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Marae protocol – te kawa o te marae

by Basil Keane

I ngā wā o mua ko te tikanga o te pōwhiri he whakamātau mēnā he riri, he mārie te haere ake a te manuhiri. Kei tēnā marae, kei tēnā marae tōna ake kawa ā-iwi, ā-rohe hoki.


Kawa of the marae

Ko te kawa ngā āhuatanga whakahaere o te marae.

Te kawanga whare, te tā i te kawa rānei: tuia te ata hāpara

I te tāinga ā-kawa o te wharenui, o te waka rānei, ka tū te tā i te kawa, arā, hei pure i te tapu, kia wana mai ai te wharenui, te waka whakairo rānei. Ko te tikanga ā-kupu o te rerenga kōrero “tā i te kawa” ka pā ki te tātā o te rau kawakawa ki tētahi mea. Ko te whānau, ko te hapū, ko te iwi ka whakatau i te kawa e pā ana ki taua marae.

Ngā tūranga o runga marae

He puiaki tonu te kaikaranga me te kaikōrero. I ana rā he manu tute, he kākāhaetara, he kirikawa te iwi ki te tūnga pūkōrero. Ko te mātāmua, ko te tuakana o te whānau ka noho hei kaikaranga. Waihoki me tāne rawa te kaikōrero i te nuinga o te wā. Kore rawa te tama e tū ki te kōrero i mua i tōna matua, kore rawa hoki te teina e tū pokanoa ki mua i tōna tuakana.

Te kawa kōrero

Ka hoki te kawa whakahaere o te whaikōrero ki te kawa o te rohe. E rua ēnei momo kawa nui ka kitea i runga marae i ēnei rā.

Ko te pāeke (ko te pā harakeke, ko te taiāwhio rānei). Hei tēnei kawa ka tūtū te pae tangata whenua, kātahi ka whai atu ko ngā te pae o te manuhiri. Nō konei, ka āhei te tokoiti, te mātotoru rānei te tū.

Ko te tauutuutu. Ko te kawa tū mai, tū atu; whakawhiti, tauhokohoko rānei. Arā, ka tū tētahi o te tangata whenua, kātahi ka whai atu tētahi o te manuhiri. Ko te tangata whenua tonu ka kōpani i te kōrero. Ko ngā iwi ka heke mai i ngā waka o Te Arawa (ko Te Arawa whānui, ko Ngāti Tūwharetoa hoki) me Tainui (ko Waikato, Ngāti Raukawa me Ngāti Toa) ka hari i tēnei kawa.

Tā ngā iwi

Ahakoa ka hoki te rārangi kōrero ki tōna kawa (pāeke, tauutuutu rānei), arā, tonu ngā rerekētanga ā-iwi. I roto o Te Āti Awa, ka hongi, ka harirū ngā manuhiri i muri tonu i te whakaeke atu i te marae. I roto o Whanganui ka haria te kawa pāeke, engari i ngā tangihanga, mā te manuhiri kē ngā kōrero e wāhi. I te Tai Tokerau, ka poroporoaki te kaikōrero i te tūpāpaku i muri rawa i te karanga (i te wā ka karangatia te manuhiri ki runga i te marae).

Ngā tūranga o te tāne me te wahine i te pōwhiri

Huri noa i ngā rohe maha o ngā iwi ko te wahine te kaikaranga, ko te tāne te kaikōrero. Heoi i ētahi rohe, pērā i te Tai Rāwhiti, ka tū ngā wāhine ki te whaikōrero. Ko Mihi Kōtukutuku rāua ko Whaia McClutchie o Ngāti Porou; ko Niniwa Heremaia o Ngāti Kahungunu ētahi wāhine i tū i runga i te marae.

Te reo Māori

I mua ko te reo Māori anake te reo o runga marae. Nō te kaha kōrerotia o te reo Pākehā, ngarongaro haere ai te reo Māori ki ōna hapori. Nā whai anō ka tino ū te ao Māori ki te reo Māori i te marae, ā, ko te reo Māori anake te reo kōrero i te tini o ngā marae. Ki te whaikōrero Pākehā te tangata i runga i te marae, ka whakahētia i ētahi wā.


Pōwhiri process

I roto i te pōwhiri ka tākina mai te manuhiri ki roto tonu i te marae. Nō ēnei tau tata kua tīmata ngā pōwhiri ki roto i ngā tari me ngā wāhi mahi.

I te nuinga o ngā marae ko te marae ātea kei mua, ka mutu he wharekai; he wharepaku; he whare horoi hoki tōna.

Tangata whenua

Ko te hau kāinga tonu te tangata whenua. I te wā o te pōwhiri, ka taka mai te hunga manuhiri ki raro i ngā manaakitanga o te tangata whenua. Kia mutu katoa te huihui mai o te manuhiri ki te waharoa, kātahi anō ka rere te reo karanga.

Manuhiri

Ko te hunga kāore anō kia tae ki tētahi marae ka kīia he waewae tapu. Mēnā ia nō tawhiti, he manuhiri tūārangi. Ka tae ana te waewae tapu ki tētahi marae tauhou, ka waerea e te kaumātua te huarahi mō te ope. Kua oti kē te whiriwhiri i mua atu ko wai ka karanga, ko wai ka kōrero, ko wai hoki ka whakakao i te tahua hei koha ki te tangata whenua. I taua wā hoki kua whakaritea hoki te pae kōrero.

Wero, taki rānei

I ēnei rā ka tākina  te wero, te taki hoki i te manuhiri tūārangi ina whakaeke i runga i te marae.

Ko ngā wero tūturu, e toru ngā rākau. I te tuatahi ka whakatakotoria te rākau whakaara. Kia kohi te rangatira o te ope ka huri tonu atu te kaiwero, ka hoki ki tōna iwi. Tuarua ka tau te rākau takoto. Tuatoru rawa ko te rākau whakawaha. Māna hoki e taki te manuhiri ki runga i te marae.

Karanga

I ētahi wā kāore he wero, ko te karanga anake. Ka tīmata te karanga a te tangata whenua, kātahi ka whakahoki te kaikaranga a te manuhiri.

Ka haere tonu te karanga ka whakaeke haere tonu hoki te manuhiri.

Haka pōwhiri

I te wā e haere ana te pōwhiri, ka whakatū anō te tangata whenua i tētahi haka pōwhiri mō te manuhiri.

Whaikōrero

Ka whaikōrero ngā taha e rua i runga i te marae; ka tahi ko te tangata whenua, ka rua ko te manuhiri.

Waiata

I te otinga o ia whaikōrero kua kīnakitia atu ki te waiata, ki te mōteatea rānei.

Kapa kōura hei koha

Ko te nuinga o ngā ope manuhiri ka tuku koha atu ki roto i te kōpaki. I te nuinga o te wā he nōti. Heoi ko te mahi a ētahi kaumātua he kōkuhu i ngā kapa ki roto ki te kōpaki kia kore ai e pūhia e te hau.

Koha

Ko te koha he tahua ka tukuna e te manuhiri ki te tangata whenua. Mā te kaikōrero mutunga o te manuhiri e whakatakoto te koha. Kia tau rā anō ia ki raro kātahi ka tū mai tētahi o te tangata whenua ki te tiki.

Te hongi me te harirū

Kia mutu rā anō ngā kōrero ka whakawhiti te manuhiri ki te hongi me te harirū i te tangata whenua. I tōna tikanga ka hongi te tāne me te wahine hoki, engari nō ēnei rā o te Pākehā, kua hongi i ngā tāne, ko ētahi kua kihi kē i ngā wāhine. Heoi e hoki mai ana tērā āhua o te hongi ki te tāne me te wahine i ētahi o ngā marae, kaua ko te kihi.

Hākari

I te mutunga o te pōwhiri ka hākari te iwi, ā, ka mahea te tapu o te pōwhiri.

Mihimihi

Pō te ao kua haere tonu ngā mihimihi ki roto i te whare (wharenui). Ko tōna tikanga ka whai wāhi te tangata ki te mihimihi, ki te whakawhanaunga. Heoi i mua i tērā ka karakia. Mā te tangata whenua e tīmata ngā karakia. Whai muri kua rere ngā mihimihi mai i te taraiti ki te tararahi o te whare. He māmā ake te wairua o ngā kōrero ō roto i te whare, arā, te whare o Rongo.

Poroporoaki

Nō te mutunga rā anō o te hui ko te poroporoaki, ā, e ai ki te kawa mā te manuhiri hei taki te poroporoaki. He tikanga tēnei, ka  waiho mā te manuhiri anō e tohu i tōna wā wehe. I te nuinga o te wā kei roto te poroporoaki i te wharenui, kei waho rānei i te marae ātea.


Mythology and history of marae protocol

Ngā kōrero mō te orokohanga

Kei ngā marae ngā aria o Papatūānuku rāua ko Ranginui me ā rāua tamariki, kei roto rawa i te kawa o te pōwhiri.

Ko te marae ātea (i mua tonu i te wharenui) te marae o Tūmatauenga, atua o te pakanga. Kia ihiihi tonu ngā whaikōrero i runga i te marae ātea. Koirā tonu te ariā o Tū.

E kī ana te kōrero ko te wāhi ki a Rongo (atua o te rongo) ko te wharenui. Nā whai anō he mārie ngā kōrero o roto i te wharenui. Tāpiri atu ko Papatūānuku te papa o te wharenui; ko Ranginui tōna tuanui; ko Tāne tonu te whare, arā, ko Tāne-whakapiripiri. Nā Tāne tonu i whakawehe ōna mātua, a Ranginui rāua ko Papatūānuku.

Te kaupapa o te pōwhiri

I ngā rā o mua mā te pōwhiri ka kitea mēnā he hoa, he hoariri rānei te tangata. I ērā wā, ka kōkiri pea te ope i te pā, ka whakamoe kokoti rānei te tangata whenua mō te ope manuhiri.

Tērā te kōrero mō te tipuna o te Tai Rāwhiti mō Apanui, mō tōna haerenga ki Rotorua. Ko te take o tōna haere kia tae ia ki te marae o te rangatira o Huri Tūmoana. Ka tono a Apanui i tana mōkai kākā ki te takiwā. Ka kite taua manu rā i ngā rua hāngī, engari kāore he kai. Ka rokohia e Apanui me tōna ope te manu, ā, ka topa iho, taupae noa ki te tāhū o te whare, ka waiata i tāna waiata e whakaōhiti ana i te tira he mate kai te haere. Ka huakina a Huri Tūmoana me tōna iwi e Apanui me tana ope.

He pōwhiri i te wā o ngā mihinare

Anei ngā kōrero a Henry Williams mō tētahi pōwhiri i tū i waenga i te ngahuru tau 1830:

Ka noho wahangū mātou, kia puta rā anō te tangi a te kuia. E huna ana ō mātou kanohi, e pōkia ana e te  paraikete. He wā ka mapu ngā whakautu atu. Ka taka atu te rua tekau meneti, kātahi ka ara ake ko Warekaua (Wharekawa) ki te whakatau mai i a mātou. Ka tau ia ka tū ko tētahi o mātou ko Raumate. Ka kōrero ia mō te mahi pai i runga i te manako ka hua ko te maungārongo me te hari. Kātahi ka tū te tuarua o ngā rangatira o te pā … ka hāngai ana kōrero ki a Wharerahi, me te ngākau hopo ki a Ngāpuhi.1

Ka whai atu ētahi tae noa ki a Williams rāua ko tētahi atu mihinare Pākehā ko James Hamlin te ingoa. Nā ēnei tuhinga ka mōhio tātou kāore pea i tino rerekē te kawa o te pōwhiri mai i tērā wā ki nāianei.

Te pōwhiri ki te whare paremata o te Kotahitanga

I ngā tau 1890 ka hui te paremata Māori o te Kotahitanga ki Pāpāwai, ki te pōwhiri i ngā rangatira o ngā mātāwaka o te motu. Kotahi maero te tawhiti atu o te ope i Pāpāwai ka rokohia te pēne o te Kotahitanga, ā, haurua o te maero te matara atu i te marae, ka tūtaki ki ngā kuia, he pare raurākau kei ngā pane, e mau ana i te Haki o Peretānia i ngā ringa’.

Nō te ekenga rā anō ki runga i te marae, ka kotahi haora mātou e whakaū ana i te kawa tapu o ngā tīpuna, ā, ka utuhia te roimata me te aroha. Whai muri atu ka hongi te iwi. Kātahi ka tūtū mai ngā tāhae ki te piu i te mere me te taiaha. I reira ka kitea te mana me te ihi i te mahi o te mārohirohi.’2

Footnotes
    • Church Missionary Record 7, no.7 (July 1836), p. 165. Back
    • Te Puke ki Hikurangi, 21 December 1897, p. 3. Back

Basic marae etiquette

Kei tēnā marae, kei tēnā marae tōna ake kawa me ōna ake tikanga. Ko te mea tika he inoi ki  ki te tangata whenua kia whakamārama mai he aha te mahi tika.

I mua i te pōwhiri

  • Me tae tōmua. Kaua e hīkoi i runga i te marae i te wā e haere ana te pōwhiri.
  • Me tau ngā kākahu, ā, me tino pērā mō ngā tangihanga.
  • Me whakamōhio i a koe ki ērā atu ope ko wai koe.
  • Give your koha (monetary gift) to the kaumātua with the envelope.
  • Tukuna tō koha ki te kaumātua e mau ana i te kōpaki.
  • Tiro mēnā kei te weto ngā waea pūkoro i te wā o te pōwhiri.

I te wā o te pōwhiri

  • Kaua e hīkoi pokanoa ki runga i te marae; me mātua karanga te tangata whenua ki a koe kia whakaeke.
  • Ko ngā wāhine ki mua, ko ngā tāne ki muri, engari ka whakaeke tahi ki runga ki te marae.
  • Kaua e kai, e inu rānei i te pōwhiri.
  • Kaua e whakawhiti i te kaikōrero i a ia e kōrero ana i runga i te marae ātea.
  • Kōrerotia te reo Māori, kaua te reo Pākehā mēnā kei te whaikōrero (māna i whakaae rā anō te hau kāinga).
  • Ko ngā tāne ka noho i te pae kōrero o ngā marae. Arā anō ngā marae ka whakanoho i ngā tāne me ngā wāhine ki te pae o te tangata whenua.
  • I te otinga o te pōwhiri kua rūrū, kua hongi. Kei ētahi he tika te kihi i te pāpāringa, ki ētahi me hongi rawa, tāne mai, wāhine mai.

Whai muri i te pōwhiri

  • Horoia ō ringaringa (ka kitea he wai).

I roto i te wharekai

  • Ka karangatia ana te manuhiri ki te kai, he tika anō kia tukua ngā kaumātua ki mua. Ka whakapāhōtia ko wai ka kuhu tuatahi.
  • Tatari kia karakia rā anō, kātahi ka kai.
  • Kaua e whakawhiti kai i runga ake i te māhunga o tētahi.
  • Kaua e noho i runga tēpu.

I roto i te wharenui

  • Tangohia ō hū.
  • Kimihia ngā wāhi tika hei hora i ō paraikete. Ko ētahi wāhanga o te wharenui ka wehea motuhake mō ētahi manuhiri, tangata whenua rānei.
  • Kaua e kai, e inu rānei i roto i te wharenui.
  • Kaua e peke i te tangata i roto i te wharenui.
  • Kaua e noho i runga i ngā urunga.
  • Mā te marae anō e hora ngā mēterēhi me ngā urunga, māu e hari ōu ake paraikete.

I tētahi tangihanga

  • Horoia ō ringa i muri i tō pānga atu ki te kirimate me te tūpāpaku.
  • Horoia ō ringa i te wehenga i te urupā.

Ngā kawa whānui o te marae

  • Kāore ētahi marae e whakaae kia tango whakaahua. Me whai whakaaetanga i te tuatahi.

More links and websites


How to cite this page: Basil Keane, 'Te kawa o te marae', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/marae-protocol-te-kawa-o-te-marae/print (accessed 16 June 2019)

Story by Basil Keane, published 5 Sep 2013