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Mātauranga hangarau – information technology

by Basil Keane

Kua tuwhera te ao Māori ki te ipurangi – mena he waea he rorohiko tā rātou. Kua puta hoki he papamahi reo Māori me te Māori Google, tae atu ki ngā rautaki a te hunga ki te hanga i te tauwāhi. Rawe kē ki ngā Māori o Aotearoa ipurangi ki te whakapā ki ngā whānau kei Ahitereiria.


Access to technology

He iwi whai kaha te Māori ki te ao hangarau. Heoi he āhua rerekē te ao rorohiko. Ko ngā iwi, ngā whakahaerenga Māori me ngā tāngata takitahi kei te whakapūmau i te whakaaturanga o te reo Māori ki runga i te ipurangi. Heoi kei muri te iwi Māori i ētahi atu iwi mō te whakamahi i te ipurangi ki Aotearoa nei.

Te whai kanohi a te Māori

Ko te kanohi matua a te Māori ki te ao ipurangi ko Te Whānau Ipurangi o Aotearoa (New Zealand Maori Internet Society). He mea whakatū tēnei rōpū i te tau 1997.

I te tau 2003 ka whakatūhia tētahi atu rōpū e kīia ana ko Aotearoa Māori Internet Organisation. Whai muri ka hono tahi ki Te Whanau Ipurangi o Aotearoa.

I whai wāhi Te Whānau Ipurangi o te Ao ki te whakawhanaketanga o ngā tauwāhi tūranga tuarua o .maori.nz me .iwi.nz. Ko tāna mahi he whakahaere i ngā whakawhitiwhiti kōrero i waenganui i ngā rōpū a te kāwanatanga hei tirotiro i te ao Māori, me te hangarau pārongo (IT), kōrero hoki.

Nō muri mai ka hangaia a Te Waka Wahine Wā-Hangarau (Society for Professional Maori Women in Information Technology) hei kanohi mō te wahine Māori i roto i te ao ipurangi. 

Te Huarahi Tika Trust

I whakatūhia te rōpū kaitiaki mō ngā iarere tūāwhiorangi Māori, arā Te Huarahi Tika Trust i te tau 2000 hei whakamana i te Māori ki te hoko i te reanga tuatoru o te tūāwhiorangi (3G) aratuku e hokona ana e te Karauna (mā te 3G ka tere ake te whakawhitinga o ngā raraunga). I rapu te Māori ki tētahi wāhi o te tūāwhiorangi ki raro i te Tiriti o Waitangi.

Nō te tau 2008 ka whakaritea e Te Huarahi Tika te hui ā-motu e pā ana ki te ahumahi hangarau pārongo i te tau 2008. Ka whakatūhia e rātou te whārangi ipurangi www.nekeneke.com hei āwhina i te Māori i roto i te hangarau pārongo ki te whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro, kōrero hoki. He hea ōna kei roto i te kamupene kōtuinga waea pūkoro 2degrees. 

Te wehenga mamati

I te tau 2003 ka tautuhia ko te Māori tētahi iwi kaore e kaha whakamahi i te ipurangi. I tū tēnei āhuatanga nā te mea kāre i whai wāhi te nuinga o te Māori ki te ipurangi me ngā mahi hangarau pārongo i runga i te kore waea, te iti o te pūtea me te kore eke ki ngā taumata o te mātauranga. I te tau 2001, 25.3 ōrau o te Māori he ipurangi kei te kāinga, ā, ko te iwi Pākehā e 45.5 ōrau. Ko ētahi iwi atu e 70.4 ōrau rahi he ipurangi nō rātou. E ai ki te pūrongo a te World Internet Project i te tau 2007, 62 ōrau o ngā Māori, 72 ōrau o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, 77 ōrau o ngā Pākehā me te 94 ōrau o ngā iwi o Ahia he ipurangi ā rātou kei te kāinga. Ko ngā rangatahi, ngā hunga whai rawa, noho tāone hoki te hunga e mau ana i te ipurangi.

Te kati i te wehenga

He maha ngā kaupapa whakaaro kua whakarewahia hei whakatūtaki i te tauwehenga mamati. He tūranga matua tō ngā wānanga ki te whakatūtaki i te tauwehenga mamati – i te tau 2000 ka whakawhiwhia Te Wānanga o Raukawa i tētahi tohu mō te whakarato i ngā rorohiko me ngā akomanga whakangungu ki ngā tauira me ngā kaiako katoa.

Ka tukuna e EDS (he kamupene hangarau pārongo), te Kaupapa Mātauranga mō te Iwi Māori me Te Puni Kōkiri ngā karahipi ki ngā tauira Māori e whai ana i te hangarau pārongo.

He kaupapa tēnei kua whāia e ngā iwi. Hei tauira, ka whakakotahi mai a Te Whānau-a-Apanui me te kamupene a Cisco Systems ki te ako i ngā rangatahi Māori i ngā pūnaha whatunga a Cisco. Nā rātou i whakatū te Cyberwaka Training Academy ki te tāone Māori o Te Wairoa. Nō konā ka tokomaha ake ngā rorohiko mō te ipurangi e kīīa ana ko Wairoa.com.

Kura

Tērā hoki tētahi tūmahi tautoko hangarau pārongo mō ngā wharekura, ngā paerangi me ngā kura momotu o te Tai Rāwhiti e whakarato ana i ngā taputapu rorohiko, me ngā tautoko hui ataata, kōtuitui hoki. Nā tēnei ka taea e ngā kaiako te ako tahi me ngā tauira o kura kē, ki te ako hoki i ngā kaupapa uaua – he tino whāiti ngā māhita o ngā kura kaupapa Māori, heoi he nui te hangarau pārongo ki roto i ngā kura kaupapa.

 


Tribal networking

I ngā wā ō mua, ka noho ngā whānau me ngā hapū ki roto i te maru o te rohe ā-iwi. Nō te pokapūtanga o te rau tau 1900, ka nuku ngā Māori mai i ngā taiwhenua ki ngā tāone. Nō konei ka noho te tokomaha o ngā Māori ki waho i ō rātou rohe kāinga ake. Ka noho tata ngā uri ki te iwi mā te hokihoki ki ngā marae mō ngā hui, ngā tangihanga me ngā hui whānau. Arā anō ngā rōpū ā-iwi kei ngā tāone e kīīa ana he taura-here. Heoi mā te ipurangi anō hei whakakotahi mai i ngā uri.

He marae mariko

Ka taea e ngā uri o ngā hapū me ngā iwi ki te hono ki ō rātou marae i runga i te ipurangi. Ko tētahi pae tukutuku e kaha whakamahia ana ko te naumaiplace.com. Ko tōna whāinga, kia rēhitatia katoa ngā marae huri i te motu kia āhei ngā uri te whai wāhi ki ngā kōrero a ō rātou marae. He hiahia anō tōna kia whakakotahi i ngā whānau me ngā marae huri noa i te ao.

I runga i a Old Friends ka taea hoki te hono atu ki tētahi marae, tūranga mahi, kura rānei.

Kei runga anō i te ipurangi te wāhanga kōrero e whakatairanga ake ana i ngā take Māori. He pae tukutuku a Aotearoa Café e whakaputa ana i ō rātou whakaaro rerekē ki ērā o te hunga pāpāho.

Ngā pae tukutuku ā-iwi

He pae tukutuku tō tēnā iwi tō tēnā. He maha ngā tūranga ingoa rerekē. Atu i te iwi.nz, ko te maori.nz, te .co.nz me te .com: Hei tauira:

  • Muaūpoko – www.muaupoko.iwi.nz
  • Ngāi Takoto – www.ngaitakoto.com
  • Te Rarawa – www.terarawa.co.nz
  • Ngāi Tai – www.ngaitai.maori.nz
  • Ngāi Te Rangi – www.ngaiterangi.org.nz
  • ngā pārongo e pā ana ki te iwi – ngā pānui me ngā maramataka
  • ngā rārangi marae
  • te hītori o te iwi
  • ngā pārongo rēhita
  • ngā taonga hokohoko a te iwi
  • ngā pārongo e pā ana ki te Tiriti o Waitangi me ngā moni ika
  • ngā wāhanga kōrero
  • te whakaoratanga anō o te reo ā-iwi.

Ahakoa te rerekē o ngā pae tukutuku ā-iwi, he ōrite ō rātou whakahaerenga.

Kei roto i ngā pae tukutuku ā-iwi:

Ngā rauemi reo

He maha ngā iwi kua whakatū i ngā pae tukutuku mō te whakaoranga ake o tō rātou ake reo. Ko tō Ngāi Tahu ko te pae tukutuku o Kotahi Mano Kāika. Ko tō rātou aronga kia kotahi mano ngā whare kōrero Māori o Ngāi Tahu tae noa ki te tau 2025. Ko Taranaki Reo anō tētahi pae tukutuku e whakaatu ana i ngā rautaki ako reo. Kei roto e whakaraupapahia ana ngā rā whai hiranga me tētahi whitiāhua mamati hei āwhina i ngā tauira ki te mau i te reo o Taranaki.

Ngāti Kangaru

Nā te huhua o te Māori ki Ahitereiria i whakatūhia ai te pae tukutuku Māori ki reira. Kei runga i a Māori-in-oz.com ngā waiata, ngā rauemi reo Māori me ngā pārongo Māori ki Aotearoa me Ahitereiria hoki. Ka whakarārangihia hoki ngā rā whakanui i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki Ahitereiria. Ka kīīa ngā Māori o Ahitereiria e ngā mea o Aotearoa he kangaroo.

He hui mariko

E kaha whakamahi ana ngā kaimahi me ngā kairangahau whare wānanga i te hononga e kīia ana ko KAREN, arā, he hononga ipurangi hohoro e whakamahia ana e ngā whare wānanga, whare pukapuka, pūtahi rangahau, kura, whare taonga hoki o Aotearoa.

I roto i te hui a Manu Ao, ka taea e ngā kaimahi Māori me ngā kairangahau Māori te whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro i runga i a KAREN.

He whakahahakatanga

Ahakoa he maha ngā piki, he nui anō ngā heke e pā ana ki te ao mamati.

He raru nui te cybersquatting i runga i ngā pae tukutuku ingoa Māori. Nā te kaikā ki ngā ingoa tūranga ka hokona ngā ingoa tūranga Māori i runga i te whakaaro ka hokona anō e te hunga ngākaunui ki ērā ingoa.

He raru anō te whakamamatitanga o ngā ariā Māori. Kua maha ake ngā take mōtika whakairoiro hinengaro e pā ana ki te whakaaturanga o ngā whakapapa me te whakamamatitanga o ngā whakaāhua tīpuna i runga i te ipurangi. Kua whakamahia e ngā pakihi ngā waiata, pūrākau me ngā haka, ā, e whakamahia ana ngā ariā Māori i roto i ngā kēmu rorohiko.

Te tūhonohono

E ai ki te rangahau i te tau 2007, he kaha ake te whakamahi a te Māori i ngā pae tukutuku whakahoahoa i te Pākehā – he ōrite ki ngā iwi o Ahia. Heoi he kaha ake te whakamahi o ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Nā te kaha whakamahia o ngā pae tukutuku whakahoahoa i waenganui i te Māori me ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, ka whakamanahia e te Electoral Enrolment Centre ngā kōwhiringa o 2008 ki runga i te Bebo. Kei runga i a Bebo hoki te kīngi Māori ko Te Arikinui Tūheitia.


Māori language on the internet

Ngā ihirangi Māori

I te tau 2009 he maha ngā āhuatanga Māori i runga i te ipurangi, pērā i ngā niupepa o ngā rautau o 1800 me 1900, ngā papakupu, te papakupu reo-Māori anakē tuatahi arā a He pātaka kupu me ngā raraunga reo ā-iwi pērā i Te Papakupu o Te Tai Tokerau. He kaiwhakarato rauemi a Te Kete Ipurangi i ngā kura kaupapa Māori. Ka ako hoki ngā tauira i ngā kōrero tawhito, hou hoki o Te Ao Hou. He hautaka tēnei i whakaputaina mai i te tekau tau o 1950 ki 1970.

Ngā tohutō

Ko te reo matua o te ipurangi ko te Ingarihi, nā reira ka whakamahia te tātai reta Latin. Kāre he raru hei whakaatu i te reo Māori nā te mea i whakamahia hoki te tātai reta Pākehā.

Ko te raru matua ko te whakaatu i te roa o te tō i te tohu oro: Anei ngā āhuatanga e toru hei whakaatu i te poto, te roa rānei o te tohu oro:

  • kāre he tohu – Maori
  • te ororua i te reta – Maaori
  • te whakamahi i te tohutō – Māori.

Nā te korekore o ngā tohutō i runga i te rorohiko, ka whakamahia kē ko ngā umlauts – Mäori. Heoi nō ngā tau tōmua o 2000 ka kaha ake te whakamahia o ngā tohutō. Ko te pōtae anō tētahi ingoa mō te tohutō. Ka whai hiranga ake te tohutō ki te whakatipuranga e ako ana i te reo Māori hei ārero tuarua.

Ngā pūmanawa rorohiko Māori

I te 29 o ngā rā o Noema 2005 ka whakaputaina ngā wāhanga reo Māori o Windows i runga i a Microsoft Office. I tū tēnei i te hononga o Microsoft, Te Taura Whiiri i te Reo Māori me te Whare Wānanga o Waikato. I te 24 o ngā rā o Hune 2008, ka whakarewahia e Te Wānanga o Aotearoa te mata reo Māori mō Google. He maha ngā tau e haere ana tēnei kaupapa i mua i tōna whakahaerehia e TangataWhenua.com. Nā Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori, te Whare Wānanga o Waikato me te hunga takitahi i whakamāori i tēnei.

I te tau 2008, kāre he kairapu reo Māori, heoi tērā tētahi tauira reo Māori i runga i a Firefox. He wāhanga reo Māori anō tō Wikipedia. Ehara tēnei i te whakamāori, engari he mea whakauru haere ngā pānui ki roto i te reo.

i18n me L10n

 

I roto i te reo ipurangi, ko te internationalisation te hātepe auaha i te tono pūmanawa rorohiko kia āhei ai te uru tau ki ngā reo me ngā wāhi rerekē. Ko te localisation te hātepe hei ui te pūmanawa rorohiko ki ngā wāhi me ngā reo e hiahiatia ana. Ka taea tēnei mā te tāpiri i ngā wāhanga me ngā kupu whakamārama e whai wāhi ana. Ka whakapotohia ēnei kupu ki te i18n (e 18 te rahi o ngā reta i roto i te internationalisation) me te L10n. Ko te mea Māori ko te mi-nz. (Ko te mea Pākehā ko te en-nz.)

 

Ngā ingoa Māori tūranga tuarua

Ko te tūranga teitei (TLD) te wāhanga whakamutunga o te tauwāhi ipurangi, pērā i a .com, i a .nz. Ko te ingoa i mua i te TLD (te 2LD) ko ngā ingoa matua i roto o Aotearoa ko .co.nz me .org.nz.

E rua ngā 2LD a te Māori, arā ko .maori.nz me iwi.nz. He mea whakarewa ēnei 2LD e te NZMIS, arā, te kanohi mō te Māori ki ngā kaupapa ipurangi.

Ngā ingoa wāhi ā-ao

I mua, me Ingarihi te ingoa wāhi tau. Nō muri mai ka whakamahia ētahi atu reo, a ka kīia he internationalised domain names (IDNs). Nō konei ka whakauruhia te tohutō ki ngā ingoa tau wāhi – kua huri a maori.co.nz me maori.com ki te māori.com me te māori.co.nz.

Te pūnaha taunaha reo rua

I te tau 2007 ka whakatau te NZMIS kia hanga i te pūnaha ingoa tauwāhi o Aotearoa – arā me te whakatuwhera i te URL Māori, Pākehā hoki. Mā ngā kaiwhakamahi tau wāhi hei whiriwhiri ko tēhea ka whakamahia e rātou.

Ko ngā whakamāoritanga o ngā 2LD e rua ko:

  • .co.nz – .mahi.nz
  • .net.nz – .ipu.nz
  • .org.nz – .ropu.nz
  • .gen.nz – .noa.nz
  • .school.nz – .kura.nz
  • .ac.nz – .wananga.nz me .wānanga.nz rānei.

Te pūnaha taunaha ingoa Māori

Nō te whakatuwheratanga o ngā tau wāhi teitei kua puta te whakahau me hanga te Māori i tōna ake .com. Kua whakaputahia ngā ingoa pērā i a .maori me .aotearoa hei URL.

Kua kī te NZMIS me hangaia he tau wāhi mō Aotearoa me te TLD o .aa.


How to cite this page: Basil Keane, 'Mātauranga hangarau', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/matauranga-hangarau/print (accessed 22 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Basil Keane, i tāngia i te 11 Mar 2010