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Ngā hāhi – Māori and Christian denominations

by Hirini Kaa

Mai i te taunga mai o te mihinare ki Aotearoa i te tau 1814, ka mene te Māori ki ngā hāhi. Mai i te pokapū o te rautau 1900 kua taukumekume i te āhua kia whai wāhi ake te Māori ki roto ki ngā whakapono hōu.


Anglican Church

Te kawe i te Rongopai

Ka hua te Hāhi Mihinare i te tau 1814 i te tō mai o Ruatara i a Samuel Marsden me te Tira Hāhi Mihinare ki Oihi i Pāwhairangi. Whai muri i tērā, nā ngā tohunga Māori tonu i kawe nui i te Rongopai, pērā i a Piripi Taumata-a-kura o Ngāti Porou me Īhaia Te Ahu o Te Arawa. No te tau 1853 e 440 te rahi o ngā kaiwhakau Māori e mahi tahi ana me ngā 23 mihinare Pākehā puta noa i te motu.

Ngā Hīnota o Waiapu

Ko ngā Hīnota tuatahi e whā o te Pīhopatanga o Waiapu ki te Tai Rāwhiti i ngā tau 1861 ki 1865 he reo Māori katoa, ka mutu he Māori te rahinga o te minenga. Nāwai ka whai mana ētahi o tēnei minenga ki ngā tōrangapū o te rohe, tae atu ki te toa horopū tauā o Ngāti Porou i a Rāpata Wahawaha rātou ko te mema pāremata mō te Tai Rāwhiti i a Wī Pere, ko Anaru Mātete hoki, tērā i tahuri ki te whakapono Pai Mārire me te mau pū mō Te Kooti.

Te waihanga i te Hāhi

Ka roa ngā tau ka whakaae a George Augustus Selwyn, te pihopa tuatahi o Aotearoa kia whakawāhia te Māori hei minita ki roto i te hāhi. Heoi nō te tau 1853 ka whakatūhia ko Rota Waitoa hei rīkona Māori, ā, nō te tau 1860 ka whakawahia ia hei minita. Kāore i whai wāhi te Māori i roto i te whakaturenga hāhi o te tau 1857, arā, te pūtake mai o ngā Pīhopatanga, , hāunga tonu rā ngā whakamātau ki te tiri i te mana whakahaere i roto i te Hāhi pērā ki ngā hīnota e whā o Waiapu. He reo Māori katoa ngā kauhau

Whai muri i ngā pakanga o Aotearoa ka whakatahangia te Māori ki ngā tūranga iti o te Hāhi, o te motu katoa hoki. He wā taumaha tēnei ki te whai tūranga ki ngā whakahaere o te hāhi whānui. I te tau 1891, ka hinga te tono kia whakauruhia ai ngā whakamoemiti ki te Kīngi Māori ki roto i te Puka Inoi o te Hāhi Mihinare.

Kura Māori

Ko ngā kura karaitiana Māori he wāhanga nō te tāhuhu o te pūnaha mātauranga ā-motu mai rānō. I whai kura te katoa o ngā hāhi nui hei whakangungu i ngā kaiārahi mō te hāhi me te iwi Māori hoki. Ko te tauira rongonui ko te Rōpū Rangatahi Māori i puta mai i te kura Mihinare nei, i a Te Aute. Ko ngā kaihautū pēnei i a Āpirana Ngata rāua ko Māui Pōmare ngā tino whetū.

He reanga hōu

Nō te huringa rautau ka tipu ake he reanga rangatira hōu e ārahi ana i te Hāhi Mihinare ki tētahi atu huarahi. Ko Āpirana Ngata tētahi ka āhua mai e te hāhi i tōna wā i Te Aute, tētahi o ngā kura e rua i whakatūhia e te hāhi mō ngā tamatāne Māori. Nā Ngata anō te karanga tuatahi mō tētahi Pīhopa Māori. Heoi anō ngā whakahē a ngā tauiwi o te hāhi tonu, ka whakawāhia ko Frederick Augustus Bennett o Te Arawa hei pīhopa Māori tuatahi o Aotearoa. Nā ngā whakapau kaha a ngā iwi ki te miraka kau whai huruhuru te kaupapa.

Ngā whanaketanga tāone

Whai muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao ka pā ngā taero maha ki te hāhi i te hekenga nui o Ngāi Māori ki ngā tāone. Ka waihangatia ngā marae tāone pērā i a Tātai Hono Marae ki Tāmaki, i raro i te awe o Kīngi Matutaera Īhaka. I ngā mahi a ngā minita-a-iwi ka noho Māori tonu ai te āhua, ā, ka whakahokia te whakaaro nui ki te iwi.

Hāhi tikanga toru

Nā ngā taukumetanga a te Māori kia whai mana ki roto i te hapori me te hāhi whānui ka whakaūngia te kaupapa ture hōu i te tau 1992, arā, Te Pouhere. Koinei te tīmatanga o ngā Tikanga e toru mō te hunga Pākehā mai, Māori mai, me ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Nō raro mai i tēnei tikanga ka riro ki te Māori te mana ki roto i te hāhi kia whakatū Pīhopa me te kawe i te hāhi ki tāna i pai ai, tae atu ki te mahi tahi ā-rohe. Ka ako ngā minita katoa o te hāhi ki te reo Māori. I ngā tatauranga i te tau 2006, 13 ōrau o te Hāhi Mihinare he Māori.


Methodist Church

Ngā mīhana Metoriti

I te tau 1822 ka poua te Hāhi Metoriti ki Whangaroa, he takiwā ki Muriwhenua. He roa tonu i te Tai Tokerau, ā, kātahi ka horapa te hāhi i te taihauāuru o Te Ika-a-Māui. Nō te tau 1840 kua tae te hāhi Metoriti ki ngā pākaiahi puta noa i te motu. I ngā tau tōmua o te ruamano e kā tonu ana tēnei hāhi ki te hiku o te ika heke iho ki roto o Taranaki.

I muri i te wā Koroniara

Nā te Māori ngā mahi a te Atua i kawe e te Māori anō. Ahakoa kāore i rite ō rātou nā utu ki ō ngā kaimahi Pākehā; nā rātou te hāhi i whakatipu aoake tonu i ngā pakanga whenua. Ka mutu i te mata tonu ngā mahara ki ngā pūrahorua a ngā hāhi i ngā tau o te pakanga. Nā whai anō ka tāmia te Māori ki roto ki ngā whakahaerenga Pākehā a te Hāhi, ā, nō te tau 1919 rānō ka whakaaetia te Māori ki roto ki te Hui ā-tau mō ngā Metoriti. I te tau 1874 me te tau 1910 ka panonitia ngā ture o te hāhi, engari tē taea te aha.

Ngā whanaungatanga ā-hāhi

Ahakoa i taupatupatu ngā aria o ngā hāhi, kāore i roa ka whai hononga ia hāhi ki a rātou anō. Ka mutu nā ngā Māori anō i paihere i tēnei hononga i runga i ngā hononga ā-iwi. Nō te tau 1947 ka waihangahia te wāhanga Māori o te Kaunihera o Ngā Hāhi o Aotearoa. He māngai te kaunihera mō te iwi Māori ki ngā take nui, ā, i te tekau tau 1980 ka tū rātou mō te take kia whakamanatia te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Te urupare Māori

I te tau 1971 ka tuhi a Rua Rakena, ūpoko o ngā Māori o te hāhi Metoriti, i tōna puka a The Māori response to the gospel. Inā tōna nui whakaharahara ki te manatokonga o te iwiruatanga i waenga i te Hāhi Metoriti. Inā rā he urupare tēnei i whakaemia ai ngā whakaaro Māori e pā ai ki te Karaitiana rā kia arearehia ngā hiahia ki te panoni i ngā whanaungatanga o te Māori me te Pākehā i roto i te hāhi. Nō ngā tekau tau tata i muri ka kitea te whakatinanatanga o ērā huatau.

I te tau 1983 ko te whakatūnga o te hāhi i tōna komiti iwi rua kia ōrite ai te mana o te Māori ki tō tērā o te Pākehā i runga anō i te huarahi i manakohia e te hāhi. Tatū rawa ki roto o te tau 2000 ko Te Taha Māori o te Hāhi tētahi o ngā rōpū whai mana o roto i te hāhi whānui. I te tau 2006 e 13.5 ōrau o ngā mema o te hāhi Metoriti he Māori.


Catholic Church

Waihangatanga

I ū mai te pīhopa Katorika tuatahi a Jean Baptiste Pompallier i te taha o te rāngai amorangi Katorika i te tau 1838. Ko te miha tuatahi a ngā Katorika i tū ki te kūrae o Tōtara ki Hokianga. Waihoki ki ērā o ngā hāhi ka ū rawa ngā pononga Māori tuatahi ki ngā hāhi ka mātua tīpakotia e rātou. Ā i te tau 1839 e whitu ngā pirihi ka Marihi ka tūhono ki a Pikopo (Pompallier), ā, ka neke te hāhi ki Kororāreka ki Pēwhairangi. Mai i konā ka horapa te hāhi ki te Tai Tokerau whānui me Waikato.

Ngā mihinare i waenganui i te Māori

Aoake i ngā riri o Niu Tīreni ko James McDonald noa iho te mihinare ka makaia e ngā Katorika kia noho ki te mātotoru o te Māori. I muri mai i te tau 1886 ko te minitatanga a St Joseph Society for Foreign Missions arā a Mira Hiwi i tū ai ki te rohe o Ākarana. Tuia atu ko ngā whakaheke werawera a Suzanne Aubert (ko Hihita Mere Hōhepa) ki te Matau-a-Māui, whai muri atu ko te awa o Whanganui, i ora tonu ai te hāhi ki waenga i te Māori. Haungā te te tahuri o ētahi ki hāhi kē, i pūmau tonu ai ētahi hapori ki taua hāhi. Nō te tau 1944 ka whakatapua a Wiremu Te Āwhitu o te Mīhana Māori o te Matau-a-Māui hei pirihi mō te Hāhi Katorika. Koia te Māori tuatahi kia whiwhi ki tēnei hōnore.

Te hāhi i muri i te Pakanga Tuarua

Mai i te tekau tau 1940 ka tautokohia ngā karapu Māori o ngā tāone e te hāhi Katorika ki te awhina i ngā Māori i heke mai i te wā kāinga e pā ana ki ngā hiahia hapori, me ngā hiahia hāhi. I whakaritea ā-motu ēnei karapu e te Kaunihera nui o ngā Karapu Whakakotahi. I te tau 1946 i whakarewangia te hui, nāwai rā ka whakaingoatia te Hui Aranga. He hui tēnei mō ngā tikanga Māori me ngā tikanga hāhi. I whakahēngia ēnei hui e ētahi Katorika Pākehā nā te mea he kaupapa rerekē ki te whakakotahitanga o ngā iwi e rua. Ko ngā marae ki ngā tāone, pērā i Te Ūnga Waka i Epsom, Tāmaki Makarau, i noho hei kāinga tuarua mō ngā Māori Katorika i heke mai ki ngā tāone.

Iwiruatanga

Nā te Kaunihera Watikana Tuarua i para te huarahi kia whānui ake te titiro ki ngā ahurea rerekē i roto i te Hāhi Katorika i whai hua ai ngā Katorika Māori. Taka rawa ki te tekau tau 1980 kua tauawhitia te kaupapa iwiruatanga e ngā rangatira o te hāhi, ā, pua ake ai ko Te Rūnanga o Te Hāhi Katorika ki Aotearoa hei takitaki i ngā Māori noho pihopatanga puta noa. I te tau 1988 ko te whakawahinga o Max Takuira Māriu hei Pīhopa Tuarua mō Kirikiriroa, ka mutu hei Pīhopa Katorika Māori tuatahi. I te tau 2006 e 14 ōrau o te Hāhi Katorika he Māori.


Presbyterian Church

He hāhi tāngata whai

I puea ake te hāhi Perehipitiriana hei hāhi mō ngā tāngata whai o Kotirana, engari taro kau iho tōna kawea e ngā hapori Māori. Ko te tangata nānā te hāhi i whakaū, a John MacFarlane; he mea ako ki te reo nōna e whakawhiti mai ana i Karahako. I muri i tōna taenga mai ka rere āna heitara mō te Kamupene Niu Tīreni mō te kore whakataha ōna i ngā whenua whakatekau i oatitia ki te rohe o Te Whanganui-a-Tara. Kīhai i momoho ngā mīhana a te hāhi ki roto o te Māori ā tae noa ki te tau 1895 i te toronga o James Fletcher ki roto o Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki Taupō. Mai i konei ka horapa atu ki Nūhaka ki te raki o Te Matau-a-Māui.

Ko Hihita me Hoani

Ko Rīkona Hihita (Annie Henry) he mihinare Perehipitiriana o Murihiku i tae ia ki roto o Ruatāhuna me Te Urewera i te tau 1917, ā, noho rawa ia ki reira mō te 32 tau. Ka pūmau tana noho i konei, ā, ka tū hei tumuaki o te Karapū Whutupaoro o Ruatāhuna. Ka tapaina ia ko Hihita e te iwi. Ko tōna hoa mīhana Pākehā nō Orkney, takiwā ki Kotirana, a Hoani (John Laughton) ka whakatū i tōna whare mīhana me te kura ki Maungapōhatu i te tau 1918. I whakahau a Hoani i te rongopai puta noa i Te Urewera tae atu ki Taupō. Nō muri mai mōhiotia ia he tautōhito ki te reo Māori.

Mīhana Māori

Mai i ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900 ka riro te nuinga o ngā mīhana Māori ki te rīkona pērā i a Hihita. I aropū rātou me ō rātou kāhui ki te whakatū kura ki ngā hapori iti pērā i Ruatāhuna ki Maungapōhatu, huri noa ki Waiōhau, mawhiti atu ki Matahī, ki Te Waimana me Kawerau. He nui anō ngā mahi toko i te ora a ngā rīkona wāhine ki Nūhaka hoki. I tua atu i ngā rīkona wāhine me Hoani i roto o Te Urewera; ko te whakataputanga i 1931 o Timu Teoke te Māori tuatahi hei minita mō te hāhi Perehipitiriana.

Ka hono anō a Hoani ki a Rua Kēnana, i whai hono anō ai te Perehipitiriana ki te hāhi o Rua, arā ngā Iharaira me te Ringatū, arā te hāhi a te poropiti a Te Kooti. I te tau 1936 ka tonoa a Hoani hei kaiwhakarite mō ngā mīhana Māori o te hāhi. Taihoa ake i te tau 1956 ka tipu ake taua rāngai hei hīnota.

Ngā hāhi i muri i te pakanga

I te tau 1945 ka karanga ake a Hēmi Pōtatau (te kaiwhakahaere Māori tuatahi o te hīnota Māori) kia whai tūranga hoki te Māori ki ngā tūnga rangatira o te hāhi Perehipitiriana. Nō te tau 1947 ka whakatuwheratia a Te Maungarongo ki Ōhope kei Te Moana-a-Toi, hei marae hoki mō ngā Māori o te hāhi. Ka whakapau kaha anō te hāhi ki ngā Māori e noho taone ana. E whā ngā whare noho ka waihangatia e te hāhi ki Tāmaki-makaurau i ngā tau 1960 hei taituarā i te rangatahi Māori o te hāhi ka maunu i te wā kāinga. Ka tautokohia rātou i roto i te ao kikokiko me te taha wairua. Nō te tau 1961 ka whakaputa te hīnota Māori o te Hāhi Perehipitiriana i te tuhinga o A Maori view of the Hunn report. Kei roto ka tātāhia te huarahi e paraia ana e te kāwanatanga mō ōna kaupapa Māori, me te whakarangatira ake o ngā Pākehā o roto o te hāhi.

Ngā rōpū hōu

Ka whakatūhia a Te Wananga a Rangi hei kura ako i ngā mātauranga whakapono e hāngai ana ki te Māori. Ka tipu ake anō ngā minita hou, arā ngā Amorangi ki te tautoko i ngā hapori Māori, ara he minita tūao katoa. He whanaketanga ēnei hei whakatairanga ake i te mana Māori i roto i te huarahi hōu i takahia e te Hāhi Perehipitiriana Māori. I te tau 2006, neke atu i te 5 ōrau o ngā mema o te Hāhi Perehipitiriana he Māori.


Mormon Church

Ko te Hāhi o Ihu Karaiti mō te Hunga Tapu o ngā Rā o Muri Nei, arā ko te Hāhi Mōmona tērā ka tae ki waenganui i te iwi Māori i te tau 1881. Nō te tīmatanga o te rautau 1900 he nui ōna pononga. He rite tahi ētahi āhuatanga o te Mōmona ki te Māori, ka mutu i hāngai pū te aro ki te whakapapa, ki te whakaheke tīpuna rānei. Ka ū anō ngā mihinare Mōmona ki tā tērā o te Puka Mōmona, ara ko ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa hei uri anō mā ngā Iwi Ngaro o Iharaira. Whāia he rite tahi ngā kōrero a te Māori me ngā Mōmona mō ngā heke pāmamao a te iwi tohu a te wāhi ngaro.

Ko Pāora te poropiti

I te Poutūterangi o 1881 ka tū te hui ki te marae o Te Ore Ore. I reira ka poropiti a Pāora Te Pōtangaroa tērā tētahi mana hōu ka mahuta ake i te rāwhiti. I taua tau ka ōrua mai te taunga tuatahi mai a ngā mihinare Mōmona ki Aotearoa. Nō konei ka kī ake ētahi e poropiti ana a Te Pōtangaroa mō te Hāhi Mōmona i ahu mai i Amerika – whenua ki te rāwhiti. I te tau 1883 he huhua ngā rau tāngata i Wairarapa ka hono ki te Hāhi Mōmona.

Mai i ngā tau 1880 ka kapohia ngā kite taurangi a ngā poropiti Māori a Arama Toiroa me Pāora Te Pōtangaroa o Ngāti Kahungunu; me Kīngi Tāwhiao o Waikato, ā, ka whakamahia hei whakamārama i te taenga ake o te Hāhi Mōmona ki waenganui i te Māori. Nā whai anō ka nui ngā Māori ka mene ki tēnei hāhi ki te Tai Tokerau me te Tai Rāwhiti.

Te tipunga o te Hāhi Mōmona

Ka whakaae tonu te hāhi Mōmona ki te whakamahinga o te reo Māori i ōna karakia. Nā te hua ake o te hāhi i muri i ngā pakanga whenua, kāore i uru te hāhi ki ngā mahi mūrere ki te Māori pērā i ērā atu o ngā hāhi. Kīhai hoki te Mōmona i pīrangi ki ngā whenua Māori. He tūturu tō rātou noho, ā, i tū ngā iriiri ki roto tonu ki ngā wai kōiri a ngā mātua tīpuna.

Ka angitū anō ngā Mōmona ki te whakarata i ngā pononga o ērā atu hāhi ki ngā rohe kīhai i pai ki te hoko i ō rātou whenua pērā i te Matau-a-Māui. He nui ngā rangatira ka kaikaiwaiū ā ka peke ki te Hāhi Mōmona. I te tau 1890 e 3000 ngā Māori o te Hāhi Momona, 1 o ngā Māori 12 i tērā wā.

Matataki

I whanake te hāhi Mōmona i runga i te whakawhitiwhiti o ngā pononga o hāhi kē, ā, ka Tukituki te Hāhi Mōmona me ngā Māori o ētahi atu whakapono. Ina rā i āraingia ngā Mōmona i roto o Ngāti Porou.

I muri i te Pakanga Tuarua o te Ao kāore e mōhio te Hāhi mehemea ka whakahanumi i te Māori ki ngā āhuatanga o te Pākehā, ka whakamana rānei i Ngāi Māori i roto i te Hāhi. I taua wā ka whakarerea ngā wā kāinga me ngā whare karakia o ngā kāinga ā ka maunu atu te iwi Maori ki ngā taone noho ai. Kātahi ka whakatakētia te reo Māori i ngā mahi Mōmona. Engari ko tōna painga ko te whakaurunga o ngā Māori ki ngā tūranga rangatira o te hāhi, ā, ka tipu tonu te hāhi ki waenga i te iwi Māori i ēnei rā. I te tau 2006, e 50 ōrau o te Hāhi he Māori.


Salvation Army

Te taenga mai o te Ope Whakaora

Ko te tikanga o Te Ope Whakaora, ko te taua e whakarauora i te tangata. Ko ngā āpiha o te Ope Whakaora i tae ki Aotearoa i Piritone I 1883, he wā kua hōhā haere Ngāi Māori i ngā whakahaere o ngā hāhi Pākehā i Aotearoa. I te tutahi i mahi te Ope Whakaora ki ngā taone me ngā tāone nui, engari kāore i uru mai ngā Māori, nā te mea, kei waho o ngā tāone rātou e noho ana. Ko te tokoiti i uru mai ko ngā tāngata pērā I a ‘Māori Joe’ Solomon nō Kaiapoi, rāua ko Maraea Morris, he wāhine rangatira i tū hei heihana-kara o te rōpū o Tūranga.

Ngā mīhana Māori

I te tau 1888 ka tīmata te mīhana a Kāpene Ernest Holdaway o te Ope Whakaora me tana wahine a Lizzie ki roto o te awa o Whanganui. Ko te whetū i te rangi ka kapohia e rāua ara ko te rangatira o Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi ko Tamatea Aurunui. I whakawātea ia i tana whare i Hiruharama hei huihuinga mō rātou, ā, nānā i tuku i te waka o Rangimarie ki ngā āpiha. Ka haere anō a Holdaway ki ētahi atu o ngā iwi, ā, ka tūtaki ki a Tāwhiao, ki a Te Whiti me Te Kooti. Nānā anō i taki ngā kōnehete Māori o te Ope Whakaora ki tāwāhi.

Whakaauraki mōiriiri

I te tau 2008 ka pōhiritia a Meiha Lynette Hutson (reanga tuarima a te Ope Whakaora) me tana tāne a Ian ki waenganui ki ngā Mangaru. He mea pōhiri rāua e Edge Te Whāiti, te rangatira o ngā Mangaru ‘Notorious’ o Te Matau-a-Māui. Ko te hiahia a Te Whāiti kia whakatūhia tētahi whare mō ngā Māori e tāmia ana e te taimiri ‘Pī’. Ko te tuatahi o ēnei akoranga ka tū ki Kākahi ki Taumarunui. O ngā mema 12 o te rōpū i whai wāhi ki te akoranga, 10 o rātou ka whakamutu i te kai ‘Pī’, ā, ko te tokorua kīhai i eke, ka haere anō ki tētahi atu o ngā akoranga i tū ki Tūrangi. I te katinga o te puni i Tūrangi ka haere anō ngā rangatira o ngā Mangu Kaha me ngā Tribesman i te taha o te tumuaki takirua o te Pāti Māori, a Tariana Turia.

Rautau 1900

Nā te whakarerekētanga o ana kaupapa e ngā kaiwhakahaere o te ope ka iti iho ngā mahi mā te Ope Whakaora ki ngā hapori Māori. Nā whai anō ka paheke anō te tautoko a te Māori i te ope. Engari nō te wā i a Meiha Robert Prowse ka whakahaere ia i tana mīhana ki te Tai Rāwhiti mō te 30 tau ā mate noa ia i te tau 1967.

Nō te tau 2000 ku whakapau kaha anō te Ope ki roto ki te ao Māori. Nō te tau 2006 ka tū ngā Kāpene Tuarua a Joe (Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi) me Nan Pātea (Ngāti Porou) hei rangatira mō te minitatanga Māori o te Ope Whakaora.


Ringatū and Rātana

Te Hāhi Ringatū

He poropiti a Te Kooti Arikirangi Te Turuki i marere morehu i Wharekauri i tana mauhere hētia e te Karauna. I tōna pōkaikahatanga ka whakaputa te Atua ki a ia, ā, ka aratakina e ia tōna iwi mai i te koraha ki te whenua oati. I te tau 1868 i pahiko ia te hopunga o te kaipuke Rifleman. E 300 ngā mauhere (wāhine mai, tamariki mai hoki) i puta te ihu. Ka pae noa ki uta, ka tū ngā ringa whakamoemiti ki te Atua, ā, ko te pueatanga tērā o te Hāhi Ringatū.

Te Whakahāhitanga o te Ringatū

I te tau 1875 ka whakamanatia i a Te Kooti te whakapono nei hei hāhi tonu atu. Kāore ngā whare karakia o te Ringatū, engari ki ōna marae whakahaeretia ai ōna rā. Ko ōna minita ka kīia he tohunga hoki. I te tau 1915, ka kīia ngā tohunga Ringatū hei minita i raro i te Ture Mārena. I te tau 1928 ka rēhitatia ngā ture ārahi o te hāhi ki raro ki te Ture mō ngā Rōpū Kaporeihana. Mātua, ko te ūpoko o te hāhi ko te pīhopa, engari nāwai ka huri tēnei tūnga hei perehitini. I tētahi hui nui ki Rūātoki, ka whakatauhia kia karangatia te ūpoko o te hāhi ko te Poutikanga. I te tau 2006 e 16,419 ngā pononga o te Ringatū.

Ngā Rā Nui o te Hāhi Ringatū

Ko ngā Hatarei ngā Rā Hāpati a te Ringatū, ā, hei ngā tekau mā rua o ia marama ngā karakia nui a te hāhi. Tāpiri atu e whā ngā pou o te tau o te hāhi; arā ko te Tahi o Hanuere, ko te Tahi o Hune, ko te Tahi o Hūrae me te Tahi o Noema. Ko te Tahi o Hanuere ka hoki ki te Hekenga (Exodus) 40:2, e tūtohu ana ki te rā tuatahi o te marama tuatahi. Ko te Tahi o Hūrae ka hoki ki te ‘hāpati o ngā hāpati’. Ko te huamata ka tū i te Tahi o Hune, ā, ko te Pure ka tū i te Tahi o Noema (1 o Tīhema rānei ki ētahi wāhi).

Te Haahi Rātana

Te Pou Taketake o te Hāhi Rātana

I whānau mai a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana i te tau 1873; he kaiārahi, he pā whakawairua hoki. Nō ngā putanga o te Atua ki a ia, ka marutuna ia kia whakamine i te iwi Māori ki te maru o Ihowā, ā, whakarere i ngā whakapono a te Māori. Nō raro mai i tōna awe, ka puea ake te taone iti ki te pāmu o Rātana ki te rāwhiti o Whanganui. Nāwai ka mōhiotia tēnei wāhi ko Rātana Pā. I te tīmatanga, ka whakahau a Rātana kia piripono tonu ngā tāngata ki ō rātou hāhi, engari nāwai ka whakatū i a ia tōna whakapono hōu.

Te horapatanga o te Hāhi

I te tau 1925 ka waihangatia te tikanga whakapono o te Haahi Rātana, ā, ka rēhita motuhaketia te Haahi Rātana i taua tau hoki. Ko Rātana tonu te māngai. Ko te tohu matua, ko te whetū e rima nei ōna mata. Hai roto hoki i te hāhi ko te tokotoru tapu, arā ko te Matua, te Tama me te Wairua Tapu tae atu ki ngā Anahera Pono me te Māngai.

Nō te tau 1928 ka whakatūhia te Temepara o te hāhi Rātana me ana pourewa pere e rua . Atu i taua wā he nui ngā momo temepara pēnei kua whakatūhia puta noa i te motu. I te tau 2006 ko te Haahi Rātana te hāhi Māori nui ake o Aotearoa, ā, e 50,565 ōna pononga, kei te takiwā o te 10 ōrau o te taupori Māori.


Pentecostal churches

Nō ngā tau tōmua o te rautau 1900 ka tau mai te Hāhi Penetaka ki Aotearoa. Ko tā rātou i arohia ko ngā mahi whakaora, ngā mahinga tipua me te iriiri i ngā pākeke. Ko ēnei ētahi o ngā āhuatanga i rarata ai te Māori ki tēnei hāhi. I te tau 1928 ka karakia te Pākehā a Stephen Jeffries mō tētahi Māori e mate pukupuku ana, ā, ka whakaorangia tērā e te Atua. He nui ngā Māori ka tahuri ki tēnei hāhi.

Petihana tāmi Māoritanga

I te Haratua o 1976 ka whakatairanga te Ingarihi o te Minenga o te Atua ki Whāngārei, ara a George Anderson i te petihana kia whakakorehia te ako i te Māoritanga ki roto ki ngā kura i tōna Tukituki ki ngā akoranga Karaitiana. Ka tautokohia a Anderson e tōna minita me ētahi o tana minenga, engari nō muri mai ka whakapāhā te hāhi ki ana mahi takaware ki te iwi kāinga. Nāwai ka wehe a Anderson i te hāhi.

Ngā minenga o te Atua

Ko tēnei te hāhi nui rawa o ngā Hāhi Penetaka me ngā Minenga o te Atua, ā, he tokoiti noa iho ōna mema Māori. Nā te mea he manene nō tāwāhi ōna rangatira, ka mutu i ngā taone anake ngā whare karakia, kāore te Māori i mene ki tēnei hāhi.

I te tau 2007 ka whakatau te kaunihera matua o te hāhi ki ōna ngoikorehanga kia whai wāhi ake te Māori ki roto ki te hāhi. Nō konā ka tonoa ko Minita Peter Hira ki te ārahi i tētahi arotake ki te take nei. I e tau 2006 e 8 ōrau o tēnei hāhi he Māori.

Ngā Hāhi Āpotoro, Koiora Hōu hoki

I ngā tekau tau 1940 me 1950 ka tū ngā haerenga tēneti o te hahi Āpotoro me te hāhi Koiora Hou. Nā te tū o ēnei puni ki ngā taiwhenua, he nui te Māori ka mene atu. He whakatipu rangatira Māori te hiahia i mārakerake kitea atu i te hāhi nei. Nō muri mai ka tū a Manuel Renata hei heamana o te whakahaerenga teitei rawa o te hāhi Āpotoro.

He nui ngā hui ka tū ki ngā marae pērā i Tūrangawaewae hei whakamāui i te hāhi. I tētahi o ngā hui i te tau 1979 ka uru mai a Brian Tāmaki, ā, nō muri mai ka tū ia hei rangatira nui mō tēnei hāhi. Nō tana wehenga i te tau 1994 ka iti iho te whai wāhi atu o te Māori. I te tau 2006 e 13 ōrau o te hāhi he Māori.

Te Hāhi Destiny

I tipu ake a Brian Tamaki (Ngāti Ngāwaero, Ngāti Maniapoto) hei Metoriti, engari nō te wā e 21 ana tau ka hono ia ki te Hāhi Āpotoro. Nāwai ka puea ia hei kaiārahi mō te peka o te hāhi ki Rotorua, Lake City Church, te hāhi tuarua o te motu mō ngā Āpotoro. Engari i te tau 1994 ka wehe ia i te hāhi i runga i ētahi take utu i te whakahaerenga ā-motu. Ko te huanga mai tērā o te Hāhi Destiny, ā, ka tere piki ōna pononga ki te 7,000. E ai ki ngā tatauranga o te hāhi, e 78 ōrau o te hāhi he Māori, ā, i te tau 2008 ka tū ia hei manatū Māori ki ngā taone. Nō konei ka āhei rātou ki ngā pūtea kāwanatanga hei tautoko i ngā ratonga mahi ōhanga, pāpori, ahurea hoki ki ngā hapori Māori.

I te tau 2005 ka whakatapua a Tāmaki hei Pīhopa mō te Hāhi Destiny. I te tau 2009 ka meatia e ia koia tonu ‘Te Māngai’, ara te ingoa i karangatia ai a Tahupōtiki Wiremu Rātana, te kaiwhakaū i te Hāhi Rātana.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

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How to cite this page: Hirini Kaa, 'Ngā hāhi', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/nga-hahi/print (accessed 23 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Hirini Kaa, i tāngia i te 5 May 2011, updated 1 Mar 2017