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Leisure in traditional Māori society – ngā mahi a te rēhia

by Ross Calman

He wā mō te mahi, he wā mō ngā mahi a te rēhia, arā, ngā mahi waiata, haka, poi, whakatangi puoro, kanikani me ngā  tākaro. Ko ētahi tākaro he akoako, he ngahau hoki. 


Leisure in traditional Māori society

Te whakaroherohe i te mahi me te rēhia

Rite tonu ki iwi kē, he wā mō te mahi, he wā anō mō te whakangahau, ā, me whai whakaaro ki te mahi kai kia makuru ai te kai. I ngā tau tōmua o te noho a te Māori ki Aotearoa, ākene pea he nui noa atu te wā ka whakapaungia ki ngā mahi a te rēhia. I tērā wā he iti noa iho te taupori, ā, he rahi ngā kai pūmua pērā i te kēkeno me te moa.

I roto i te rua rautau ka kore ngā moa, tae atu ki ngā kēkeno i ngā kokoru maha. Ka huri te Māori ki te tautohu haere i ngā whenua, me te toro atu ki ngā wāhi tōtika hei whakatipu, hei kohi kai. Ko tētahi atu whanaketanga ko te ako hou i ngā mahi tao kai, e toe ai te kai i te roanga atu o te tau.

Te tutū o te puehu

Nā ngā whakataetae mō ngā rawa kai ka pupū ake te riri. Ka tauwhāingatia ngā mahinga kai, pēnei i ngā tauranga ika, me ngā ngahere. Nā konei ka toro haere tēnei mea te riri i roto i te ao Māori. Nō te taenga mai o Kāpene Kuki ka kite ia i te noho mātotoru o te Maori ki roto i ōna pā whawhai. I ngā raumati, kua whakarerea ngā kō, ā, ka hīkina te patu. He nui kē atu ngā rā i whāia ai te karanga riri i te raumati, tēnā i te mahi i te kai.

He kai tangata

Ko ‘Rehua kai tangata’ te whakataukī kua eke te wā raumati, kua tahuri ki ngā mahi whawhai. Ko Rehua anō te tohu o te raumati.

Mātātahi mai, mātāpuputu mai

He nui ake te wā whakangā mō ngā tamariki me ngā kaumātua, ā, kīhai i whakawhiua rawatia ki ngā mahi uaua. Nā whai anō ka noho ngā tamariki ki te taha o ngā kaumātua ako ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho me ngā pūrākau o Hawaiki, ngā tātai kōrero o te iwi, me ngā pakiwaitara rongonui. Ko ngā akoranga ōkawa ka whakatōngia i roto i te whare wānanga i te wā o te hōtoke. Ko ngā tamariki rangatira anake, he mea āta tohu, ka noho ki tērā kura.

Te mahi whaiāipo

Kia pakeke haere te tamaiti kātahi ka āwhina ki ngā mahi. I a rātou e taiohi ana ka whakawaia e ngā mahi whaiāipo, arā, he mahi nui mā te rangatahi te tito waiata aroha, me ngā pao, i waiatatia me te whakatangi kōauau. He rite tonu te wā kua moe tāne, wahine kē te taiohi i mua i tōna moe pūmau.

Me hoki ngā tamariki ki te kāinga

He whakataukī: ‘Ka titi kiore, ka hoki mai’. He kōrero tēnei e pā ana ki te marara o te hunga tamariki i te awatea. Engari ka tū ā-tō te rā, ka ahiahi, ka titi te kiore, ko te tohu tērā ki te tamariki me hoki atu rātou ki te kāinga.

Ngā mahi a te rēhia me ngā tūnga tāngata

Ahakoa ngā rangatira, ngā tūtūā me ngā taurekareka, he mahi tonu tō tēnā, tō tēnā. Ko te mahi a te rangatira he whakapau kaha ki te taka kai me te kawe ā-riri. Mēnā i kaha ngā pūmanawa rangatira o tētahi, ka nui ake tōna mana, pērā i te rangatira o Ngāti Toarangatira, a Te Rauparaha. Engari ka whai wā tonu te rangatira ki te mahi tino roa o te tā moko. Ko te hunga taurekareka he mauhere nō te pakanga. Ahakoa ka whakawhiua te taurekareka ki te mahi, ka whakapau werawera tonu te iwi ki ngā mahi. He rite te wā ka moe te taurekareka ki roto ki te iwi kāinga, ā, manaaki rawatia ana tamariki ki roto ki taua iwi.


The social aspects of leisure

Ngā mahi o ia rā

Ka oho moata te Māori, i mua tonu i te tākiritanga o te ata. E rua ngā wā kai i te rā, ā, ka kai kei waho. Kia tata rā anō te pouri o te ahiahi, ka mutu ngā mahi. I tua atu i ngā ohu mahi kai, ko te taka me te tunu kai, ko te kohi me te tātā wahia ētahi mahi nui. Ko ētahi atu mahi tōroa he hanga, he tapitapi rānei i ngā whare, i ngā waka, i ngā kupenga, i ngā tāwhiti manu, i ngā whao, i ngā rākau, i ngā kākahu me etahi atu taonga.

Te noho huihui i te pō

I te ahiahi ka mutu ngā mahi o te rā, ā, ka karapinepine te iwi:

Pō noa ka harakoa te iwi ki te karahui i roto i te whare nui, ki reira pahupahu ai. He mea tahu ngā ahi i roto i ngā takuahi o te whare kia mahana, kia mārama hoki te kite atu.1

Te Hōtoke

Nā te roa me te makariri o ngā pō i te wā hōtoke kua hui katoa ki roto i te whare mō ētahi pūrākau, tākaro whare tapere hoki. Ka tahuna he ahi i ngā takuahi i te papa o ngā whare, me ngā pū rārā maire kia taea ai te kite.

Te Hākari

E ai ki te Pākehā tōmua, ki a J. S. Polack, ‘i ia hui, ahakoa te kaupapa, ka mutu i runga i te hākari.’2

He mea nui te hora hākari mā te manuhiri, o mea kāinga, o mea kāinga. Ko ngā take o tēnei mea te hākari he tohi, he tomo, he pākūhā, he tangihanga, he hahunga, he hohou rongo. Ka hākari anō te Māori i te hanga whare, i te tārai waka, i te hopu kai, i te hī ika me te whakatutū puehu. Ko ētahi hākari he paremata, he kaihaukai, arā he hākari ka mahora ki tētahi iwi mō tā rātou hora hākari i mua.

Ngā pourewa kai

Ko te nuinga o ngā hui ka tū i te wā o te ngahuru, i ngā rangi tōmua o te Takurua. Ko te whakatipu mana te aronga o te hākari, ā, ka whakataetae ngā hapū nō wai te hākari nui. E ai ki ngā Pākehā tōmua, ‘e rima tekau, e ono tekau putu rānei te teitei o ngā pourewa kai, kī ana i ngā rourou kai.’3

Ahakoa he kaupapa whai kawa, he kaupapa tōrangapū te nuinga o ngā huihuinga, ka hīkaka tonu te tangata ki te whakarere i ngā mahi, me te whai wā ki ētahi mahi hākoakoa. E ai ki a Polack, he wā whakanui ngā taunga mai a tētahi manuhiri mō ngā rā nunui, ki te Māori’.4 Ki tā te tumu kōrero, ki a Te Peehi (Elsdon Best):

Tuatahi ko te kaupapa tonu te mea nui, arā, he haerenga ki te hahu kōiwi, he hākari pākūhā rānei, he tohi rānei. Tuarua he kaupapa e huihui ai te hapū ki hapū kē, ki iwi kē, ā, i ētahi wā he kaupapa kaipakihi, tōrangapū te hui. I te wā e haere tonu ana te hui; e whakangahau mai ana te iwi tae atu ki ngā tamariki. He whakaharakoa, he whakangahau, he tākaro te mahi.5

Ngā mahi i te wā hākari

E ai ki ngā tuhinga hītori a Arthur Saunder Thomson, ko ētahi o ngā mahi hākoakoa ‘he kanikani, he waiata, he pahupahu, he whātōtō, he tauomaoma, he whiu tao, he tangi, he pikipiki, he kauhoe, he whakarewa manu aute, he tākaro tī, he whiu i te poi.’6

Footnotes
    • Elsdon Best, The Maori as he was. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Dominion Museum, 1934, p. 93. Back
    • J. S. Polack, Manners and customs of the New Zealanders, vol. 2. Rānana: J. Madden & Co., 1840, pp. 386–7. Back
    • Richard Taylor, Te Ika a Māui. Rānana: Wertheim and Macintosh, 1855, p. 169. Back
    • Manners and customs of the New Zealanders, vol. 2, pp. 386–7. Back
    • Elsdon Best, The Maori, vol. 1. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1924, p. 384. Back
    • Quoted in Elsdon Best, Games and pastimes of the Maori. Wellington: Government Printer, 1976, pp. 16–17. Back

Festivals

Ngā wā whakanui i te hauhake

Ko te kōhititanga o Whānui te tohu o te hauhake. E kī ana te kōrero: ‘Ka rere a Whānui, ka tīmata te hauhake’.

Te maramataka

I ngā wā o mua, ko te maramataka te taonga tohu ki te iwi me aha rātou. Ko ngā whetū i te rangi, me ngā rerekētanga i te taiao ngā tohu nui ki te iwi kua rerekē haere ngā marama. Nā runga i ēnei tohu, arā, te kohititanga o ngā marama ki te rangi, ngā āhuatanga o te puāwai o te rākau, te kitenga o ngā manu i ōna wā o te tau mō aua manu, ka roherohea ngā marama o te tau. Nā ēnei āhuatanga ka mōhio ki ngā wā tika me whakatō, me hauhake, me hī, me whaiwhai, me kohi kai rānei te iwi.

Kia purua rā anō ngā kai hauhake ki roto i te rua kātahi ka kī; ‘Kua uru ngā kai ki te rua; kua mutu ngā mahi a te tangata’.1

E ai ki te Pākehā tōmua te tae mai ki Aotearoa, ki a J. S. Polack, ‘ka tū te hākari nui i te marama o Poutūterangi, whai muri i te wā hauhake.’2

Te ngahuru – te marama tekau

E ai ki te maramataka Māori ko Ngahuru, arā, ko Ngahuru-kai-paenga te wā e hauhaketia ai te kūmara. E kī ana a Teone (Hōne) Taare Tīkao o Ngāi Tahu, ko Ngahuru te marama roa rawa, te tino marama harikoa hoki o te tau:

Ko Ngahuru te wā e hauhaketia ai te kumara, ā, ka koa ana te Māori koia tonu rā te wā e makuru ana te kai. E rua wā i te rā ka kai, engari i ngā wā e onge ana te kai, kotahi noa iho te kai. Inā whai anō ka rikarika katoa te Māori ki te Ngahuru, kia ngahuru rā anō ngā kainga i te rā, mehemea ka kaha ia kia tekau kainga i rā kotahi.3

Ngā mahi a Ruhanui

I te tau 1872 ka kī ake te kaingārahu o Ngāti Porou, a Rōpata Wahawaha, ‘I ngā wā o mua, ka kōhiti a Whānui kua hauhaketia ngā kai, kua paenga ki te rua, ā, kātahi ka tīmata “ngā mahi a Ruhanui.’4 Ka whakarārangitia e Wahawaha ngā mahi a Ruhanui, pērā i te hākari mō te whakakīnga o te rua kumara, te koha kai i waenganui i te tangata whenua me te manuhiri, me te mahi haka, poi, whakatangi taonga pūoro hoki, tae atu ki ngā tākaro.

Hauhake tini tangata

Kāore e ārikarika ngā whakataukī mō te tangata ka piri i te wā o te hauhake me te kai, engari tē kitea mai i te wā o ngā mahi whakatipu. Anei tētahi tauira: ‘Kōanga tangata tahi; ngahuru puta noa’.

Te mātahi o te tau

Hei te marama o Pipiri ka marewa ake a Matariki i te tahatū o te rangi. Ko te tohu tēnei o te mātahi o te tau. I ngā wāhi kāre e mārakerake ana te kite i a Matariki, ko Puanga kē te whetū tohu i te tau hou. He wā maumahara ki te hunga kua whetūrangitia i te tau ka hori.

Ka rewa ake a Matariki, kua hākari, kua mahi i “Ngā mahi a te rehia” – arā, ko te whakaharakoa, ko te kanikani, ko te waiata, ko ngā tini tākaro a te whare tapere, me ngā tauwhāinga maha.’5

He huhua ngā whakataukī mō te makuru o te kai i tēnei wāhanga o te tau, pērā i a ‘Matariki ahunga nui’. Arā anō tētahi, ‘Ka kitea a Matariki, kua maoka te hinu’’.

Footnotes
    • Elsdon Best, The Maori division of time. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1959, p. 18. Back
    • J. S. Polack, Manners and customs of the New Zealanders, vol. 2. Rānana: J. Madden & Co., 1840, p. 386. Back
    • Teone Taare Tikao, Tikao talks: traditions and tales told by Teone Taare Tikao to Herries Beattie. Ōtepoti: Reed, 1939, p. 45. Back
    • Elsdon Best, Games and pastimes of the Maori. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1976, p. 12. Back
    • Elsdon Best, The Maori, vol. 1. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1924, p. 385. Back

Te whare tapere

Ko ngā mātauranga kōrero pūrākau, ngā waiata, ngā haka, ngā poi, ngā taonga puoro me ngā tākaro ka hua mai i te whare tapere.

Kōrero pūrākau

He kōrero paki, he whakarongo ki ngā pūrākau ētahi mahi harakoa tino nui ki te Māori o mua. E ai ki te mihinare tōmua a William Yate, ‘ko te tino mahi he kauhau i ngā kōrero hautipua; he roa ngā haora e pahupahu ai rātou mō ngā kōrero o te pō. Ka ohongia te pō e rātou kia kōrero i ngā kōrero paki, tōna tikanga kia moe kē te tangata i te pō.’1

Ko te pakiwaitara me te pūrākau ngā kupu whānui mō ngā kōrero tuku iho. E kīa ana ko te kōrero takurua me te kōrero ahiahi he paki, kāore i pērā rawa te pono, arā, he kōrero paki, he titonga kupu kōrero. Ko te mahinga matua o ēnei he whakangahau i te kaiwhakarongo.

Ehara te pūrākau i te whakangahau noa iho. Engari he kōrero tuku iho e pā ana ki te taiao, ki te kōrero hītori, tātai whakapapa me ngā tikanga ā-iwi. He tino mīharo ngā mihinare tōmua pērā i a Samuel Marsden ki te āhei o te Māori ki te hopu i te kōrero.

Waiata

Kei ngā tūāhua katoa o te ao Māori tēnei mea te waiata. He nui ngā momo waiata, pērā i te pao, i te waiata tangi me te pātere. He huhua ngā kōrero mō ngā mahi a ngā tīpuna, ngā tātai kōrero me ngā kupu whakarite kei roto i ngā momo waiata.

Mēnā e āhei ana kua parakitihi i ngā waiata o te hau kāinga. Nōna e tamariki ana, ka whakamārama a Te Rangi Hīroa mō te waiata a ngā kaumātua i ā rātou waiata i roto i te whare tipuna i te pō, i te atapō rānei. Ko te mahi a ngā tamariki pakeke he hopu haere i aua waiata kia taunga ai mō ngā huihuinga a te hau kāinga.

Hui whakataetae

Ka tū ngā hui whakataetae i waenganui i ngā kāinga kiritata. Ko ngā mahi he hākinakina, he taumāhekeheke. ‘Ko ētahi whakataetae he whātōtō, he mamau, he para whakawai, he hoe waka, he whakaharatau ki ngā haka, te tī rākau me te pere tao … Ka tū anō ētahi whakataetae whakarewa manu aute … Ko tā Tūhoe mahi he tākaro i te ruru, te kōruru rānei.’2

Haka me te poi

He nui te haka me te poi i roto i ngā tūmomo whakangahau a te Māori. ‘He wā ka whakahaere ētahi tauwhāinga i waenganui i ngā kāinga, kua haere hoki he kapa poi ki tētahi atu kāinga ki te whakataetae atu ki te kapa poi o tērā kāinga. Ka haere ngātahi anō ko te haka.’3 He whānui ngā tūmomo haka, tae atu ki ngā haka a ngā wāhine.

Taonga puoro

Ka ahu ano mai te taonga puoro i ngā oro o te taiao. I te wā o ngā kawa tapu me ngā whakangahau ka rangona te taonga puoro, ā, i roto hoki i ngā waiata, ngā haka me ngā poi. 

Ka hangā te taonga puoro ki te hue, ki te angaanga, ki te kōhatu me te rākau. He mea whakatangi mā te waha, te pongāihu, mā te porotiti, te wiriwiri me te paopao.

Ko te kōauau te taonga puoro rongonui a te Māori. I ngā wā o mua he tino taonga te kōauau: ‘he mea whakaharakoa ki ngā pā katoa te whakarongo ki ngā mātanga kaiwhakatangi o te hapū.'4

Ko Tamatekapua rāua ko Whakatūria

He kura tawhito te whare tapere e rangona ai ngā kōrero e pā ana ki Hawaiki. Tērā te wā ka whakamahi pouturu a Tamatekapua rāua ko tōna taina a Whakatūria. Ko te take he tāhae i ngā pōporohua a Uenuku. Ka mau a Whakatūria, ā, ka herea ki roto i te whare o Uenuku. Kātahi a Whakatūria ka kite i ngā mahi o te whare tapere, arā, i ngā haka, i ngā waiata, i ngā pekepeke, i ngā tutukai, i ngā tī me ngā punipuni.

Ngā hākinakina me ngā tākaro

I ngā huihuinga nui, ka whai wāhi te katoa ki ngā tākaro me ngā hākinakina. I tua atu i te ngahau i ngā kaitākaro me ngā kaimātaki, he ako anō i ngā kōrero tuku iho a te iwi, he whakahoahoa anō ki ngā mahi kawe ā-riri.

Ko te marae ātea o te kāinga ka whakamahia mō ngā kaipara. I ngā raumati kua tahuri ki ngā hākinakina i roto i te wai, pērā i te kauhoe, te ruku me te reti ngaru. I ngā pō roa o te hōtoke kua tahuri ki ngā tī ringaringa, ngā whai me ngā karetao.

Ko ngā taonga tākaro a ngā tamariki ka hangā ki ngā taonga o te taiao, ā, ko ētahi he tētere, me te toparere. Ā, he mea hoahoa ētahi waka i te harakeke me te raupō hei taonga tākaro mā ngā tamariki.

Footnotes
    • Quoted in Elsdon Best, Games and pastimes of the Maori. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Government Printer, 1976, p. 14. Back
    • Games and pastimes of the Maori, p. 14. Back
    • Games and pastimes of the Maori, p. 105. Back
    • Quoted in Brian Flintoff, Taonga puoro: singing treasures. Whakatū, Aotearoa: Craig Potton Publishing, 2004, p. 65. Back

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Ross Calman, 'Leisure in traditional Māori society – ngā mahi a te rēhia', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-mahi-a-te-rehia/print (accessed 28 February 2020)

He kōrero nā Ross Calman, i tāngia i te 5 Sep 2013