē ‘rangatira’ i te mauheretanga (i mua atu).

Ki tā ngā pononga titiro atu, ko te Karaiti tonu a Te Rua. Ka tuaruahia anō e tērā o āna tama e Mau tāna kōrero: ‘“If you don’t kill me with one shot, that to let you people know that I am the Son of the living God.” So they shoot him all right. … I myself have been bathing that wound ever since.' ("Ki te kore e mate au i a koe ki te matā kotahi, ka mōhio ai koutou, ko au te Tama a te Atua ora." Na, ka puhia tonutia a ia ... ko au tonu ki te whakakaukau i taua taotūtanga mai i taua wā).2

I tōna putanga i te mauhere, ka tahuri a Rua kia hanga anō i a Maungapōhatu i te tau 1927 e whakatika ai mō te mutunga o te ao i te kōkirikiri auahi tūroa. I te kore puta mai o te Atua, ka whakataua nā te hē o tana iwi, ā, ka kīia he wā anō e tatū ai ngā rā mutunga. I te tau 1937 ka mate a Te Rua ka ōhākī ake hoki mō tōna aranga mai anō.

Footnotes
    • He uiuinga i a Kino Hughes, 28 Kohi-tātea 1978. Back
    • He uiuinga i a Mau Rua, 19 Haratua 1978. Back

Other 20th-century prophets

Te Mātenga Tāmati

I tua atu i a Rua Kēnana, he maha anō ngā tāngata i whai kia kapi te tūranga o Te Kooti. Ko te tuatahi tonu ko Mātenga Tāmati o Ngāti Kahungunu ki te pito whakarunga o Te Wairoa. I te tau 1894, ka whakamārama ia i tana matakite mō te tāpenakara a Rāwiri; ka topea ngā rākau 12 ki te wao o tuawhenua ake o Te Wairoa, ā, ka tapā ia rākau ki tētahi o ngā ingoa tekaumārua o ngā tamariki a Hakopa, te tipuna o Iharaira. Ka tiaki ana pononga mā te whakapono e kawe ngā poro rākau, ā, nō te waipuke i te tau 1904 ka tere ngā poro katoa (hāunga tētahi) ki te wāhi i tohua ki te takutai, arā ki Kōrito. Kua tapaina tērā i ‘pōtere atu’ ki te ākau ko Hohepa. Ka whakahokia mai tērā i tawhiti ki ōna tuākana. E tatari tonu ana ngā rākau ki te kaiwhakatutuki i te kī.

Mere Rikiriki

Ko Mere Rikiriki te tamāhine a Kāwana Rōpiha (Hunia) o Ngāti Apa. He uri ia nō Maata, tērā tohunga rongonui i te wā o te Tiriti o Waitangi. I te tau 1910 e whitu ngā wā nā Mere anō ia i iriiri i ngā wai o Rangitīkei. Nāna i whakaū Te Hāhi o te Wairua Tapu. Ka mōhiotia ia mō āna mahi poropiti me tōna hāhi ā-Karaitiana nei. I te tau 1912 ka matakite ia mō te haerenga mai o tētahi poropiti. Nāwai ka whakaaengia ko taua tangata ko tāna irāmutu tonu, ko Tahupōtiki Rātana. I poropiti anō ia mō te whai hiranga o ana tama hoki o Ārepa me Ōmeka.

Rātana

He kaipāmu a Tahupōtiki Rātana nō Ngāti Apa. I a ia e hī ana ki Whangaehu, ka pae mai ngā tohora e rua. I te pānga o Ōmeka e te mate, ka nohopuku a Rātana kore kai, karakia ana. Nō te 8 o ngā rangi o Noema 1918 ka pā matakite ia ko ia tonu hei arataki i te iwi mai i ngā atua tawhito. I tua atu i tāna whakaaranga hāhi, ka tū anō i a ia te rōpū tōrangapū whai i ngā tūru Māori katoa o te Paremata mō ngā tau maha.

Te Hāhi o te Ruri Tuawhitu o Ihowā

Nō Ngāti Koata me Ngāti Kuia a Haimona Pātete. I te tekau tau 1890, nāna i whakamahi ngā akoranga a Pāora Te Pōtangaroa kia hanga i tana hāhi ko Te Hāhi o te Ruri Tuawhitu o Ihowā. E kīia ana nā Pātete tētahi kōtiro i whakaora kīhai i taea e ngā tākuta. Ka poua te whakapono nei ki Wairau me Wairarapa, ā¸ i ngā tau 1915–18 kotahi 18 te rahi o ana minita, pīhopa hoki. Ka korara te minenga i te taenga o Rātana ki roto o Wairau i te tau 1921.

Te Haahi o Te Kooti Rikirangi

Ko Wi Raepuku (Wi Horn) o Whanganui tētahi i tohua e Te Haahi o Te Kooti Rikirangi hei piki tūranga mō Te Kooti. I te tau 1937 ka tū motuhake mai tēnei hāhi.

Māramatanga

I te ngahuru tau 1930 ka arataki a Hōri Enoka (Te Mareikura) i te whakapono o Te Māramatanga ki Ōhakune me Taitoko. He mea whakaaweawe tēnei hāhi e Mere Rikiriki. Whai muri i tōna matenga i te tau 1946 ka taka āna mahi ki ōna tungāne (me ētahi atu). Ka whai wāhi ngā poropiti katoa o mua ki te hāhi Māramatanga. Ka tonoa ōna kaihautū i ngā haerenga ki raro i te mana o ngā Katorika, ki raro rānei i tā rātou anō kaupapa.

Hoori Keeti

He minita whai mana a Hoori Te Kou-o-Rehua Keeti nō te hāhi Ringatū i ngā tau mai i te tau 1942 ki tōna matenga ki te kāinga i Ōmāio i te tau 1961. He matakite ia i tāuwhiuwhi i ana tūroro ki te waitai me te hinu ōriwa. I tōna wā i Tātai-ā-Hape ki te whārua o Te Waimana ki Te Urewera, ka hanga ia i tōna peka o te hāhi Ringatū, arā, ko te Rangimārie, ā, ka whai wāhi mai hoki ko Tame Te Maro, te kaiārahi me te hēkeretari o te Kotahitanga o te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Alexander Phillips

I te tau 1961, ka whakatū a Alexander Phillips i te Kōtahitanga Building Society Incorporated hei kaupare i ngā mākutu a te tangata. I Taumarunui, ka whakatūria tana marae o Manu Ariki, tae atu ki te Kura Wānanga me te whare o te Atua ko Unveiling the Rock of Bethel. I te tau 2007 ka whakanuia e ia tōna huritau 90 ka kīia hoki ia ‘te poropiti Māori whakamutunga’; ka mate nei ia i te tau 2008.

Tātai whakaheke

Ka tātai ā-wairua mai ēnei kaiārahi tētahi i tētahi, ahakoa hoariri i ētahi wā. Ko rātou katoa tonu ka rongo i te whiu a te kāwanatanga, a te pirihimana rānei. Heoi ko te aro nui o ēnei rangatira ko te oranga Māori kua rua rau tau e haumate ana e noho manene ana. Ko te kaupapa tuakiri whānui a ēnei rangatira he whakakotahi i te iwi Māori ki raro i te ingoa o ngā Iharaira, ahakoa ngā rerekētanga ā-iwi. Ki tā te titiro Māori he mana nō te atua te mana o te rangatira nei ka manaakitia mō tētahi whakatipuranga ka tukuna iho ai. Inā ia nei he rite tonu te whakahou i te rārangi poropiti.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Judith Binney, 'Ngā poropiti', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-poropiti/print (accessed 26 June 2019)

Story by Judith Binney, published 5 May 2011