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First peoples in Māori tradition

by  Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal

Kei ngā iwi Māori ā rātou kōrero mō ngā iwi tawhito me ngā atua i noho ki Aotearoa mai i te orokohanga o te ao. He mea tuku iho ngā kōrero nei, ngā kōrero mō ngā tamariki a Rangi rāua ko Papa, ngā iwi huna o ngā maunga, ngā kōrero hoki mō Kupe, te kaihōpara o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ko ngā kōrero tuku iho te tūāpapa o tētahi hononga hōhonu ki te whenua.


Framework of the traditions

He nui tonu ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā iwi Māori o Aotearoa mō ngā tāngata me ngā atua i ora i mua noa atu i te taenga mai o ngā waka i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. He mea nui ēnei kōrero ki te tuakiri o te tangata whenua.

Te taenga mai o ngā waka

Kī ngā kōrero, nā ngā waka ngā tāngata o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa i mau mai ki Aotearoa. He kōmaru, he ama ō ngā waka nei, ka mutu, e rua rā anō ngā takere. Whai muri i tā rātou ūnga mai ki Aotearoa, ka tū ngā kāinga o ngā tīpuna o ngā iwi e takatū nei i ēnei rā.

Ka tohu ngā mātauranga hōu a te Pākehā ki te hekenga mai o ngā tāngata i Poronihia mā runga i ō rātou waka e 700 tau ki mua.

Ngā kōrero nō mua noa atu i ngā waka

I tua atu i ngā kōrero mō ngā waka, ko ngā kōrero tuku iho mō ngā iwi i noho ki Aotearoa i mua i te taenga mai o ngā waka. Ka noho enei kōrero ki roto i ngā tāhū kōrero a tēnā, ā tena iwi.

Ka taea pea te whakaraupapa i ngā kōrero hei whakaatu i te hōhonu o ngā hononga o ngā iwi ki te whenua. Kua whakaritea ngā kōrero o raro nei ki te whakapapa:

  • Hineahuone – te tangata tuatahi, i pokea mai i te one.
  • Māui – te tipua nāna Te Ika-a-Māui i hī ake. Ko Te Wai Pounamu tōna waka, ko Rakiura te punga o taua waka.
  • Ngā tīpuna o te ao tūroa. E ai rā ki a Ngāti Whātua, i tipu mai tō rātou tipuna a Tuputupu-whenua i te whenua; waihoki, whakapapa mai ai a Ngāi Tūhoe i a Hinepūkohurangi, arā te pūkohu tāiri ki runga o Te Urewera. Koinei tapaina ai Te Pēhi ko Tūhoe, ‘ngā tamariki o te kohu’.
  • Ko te patupaiarehe me te tūrehu – ko ngā maunga ngā kāinga o ngā iwi nei. E kīia te kōrero, ko rātou te tangata whenua tūturu.
  • Ko Kupe rāua ko Toitehuatahi ētahi o ngā kaitoro tōmua ki Aotearoa. E kī ana e ētahi, ko Kupe te Māori tuatahi kia tae mai ki Aotearoa. Whakapapa mai ai te maha o ngā iwi i a Toitehuatahi, me kī koinei te takenga mai o te mana whenua me ngā pānga o ētahi iwi.

Te here ki te whenua

Ka tīmata ngā kōrero tuku iho mō te tangata i te whānautanga mai o Hineahuone i te whenua. Koinei te tūturutanga o te herenga o te tangata ki te whenua. Kei te pihinga ake o te tuakiri o te iwi, ko āna kōrero tuku iho.


Tāne, Hineahuone and Hine

He nui ngā kōrero mō te putanga mai o te tangata i te whenua. Tīmata ai ngā kōrero nei i a Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku, ngā mātua o Tāne, te atua o te ira tangata. E kī ana ētahi ko Tūmatauenga - tērā o ngā tamariki a Rangi rāua ko Papa – koia kē te atua o te tangata.

Whakanuia rawatia a Tāne i roto i ngā kōrero tuku iho. Ko tētahi o āna mahi nui ko te poke i te wahine tuatahi mai i te one i Kurawaka. Ko Hineahuone te ingoa o taua wahine. Nā Hineahuone rāua ko Tāne, ko Hinetītama. Nō muri karangatia ai ia ko Hinenuitepō. Ko Hinetītama te kaitiaki o ngā tatau o te pō me te rā, o te pōuri me te māramatanga. Kitea ai a Hine i ngā ata i te whitinga me te toremitanga o te rā. E kī ana te kōrero, koinei ngā tīpuna o te tangata.

Anei he wāhanga o tētahi kōrero mō te auahatanga o Hineahuone:

Ka karanga atu a Tāne, ‘Kei te kimi tātou i te ara ki te wahine. Koinei tā tātou mahi.’ Ka whakautua tana kōrero e rātou, ‘Haere ki te one i Kurawaka, ki reira mahi ai. Kitea ai te wahine ki reira, he wahine tapu, i te mea kei a ia te mauri o te tangata.’ Kātahi ka haere rātou kia tae ki te one i Kurawaka. Ka auaha mai ko ngā kōhiwi, ko te māhunga, ngā ringa, te tinana, ngā waewae ngā kūhā i te otinga o te hangaa o te kōhiwi 1
Footnotes
    • S. Percy Smith, The lore of the whare-wananga, vol. 1. New Plymouth: T. Avery for the Polynesian Society, 1913, p. 34. › Back

Māui

Ko Māui te hīanga puta noa i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. I mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā, he nui ngā kōrero a ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa mōna. Ko te nuinga o ngā kōrero mōna he kōrero pūrākau – tana tāhae i te ahi, tana hopu i te rā, tana whai i te mauri o te mate, tana hekenga ki Rarohenga ki te rapu i tōna matua.

Ko tētahi kōrero nui mō Māui, mō tana hī ake i Te Ika-a-Māui. E kī ana te kōrero, ko Te Wai Pounamu tōna waka, ko Rakiura te punga o taua waka, ko Kaikōura te wāhi tū ai a Māui ki te kukume i tana ika.

Take mō te noho

He whakahirahira ngā kōrero hei whakaatu i te tirohanga a te Māori ki tōna ao. He take nui ngā kōrero tuku iho e pā ana ki a Māui i te mea, nā Māui te tangata i whai tūrangawaewae ki Aotearoa. Mā te whakapapa ki a Māui, ka whai mana te iwi ki te whenua.

Māui me tana ika

Nā Mohi Ruatapu, tohunga o Ngāti Porou, te kōrero e whai ake nei. Ka tīmata ana kōrero nei i te tīkina o Māui i te kauae o tōna kuia a Murirangawhenua, me tana whakamahi hei matau. Kātahi a ia ka haere ki te hī ika i te taha o ōna tuākana. Ka haere tonu ngā kōrero a Mohi:

…ko tōna ihu tōna mounga; ka motokia e ia kia rere te toto, ā pania e ia te toto ki runga i te kauwae o tōna kuia a Murirangawhenua. i te tapokotanga o te matau kua mau te ika. kātahi ka rewa te waka, ka tau te ihu ki raro i te wai ... nā te mataku ka ūmere atu ōna tuakana ... Kātahi ka puea mai tana ika ... E takoto tonu nei te ika, ko te whenua e hora nei. E nōhia tonu nei te whenua e Māui e ōna tuākana ko ā rātou tamariki. Koinei te takenga mai o te noho o te tangata ki te whenua. 1
Footnotes
  1. Nga korero a Mohi Ruatapu, tohunga rongonui o Ngati Porou: the writings of Mohi Ruatapu. Nā Anaru Reedy i ētita, i whakamārama. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press, 1993, w. 123. › Back

Ancestors from the natural world

Ki tā te Māori titiro ko ngā mea o te taiao tonu ō rātou tīpuna. Ka tapaina ki ētahi āhuatanga o te whenua ngā whanonga me ngā ingoa o te tangata. Hei tauira, ko Tānerore te rā, tokorua āna wāhine – ko Hinetakurua i te takurua, ko Hineraumati i te wā o te raumati. Otirā ko Hineruhi te ata i ngā ata hāpara, ko Hinemoana te atua o ngā moana, o ngā ika hoki.

Ka whakatōngia te whenua, te moana, te rangi ki te mana, te mauri, ngā āhuatanga hei paihere i te tangata ki te whenua. Ka kī ngā whakamārama o muri mai, ko tā tēnei mahi a te Māori, he whakaū i ngā āhuatanga o te tangata ki runga te whenua. I te tau 1923 ka puta te kōrero a Ira Tahu o Ngāti Porou, ‘Ko te mahi a ngā tīpuna he wānanga he aha ngā mea nui o te ao, kātahi ka whakatangatatia e rātou. Arā, ka tapaina he mea ki tētahi ingoa, anō nei he tangata.’ 1

Te paihere i te tangata me te ao tūroa

Nā tēnei mahi a te Māori, ka āhei ia te pohewa, koia taua mea o te taiao, pēnei i te rākau, te toka, te ika rānei. He nui ngā kōrero e whakarite ana i te tangata ki te manu – te mau korowai manu, te waiata pērā i te manu, te whakarite i te hui marae ki tētahi kāhui manu. He whiti tēnei nō tētahi pātere o Te Tai Tokerau hei pōwhiri i te manuhiri ki runga marae:

Nau mai e taku manu, he manu aha ka tau?
Kūaka mārangaranga ki te tāhuna
Korimako pae ki te kōtātara
Pīwaiwaka i kutia ai te mate
Kōtuku rerenga tahi.

Kōrero ā-iwi

He ahurei ngā kōrero a ētahi iwi mō tō rātou putanga mai ki te ao. Whakapapa mai ai a Ngāi Tūhoe i te kohu e kākahu ana i ngā pae maunga o Te Urewera. Ko Hinepūkohurangi te ingoa o tēnei tipuna. Nā Hinepūkohurangi rāua ko Te Maunga, ka puta ko Pōtiki, he tipuna nui o te iwi o Ngāi Tūhoe.

I tipu ake a Tumutumu-whenua (ko Tuputupu-whenua rānei) he tipuna nui nō Te Tai Tokerau i te whenua. Whāia, ka whānau mai te iwi o Whanganui i te maunga o Ruapehu, ka whakapapa hoki ngā iwi o Awanuiarangi (ko Te Āti Awa me Ngāti Awa) i tētahi wairua heke i te rangi.

Footnotes
  1. Nga korero a Reweti Kohere ma, ed. Wiremu and Te Ohorere Kaa. Wellington: Victoria University Press, 1994, w. 42–44. › Back

Patupaiarehe, tūrehu and other inhabitants

Nā Hoani Nahe, kaumātua o Ngāti Maru tēnei kōrero i tuhi i te paunga o te rau tau 1800, te tīmatanga rānei o te rau tau 1900. Ka tuhi ia mō ētahi iwi e kīia ana ko te patupaiarehe me te tūrehu. Ka nōhia e rātou te whenua i mua i te taenga mai o ngā waka i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Tēnā whakarongo mai. I te taenga mai o ngā waka ka kitea ngā iwi e noho ana ki te whenua – ko Ngāti Kura, ko Ngāti Korakorako, ko Ngāti Tūrehu. He hapū katoa ēnei nō te iwi kīia ai ko te Patupaiarehe. Ko te ingoa o ngā rangatira o tēnei iwi ko Tahurangi rātou ko Whanawhana, ko Nukupori, ko Tuku, ko Ripiroaitu, ko Tapu-te-uru, ko Te Rangipouri. Ko ō rātou nohoanga i ngā tihi o ngā maunga tiketike – ki roto o Hauraki, ko ō rātou kainga i ngā maunga o Moehau, o Motutere, o Maumaupaki, o Whakairi, o Kaitarakihi, o Te Koronga, o Horehore, o Whakaperu, o Te Aroha-a-uta, o Te Aroha-a-tai; ko Pirongia ki roto o Waikato. Kāore e taea te kite i ngā pā, ngā kāinga me ngā whare o te iwi nei, kāore rānei e kitea e te kanohi o te tangata ora. Heoi, i ētahi wā ka kitea ētahi āhua i te ngahere, engari kīhai i te mōhiotia nō te patupaiarehe tērā hanga ... I ētahi wā ka tūtaki te Māori ki a rātou i roto i te ngahere, ā, rangona ai rātou e kōrerorero ana. Hāunga tērā, kāore rawa rāua e tūtaki ā-kanohi. Rongohia ai ō rātou reo, engari tē kitea.
Hei ētahi pō, ka rongo i a rātou e hoe ana i ō rātou waka ... i aua wā, ka rongohia ēnei pātai: ‘He aha tērā?’ ‘Ko wai tērā iwi e haere ana i ō rātou waka i te moana inapō? Ka rangona rānei te pātai nei, ‘Ko wai ērā i te waha papā, i te hoihoi i te ngahere?’ He rite hoki te whakautu: ‘ Ehara i te tangata Māori, he atua, he Patupaiarehe, he Tūrehu, he Korakorako.’ 1
Footnotes
  1. Hoani Nahe, ‘Maori, Tangata Maori.’ Journal of the Polynesian Society 3 (1894): w. 27–35. › Back

Kupe

E ai ki ētahi iwi, ko Kupe te tangata tuatahi ki Aotearoa. Nā ngā pōreareatanga i a ia e hī ika ana i tōna kāinga ki Hawaiki, ka rere a ia ki Aotearoa. Ko te raruraru, ko te wheke mōkai a tana hoa tauwhāinga a Muturangi. Kātahi ka whakatika a Kupe ki te patu i te wheke rā. Ka whāia e Kupe te wheke rā, ā, tatū rawa ki Aotearoa. Nā rāua ko Ngake (ko Ngahue rānei) te wheke i whai ki Raukawakawa (Te Moana o Raukawa rānei), i reira patua rawatia ai. I haramai a Ngake mā runga i tētahi atu waka, ko Tāwhirirangi te ingoa.

Ngā taunahatanga a Kupe

He mea nui whakaharahara te taenga mai o Kupe ki Aotearoa, nā whai anō whakanuia ai e ngā iwi maha ā rātou tātai heke mai i a ia. E kī ana te kōrero, nā Kuamārōtini, te wahine a Kupe, a Aotearoa i whakaingoa i tōna kitenga tuatahitanga i Te Ika-a-Māui. He rite a Kupe ki a Māui i mua i a ia, arā, ko tana taenga mai te puaretanga mō te Māori ki tēnei whenua. Ko te nuinga o ana haerenga ki te tonga o Te Wairarapa, ki Te Moana-o-Raukawa, tae rawa atu ki Te Tai Tokerau. Heoi anō, ko ētahi kōrero e kī ana i heke rā anō a ia ki Arahura i Te Tai Poutini, ā, ka tae a ia ki Moehau. Ko Taputapuātea me Te Whitianganui-a-Kupe ētahi o ngā wāhi e whakamaumahara ana i te wā i noho a Kupe ki te rohe o Hauraki.

He kōrero mō Te Moana-o-Raukawa

Mō ngā pūrākau rongonui, ehara i te mea kotahi anake te whakaaturanga. Ka kōrero a Te Whetu o Te Āti Awa ki a Te Pēhi mō te haerenga whakatetonga a Kupe atu i Tāmaki-makau-rau ki Taranaki, tatū rawa ki Te Moana-o-Raukawa. Nō tana taenga ki reira, ka rere ana manu nō Hawaiki kia tirotiro i ngā rohe o Te Wai Pounamu. Ka mate tētahi o ana manu, a Te Kawau-a-Toru ki Te Aumiti, he roma wai kei waho ake o Rangitoto-ki-te-tonga (D’Urville Island):

Katahi ka whanake a Te Kawau-a-Toru … ka tukuna e ia tētahi o ōna parirau ki roto i te wai, ko tētahi kei runga ake i te wai, heoi kāore ia i tau … E hoa! Ka whati rā te parirau o taua manu … ka mate i konei te toa a Kupe. 1

Nā te whatinga o te parirau o taua manu ka huaki mai ko Te Aumiti (French Pass). He ara whakatere waka tēnei. Kei reira tonu te parirau kāore i whati, ka noho hei ārai mō ngā waka. Karangahia ai ēnei toka ko Te Kawau-a-Toru.

Te hokinga ki Hawaiki

Kei te raki o Te Ika-a-Māui anō ngā kōrero mō Kupe. Ka kōrero a Himiona Kāmira, kaumātua o Ngāpuhi, mō te hokinga o Kupe ki Hawaiki:

Ka tae te wā kia hoki a Kupe ki Hawaiki ... (Ka mahue) ko Tuputupu-whenua hei puna mō Hokianga. I te ata o tōna wehenga atu, ka kawea e ia tana tama (a Tumutumu-whenua) ki te puna .. Kātahi ka poroaki a Kupe ki tana tama ... ‘E noho rā, Te Puna o te Ao Mārama. Ka hoki ahau, e kore ahau e hokianga mai anō.’ Ka oti tana poroaki, ka whiua e ia tana tama ki roto i Te Puna o te Ao Mārama. Ka huri te tamaiti rā hei taniwha. Nō konei takea mai ai te ingoa o Hokianga. 2

Ngā wāhi i taunahatia e Kupe

He maha ngā wāhi i tapaina e Kupe, ko Arapāoa tērā, ko Mana tērā, ko ngā moutere o Te Whanganui-a-tara, ko Matiu rāua ko Mākaro ērā, tae atu ki a Kohukohu, a Pouahi, a Maungataniwha me Hokianga ki Te Tai Tokerau. Ka puritia aua ingoa e ngā iwi Māori o aua rohe. Kua ngaro te maha noa atu o ngā taunahatanga o ētahi atu tipuna i haere mai ki Aotearoa, heoi, kei te mau tonu ngā taunahatanga a Kupe.

Footnotes
  1. Nga korero a Mohi Ruatapu, tohunga rongonui o Ngati Porou: the writings of Mohi Ruatapu. Nā Anaru Reedy i ētita, i whakamārama. Christchurch: Canterbury University Press, 1993, w. 23. › Back
  2. Himiona Kaamira, ‘Kupe.’ Journal of the Polynesian Society 66 (1957): 219–235 (Nā Bruce Biggs i whakamārama). › Back

Toitehuatahi

Ko wai a Toi?

He tipuna tōmua, nui a Toitehuatahi nō te iwi Māori. E kī ana ētahi kōrero i ahu mai a ia i Hawaiki, kei ētahi e kī ana, he tangata whenua a ia o Aotearoa. Heoi, ko te kōrero nui pea mōna, mō tana rangatiratanga me tōna mana. E kī ana te kōrero, tērā tētahi iwi ko Te Tini-o-Toi, i noho ki te whenua i mua i te taenga mai o ngā waka pēnei i a Tainui, a Te Arawa, a Mataatua. Kīia ai ēnei tāngata, ko ngā tāngata whenua. Aronuitia tō rātou tūranga i roto i ngā kōrero tuku iho a ngā Māori o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Kōrero mō Toi

I te mea he tipuna nui a Toi, he maha ngā kōrero mōna, ko ētahi ka taupatupatu. Ko tētahi kōrero rongonui mōna, ko te kainga a Toi ( nō Hawaiki) i te kurī a Uenuku. Ko Toi-kai-rākau anō tētahi ingoa inā kē te whānui o tōna aronga. Ki ētahi iwi i noho a Toi ki Te Tai Rāwhiti o Te Ika-a-Māui, heoi e kī ana ngā iwi o Hauraki i noho a ia ki Whitianga, ki te rohe o Moehau.

Ngā tohu whenua o Whakatāne

Kei waenganui i ngā iwi o Mataatua te rahinga o ngā kōrero mō Toi, tae ake ki a Ngāti Awa o Whakatāne. Kei konei te mātotoru o ngā tohu whenua ka pā ki a Toi, arā, ko te pā rongonui o Toi, ko Kaputerangi. Kei runga ake te pā nei i a Whakatāne, ā, he tirohanga whānui ki Te Moana-a-Toitehuatahi. Kei te uru o Whakatāne, ko Te Puku-o-te-wheke. E tohu ana ngā kāwai o te wheke i te awe o Toi, ā, kei te puku tōna kāinga.

Ko Toi rāua ko Ngāi Tūhoe

Kei ngā kōrero mō Tūhoe-pōtiki he kōrero mō Toi. Ka whai mana ngā iwi o Mataatua i tā rātou whakapapa mai i a Toi rātou ko Pōtiki (he tipuna tōmua anō). Inā te whakataukī a Ngāi Tūhoe:

Nā Toi rāua ko Pōtiki te whenua, nā Tūhoe te mana me te rangatiratanga.

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, 'Ngā iwi tuatahi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-iwi-tuatahi/print (accessed 23 July 2019)

Story by Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, published 8 Feb 2005