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Whāngārei tribes

by  Rāwiri Taonui

He mea nui te moana me te takutai ki ngā iwi maha o Whāngārei. Mai i Muriwhenua, tatū rawa ki Tāmaki-makaurau, ko ngā wāhi pēnei i a Ngunguru e mau ana i ngā ingoa e whakaata ana, he iwi tere moana ngā iwi nei. I ēnei rā, e mahi tahi ana ngā uri me te Poari Kaitiaki o Ngāti Wai (Ngāti Wai Trust Board) ki te kuhu ki ngā take taiao pērā i te rāhui i ngā takutai, i ngā moutere tū tata.


Ancestors

I mua i te taenga mai o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa arā noa atu ngā mahi tauhokohoko moana i whakahaerehia i waenganui i ngā iwi o Whāngārei, ki ngā takiwā atu i Muriwhenua, ki Motu Kōkako me Rākaumangamanga, ahu whakatetonga ki Tāmaki-makaurau, hāngai ki te rāwhiti, ki Hauturu (Little Barrier Island) me Aotea (Great Barrier Island). Nā tēnei āhua, noho ai ngā tōpūtanga tāngata ki ō rātou kāinga i te takutai.

Ngā waka

Ka tau ētahi waka ki te takutai ki Whāngārei. Ko Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi te waka o Manaia, ka tau ki Motu Kōkako. He kōrero anō e mea ana, koia te rangatira o te waka a Ruakaramea, ka tau ki Whāngārei. Ko ōna uri i noho ki te takutai, ki ngā moutere o Tawhitirahi me Aorangi (Poor Knights Islands), o Taranga me Marotiri (Hen and Chicken Islands).

Tau mai ai ngā waka a Tūnui-a-rangi rāua ko Te Arawa ki Whāngārei. Ko Tāhuhunui-o-te-rangi te rangatira o te waka, a Moekākara, ka pae ki te moutere o Te Kawau me Cape Rodney. Ki kō whakateraki atu o Cape Rodney, ko te whanga iti i tau atu ai a Te Wakatūwhenua.

Ko Puhi te rangatira o te waka a Mataatua, nāna ētahi wāhi o te takutai i taunaha: ko Taiharuru (ngā tai haruru) me Ngunguru (ngā tai ngunguru); ko Tutukākā (he wāhi hopu manu); ko Matapōuri, te wāhi i tau ai te waka i te pō; ko Whananaki, (nā te ngau o te waeroa i te wā moe); ko Te Purupurutanga o Mataatua, te wāhi i purupurua ai ngā aurukōwhao o te waka; ko Whangaruru (he whanga haumaru); ko Te Tīheru-a-Mataatua, he moutere pakupaku kei te taha o Motu Kōkako, koinei te wāhi i taka te tīheru o te waka ki te wai, kia pae ki uta. Nā Puhi anō ngā moutere o Tawhitirahi me Aorangi (Poor Knights Islands) i whakaingoa.

Manaia – te maunga, te tipuna

E ai ki ngā kōrero tuku iho, tērā te wā i tū kotahi ai ki Hawaiki ngā maunga nei a Manaia, a Maunga Raho, a Tokatoka. Nā runga i ngā akiaki a Manaia, ka whakataetae rātou kia whakawhiti i te moana ki Aotearoa; i te whitinga o te rā, ka mau rātou, ka hurihia rātou hei kōhatu ki ngā wāhi kei reira rātou e tū ana i tēnei wā; ko Manaia kei Whāngārei, ko Maunga Raho rāua ko Tokatoka kei ngā tahatika o te awa o Te Wairoa.

Kei ētahi atu e kōrero ana mō te huringa o te tipuna a Manaia hei maunga. Ka taka ki tētahi rā, i a rātou ko tōna iwi e hī ika ana, ka mau tana matau ki te kōtore o tētahi ngohi. Ko tana whakamāoritanga o tēnei, he aituā kei te haere. Ka tere ia ki te kāinga. Kia tata ia ki uta, ka karangahia e ia tana wahine kia haere atu. I te unuhanga i ōna kākahu kia kau atu ki a Manaia, ka kite atu a Manaia, kua mahi pūremu tana wahine me tana pononga, a Paeko. Kātahi ka tahuri a Paeko rāua ko Manaia ki te whiu mākutu, tētahi ki tētahi. Ko te mutunga iho o tēnei mahi, kua huri a Manaia rātou ko tana wahine, ko tana pononga a Paeko, ko ētahi o āna tamariki hei tara koikoi ki te tihi o te maunga a Manaia.


Tribes of Whāngārei

Ngare Raumati

Ko Ngare Raumati tētahi o ngā iwi tawhito rawa ki ngā takiwā whakateraki o Whāngārei. Ko te pokapū o tō rātou whenua papatipu, ko Te Rāwhiti. I roto i te rau tau 1700 ka riri a Ngare Raumati rāua ko Ngāpuhi, ka raupatuhia te rahi o ōna whenua, i te toronga o Ngāpuhi atu i Kaikohe, ki Te Waimate, ki roto hoki o Pēwhairangi.

Ngāi Tāhuhu

Ko Ngāi Tāhuhu anō tētahi iwi tawhito nō te taha raki o Whāngārei, nō Pēwhairangi hoki. Hei uri rātou mā Tāhuhunui-o-te-rangi, te rangatira o te waka a Moekākara. Ko ngā pā o Ngāi Tāhuhu ka tū ki Pouērua, ki Pēwhairangi, ki te whārua o Mangakāhia, ki Whāngārei, ki Te Ārai, tae rawa atu ki Ōtāhuhu i Tāmaki-makaurau. Kia tae ki ngā tau pokapū o te rau tau 1800, kua iti te rohe whenua o te iwi ki te taha whakarunga o te awa o Te Wairoa me te taha whakarunga o te whārua o Mangakāhia. Ko Tāhuhupōtiki te tama, te mokopuna rānei o Tāhuhunui-o-te-rangi, ka moe i a Reipae, te wahine rangatira o Waikato.

Ngāti Wai

Whakaheke mai ai te iwi o Ngāti Wai i a Manaia (te rangatira o Māhuhu-ki-te-rangi, o Ruakaramea rānei), ka mutu, he iwi tūturu rātou nō Whāngārei. Ko Ngāti Wai he iwi noho ki te takutai. Ko tō ratou ingoa i ahu mai i Manawahuna, he ana kei raro i a Motu Kōkako. Ka noho ngā tohunga ki reira wānanga ai i te ia o te wai tai ka rere i te ana - ka tohu ki te pai, ki te kino rānei. Ka mōhiotia a Ngāti Wai he iwi marau, he iwi tauhokohoko i ngā ara moana. Whakapapa ai a Ngāti Wai ki ngā tīpuna o ngā takiwā atu i Whangaroa ki te raki, ki Tāmaki i te tonga, mawhiti whakaterāwhiti ki ngā moutere o Hauturu (Little Barrier Island) me Aotea (Great Barrier Island), i nōhia e Ngāti Rehua, he hapū nō Ngāti Wai. I ēnei rā, kei te taha raki me te taha tonga o Whāngārei te nuinga o te iwi e noho ana. E noho ana a Ngāti Wai ki te taha o ētahi atu iwi noho takutai, pēnei i a Ngāti Kahu rātou ko Te Whānauwhero, ko Te Ākitai, ko Te Panupuha.

Te Parawhau

Ko ngā kāinga o Te Parawhau, kei te taha raki me te taha tonga o Whāngārei, hoki ana ki te tuawhenua. He hononga tata ō te iwi nei ki a Ngāti Wai, ki a Ngāpuhi, ki a Ngāti Whātua, ki te tipuna ki a Tahuwhakatiki, tētahi o ngā kaiārahi o te waka a Te Arawa i tōna paenga ki Whāngārei. E ai ki tētahi kōrero, ko te ingoa o Parawhau, mō te hanga pōito kupenga mai i te rākau whau. Tērā anō tētahi kōrero, mō te pani i ngā tūpāpaku ki te pia o te rākau whau. He kōrero anō mō tētahi wā i whakapaetia te iwi ki runga i tētahi maunga i Whāngārei. Ka hakaina e te tipuna e Para tana haka, ka ara ake te iwi ki runga, ka patua te hoariri. Nāwai, ā, kua huri te ingoa o taua maunga, mai i Parahaka (te haka a Para) ki Parahaki.

Ko Patuharakeke rātou ko Ngāti Kahu, ko Ngāti Manuhiri, ko Te Ākitai

Ko Patuharakeke rātou ko Ngāti Kahu, ko Ngāti Manuhiri ko Te Ākitai, he huānga iwi nō Ngāti Wai me Te Parawhau. Noho pū ai ratou ki ngā tāhuna atu i te taha tonga o Whāngārei ki Mahurangi. Ko te ingoa o Te Ākitai, mō te ākina o te tinana o tētahi o ō rātou tipuna e ngā toka tū moana. He iwi tawhito a Ngāti Kahu, e hono ana ki a Ngāti Kahu o Muriwhenua.


Naming Whāngārei Harbour

He kōrero tuku iho mō te ingoa o Whāngārei.

Te Whanga-o-Reitū, Te Whanga-o-Reipae rānei

Ko te ingoa a Whāngārei, e kōrero ana mō te whanga o Reitū, mō te whanga o Reipae rānei. He tuakana teina a Reitū rāua ko Reipae, nō Waikato; i huri rāua hei manu, ka rere whakateraki atu i Waikato. Ka noho a Reipae ki Kaipara. Ka rere tonu a Reitū kia tae ia ki te whanga i ingoatia mōna; i reira ka mate kanehe atu ia ki a Manaia. Kei tētahi atu kōrero e mea ana, nā tētahi manu nui a Reitu rāua ko Reipae i waha i tōna tuarā, ā, tau ana, ka moe a Reipae i a Tāhuhu-pōtiki.

Whanga-rei

Arā anō te kōrero kei te kī, he toka tū moana (Castle Rock) a Whangarei ki kō mai o Marsden Point. Ka whakatūria ki konei ngā tautiaki o te whanga. Ko te tikanga o te ingoa whanga-rei i konei, ko te whanga i te hoariri.

Whangarei-te-rerenga-parāoa

Ko tētahi atu tikanga o te ingoa o Whāngārei, mō tētahi wāhi whakarauika, whakahuihui. Nā Ngāti Wai te whanga i tapa ki te ingoa, a Whangarei-te-rerenga-parāoa, nā te huihui o te parāoa ki te whanga ki te kai i te wā o te raumati. Kei tētahi atu kōrero, ko te whanga he wāhi hui o ngā rangatira.

Whangarei-o-te-tohorā

Ko te tikanga o tēnei ingoa, ‘e whanga ana i te rei o te tohorā’. Ka hoki atu ngā kōrero ki te wā i whakamātau ai tētahi tohunga mata i te ruānuku kia whakaatuhia ōna tino mātauranga. Ka whakahokia ngā pātai a te tohunga mata e te ruānuku, ‘E whanga nei koe i te rei o te tohorā?’


Land loss

Nā te kai apu a te Pākehā, kua riro te nuinga o ngā whenua o ngā iwi o te takutai ki Whāngārei. Whai muri i ngā rohe o Hauraki, o Waikato, o Taranaki, ko te rohe o Tāmaki te rohe e mau ana te Māori i te iti rawa o ōna whenua, ki te tātaitia mā ia tangata.

Kia tae ki te tau 1860, kua riro te 42% o ngā whenua o ngā iwi o te takutai o Whāngārei. Kia tae ki te tau 1865, e 1.6 miriona eka (e 650,000 heketea) kua tangohia, ā, taka rawa ki te tau 1890, e 25% anake o ngā whenua katoa e puritia tonutia ana i te ringaringa Māori. Ka eke ki te rau tau 1900, kei te murua tonutia ngā whenua. Kia tae ki te tau 1939, e 5% anake o ngā whenua katoa e mau ana i te Māori – e 10 eka (4 heketea) mō ia tangata. I pēhia anōtia te ōhanga o ngā iwi ki-tai, i te murunga o ngā mahinga ika me ngā whenua i ngā moutere o Aotea, o Hauturu, o Taranga, o Marotiri, o Tawhitirahi me Aorangi, hei whenua rāhui tiaki taiao.

Te Poari Kaitiaki o Ngāti Wai

I ngā tau tōmua o te rau tau 2000, i raro i Te Poari Kaitiaki o Ngāti Wai, ka tukuna he kerēme e ngā iwi o Whāngārei ki-tai ki Te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. Tū kaha ana rātou i ngā take tiaki taiao, pērā i te keringa o ngā kirikiri i te one o Pākiri, te whakamate i te kiore i te moutere o Hauturu, te rāhuitanga hoki o ngā tohu whenua nui ki te iwi.


Facts and figures

Ngā tuakiritanga ā-iwi

I ngā tatauranga o Aotearoa mai i te tau 1991 ka pātaihia ngā tāngata Māori nō tēhea iwi rātou.

Kei raro ko ngā nama e whakaatu ana tokohia ngā tāngata nō Ngāti Wai (e whai pānga ana rānei ki ētahi atu iwi hoki). Kei raro anō whakaatuhia ai ngā iwi o ngā rohe nunui i te tatauranga o te tau 2013.

Ngāti Wai

  • tatauranga o 1991: 3,009
  • tatauranga o 2001: 3,966
  • tatauranga o 2006: 4,866
  • tatauranga o 2013: 5,667

Ngā rohe nunui

  • Te Tai Tokerau: 2,100
  • Tāmaki-makaurau: 1,905

Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Rāwiri Taonui, 'Whāngārei tribes', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-iwi-o-whangarei/print (accessed 26 February 2020)

He kōrero nā Rāwiri Taonui, i tāngia i te 8 Feb 2005, updated 22 Mar 2017