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Kūmara

by  Peter Adds

I mua i te taenga o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, me uaua ka taea te nui o te warowaihā, te carbohydrate ki te reo Pākehā. Ki te Māori, ko te kūmara te kura mai Hawaiki. Ahakoa te roa o te wā ki mua, kei te kitea tonutia ngā māra me ngā rua kūmara a te tangata Māori onamata.


Introducing kūmara to New Zealand

Nō te takiwā o te rau tau atu i 1200 ka tae mai te kūmara (Ipomoea batatas) ki Aotearoa me te Māori. Arā atu anō ētahi tipu he mea mau mai, pērā i te taro, te hue, te uwhi me te tī pore. I tua atu, ko te aute i heria mai; engari kāore i kainga; whakamahia kētia te kiri hei kākahu. I tōna taenga ki Aotearoa i te tau 1769, ka kite a Kāpene Kuki i ēnei tipu katoa ki Pēwhairangi.

Ko te āhua nei ka haere ngā tīpuna o te Māori ki te tonga o Amerika, ka heri mai i te kūmara ki Te Moananui-a-Kiwa.

Ngā tauhou ki te whenua hōu

He rerekē te āhua o ngā rangi ki Aotearoa tērā ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, nā reira me rerekē ngā tikanga mō te whakatipu kai. Ko Te Tai Tokerau te rohe ki Aotearoa ka rite rawa te pā mahana ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Whāia, ko Murihiku te wāhi uaua rawa mō te whakatipu i ēnei momo tipu.

Puta noa i te tau ka tipu te kūmara ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa. Ko te tikanga ki aua moutere rā, ka whakatōkia ko ngā huruhuru o te kūmara. Heoi, nā te makariri o Aotearoa, ka whakatōkia ko ngā kōpura kē.

Nā te makariri o ngā rangi i Aotearoa, ka tahuri te Māori ki te panoni i ngā tikanga whakatipu kūmara, kia pai ai te penapena i te hōtoke, te whakatō i te raumati. Ka tipu te kūmara ki ngā wāhi mahana o Te Ika-a-Māui me ngā takutai i te raki o Te Wai Pounamu. Ko Hakaroa i te takutai ki Waitaha te wāhi whakatetonga rawa e tipu ai te kūmara.

Te ō kūmara

Kei tēnā iwi, kei tēnā iwi ā rātou ake kōrero mō te heringa o te kūmara ki Aotearoa. E mea ana ngā uri o ngā tāngata i runga i a Horouta, nā tō rātou tipuna nā Hinehākirirangi te kūmara i mau ki Aotearoa, ka whakatō ki Manutūkē, ki runga o Manawarū. E kī ana ngā iwi o Te Arawa me Tainui, nā te wahine rā nā Whakaotirangi te kūmara i kawe ki Aotearoa.

Ngā māra tōmua

Kāore noa iho i tino rahi ngā māra tōmua. I te taenga ki Aotearoa, ka whakatōngia wawetia ngā kūmara kei mate. Ka tūngia te ururua kia wātea ai mō te mahi māra. Ko te whakapae i whakatōkia te kūmara ki ētahi wāhi i te wā kotahi. Nāwai ā, ka ako ngā tūpuna kia whakatō ko ngā kōpura, hāunga ngā huruhuru.


Growing kūmara

Ngā māra

Mō te kūmara, ka whakatō ki te oneone kua ahua, kua rārangitia. Ko te momo rārangi, ka rite ki te tohu 5 i runga i te pīrori. Ko ngā kōpura ka whakatō ki roto i ngā one he mea ahu. Ko ngā wāhi rawe rawa mō te whakatipu kūmara, ko ngā wāhi aupaki ka whitingia i te rā.

Te panoni oneone

He pai te one marewa mō te māra kūmara. Mō ngā oneone mātotoru, arā, ngā one tuatara, ka whakahanumi ki te kirikiri. Hei ētahi wā, mō ngā māra nui, he haerenga tawhiti ki te mau kirikiri mai.

Ko te whakapae, he pai atu te rere o te wai i ngā one kirikiri. Mā konei ka taea te whakatō tōmua i te kūmara, i te mea ka mahana wawe te one kirikiri hei kaupare i te hukapapa.

Ngā māra tawhito

Kitea noatia ai ngā mahuetanga o ngā māra tawhito me ngā taiepa kōhatu. Ki ētahi wāhi ka whakaahutia ngā kōhatu, ki ētahi wāhi ka takoto rārangi, ki ētahi atu wāhi ka haere ngātahi ēnei tikanga e rua. Kāore i te mārama he aha te tikanga o ēnei tāpaetanga kōhatu. Waihoki, he wā ka tipuria te kūmara ki te oneone kua tāpaea ki runga i ngā kōhatu, kia rite ai te mahana i ngā wā katoa. Heoi, arā atu anō pea he whakamārama mō aua putunga kōhatu; i te wawaenga o te papa i mua i te tiringa, ka whakaahutia ngā kōhatu putu, ka whakatōkia ngā kūmara ki waenganui.

Ngā ngārara kai kūmara

Taiāwhiotia ai ngā māra ki ngā ahuriri, arā, ngā taiepa pāpaku noa, hei whakaruruhau, hei kaupare i ngā pūkeko. Ka whakamōkaitia te karoro hei kai i te anuhe. He wā kua tahuna ngā rau kawakawa kia whakapoa, kia panaa te anuhe.

Ka uaua haere te whakatakoto māra

Kāore noa iho i roa te whakatipu i te kūmara ki tētahi wāhi ka pākeka, ka kaha kore te oneone. Nā reira, me whakarere taua māra, ka rapu wāhi hou. Ki ngā moutere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa, e 20 – 25 ngā tau kātahi anō ka hoki te kaha ki te one i māratia. Heoi, ko te mate kē ki Aotearoa, ina waiho noa tētahi wāhi mārakerake, taihoa ka tipuria e te rarauhe. Nā te whīwhiwhi o ngā ake me ngā tā, he uaua tēnei tipu te huke ake; kāore he take o te tahutahu, ka wana anō hoki. Nā reira ka uaua haere te rapu whenua pai hei tiri māra hou.

Ka hoki mai te kūmara

I te tau 1969 ka tukua tētahi kohinga e hia rau o ngā momo kūmara o Aotearoa ki Hapani tiakina ai. Nō te tau 1988 ka tautokona e te tohunga huaota Ingarihi e David Bellamy tētahi haerenga o te rōpū Pū Hao Rangi ki Hapani, ki te whakahoki mai i ngā momo e iwa o te kūmara. Ko te whakapae, e toru o ēnei momo kūmara, arā, te taputini, te rekamaroa, te hutihuti – nō mua i te taenga o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa. Kei te tātaritia ngā pītau ira o ēnei kūmara kia mōhiotia te pono o ngā rangahau nei.

Ngā momo kūmara

I te rau tau 1800 ka tae mai ētahi atu momo kūmara i tāwāhi. He tere ake te whakatipu, he rahi atu ngā kūmara ka taea te whakatipu. I ahu mai ēnei momo i ngā kaipatu kēkeno, tohorā nō te raki o Amerika. I tēnei wā e toru ngā momo kūmara arumoni o Aotearoa.


Tools and storage pits

Ngā taputapu i te māra

He maha ngā taputapu a te Māori mō te ngaki mara, arā ko te:

  • toki hengahenga – mō te kauhuri oneone
  • hoto – he momo kō he mea hanga i te maire
  • kō – mō te keri oneone. E 2 mita pea te roa. He teka kei ētahi kō hei takahitanga mō te waewae.
  • kāheru – he momo kō hei whakaahu oneone, hei tūkari kūmara.
  • puka – he kō mata roa.
  • tipi, pere rānei – paku noa te mata, ka whakamau ki te kakau hei ngaki tōtō, hei ngaki tarutaru.
  • ketu – he rite ki te hoe tōna hanga, hei pāpako i te oneone i mua i te hauhaketanga
  • patupatu – hei patu i te one kerepei
  • kōkō – whakamahia pēnei i te kō
  • timo – hei kūtoro i ngā tarutaru o te māra.

Te pupuri kūmara

Tipu ai te kūmara i te raumati; ā, hei te Maehe ka hauhake. Kīhai te kūmara e tipu i te hōtoke, nā reira me penapena ngā kōpura. Kua taunga kē ngā iwi o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ki te pupuri kūmara ki roto rua; he mātauranga ia i kawea ki Aotearoa. Nā te takawai me te mahana o ngā rua kūmara, e kore ngā kōpura e pirau. Ko ngā toenga kāore i kainga i te hōtoke, ka pupuri, ka whakatō ā te raumati.

Ka waia ki te kai kūmara

Nō te taenga o te rīwai me ērā atu hua whenua ki Aotearoa, ka heke te kaha o te kai kūmara. Nō te pakanga tuarua o te ao kātahi anō ka whai a tauiwi i te kūmara. Ka reka ki ngā hōia o Amerika te kai i te kūmara, he rite ki tā rātou 'sweet potato'. Nō muri ka tahuri a tauiwi whānui ki te kai i te kūmara.

Rua kūmara

Puta i Aotearoa, kitea tonutia ai ngā wāhi o ngā rua kūmara tawhito. Ka hangaia e tēnā iwi, e tēnā iwi ōna ake momo rua. Ko ētahi rua he tapawhā te takoto, ko ētahi ka keria i ngā whenua papatahi, ki ngā tahataha hiwi rānei.

Ka mutu te tahu i ngā rua hei pana iroriki, ka tū ngā kūaha hei kati i ngā kiore me ngā āhuarangi kino.

Te kai kūmara

Ka waru i ngā kōpura iti, ka whakamaroke ki te rā kia pai ai te mahi kao. Ka kai mata, ka rūmaki ki te wai, ka penupenu, ka tunu rānei te kao ki roto hāngī.

Ka whai iho ētahi o ngā momo tunu i ngā kūmara rahi:

  • ki roto hāngī
  • ka tunu ka kīnaki ki te wai kina
  • te rorerore ki roto pungarehu
  • te kōhua, te koromamao rānei ki te ngāwhā
  • te waruwaru; kīia tēnei he roroi.

Religious aspects

Te taha wairua

Nā te uaua o te whakatipu i ētahi atu o ngā tipu mai i Hawaiki, ka nui atu te tūranga o te kūmara i te ao Māori. Nā te mimiti haere o ngā whenua pai mō te whakatipu māra, kātahi ka nui rawa atu te tūranga. He tapu ngā mahi e pā ana ki te kūmara, whai anō ka whakatapua ia ki a Rongomātāne, tētahi o ngā atua nui o te ao Māori. I tua atu, ko Rongo te atua o te māriretanga. He tohu pea tēnei ki te wāhi nui o te māra kūmara i tērā o te pakanga me te riri.

Te hekenga ā-rangi

E ai ki te kōrero nā Pani-tinaku te kūmara i mau iho ki a Papatūānuku. Ko Rongomāui tana tāne, he taina nā te whetū rā a Whānui. Nā Rongomāui te kūmara i tāhae i a Whānui, ka hoatu ki tana wahine, ka hua ko te kūmara. Hei utu, ka tono e Whānui a Anuhe rātou ko Toronu, ko Moko ki te kaikai i ngā rau o te kūmara.

Māra tautāne

I mua o te onoono i ngā kūmara ki te māra nui, ka whakatōhia te māra tautāne. Ka wehea tēnei māra i te māra nui, ko ngā kōpura ka whakatapua ki ngā atua.

Ngā tikanga ono kūmara

I te wā o te whakatō kūmara, ka takina te kawa huamata, ka tāpaea he amonga ki ngā atua – hei te nuinga o te wā he manu. Ka whakatapua e ngā tohunga te māra kia tae rā anō ki te hauhakenga. He mea aukati tēnei i te tangata.

Hauhake

He nui te kawa i te hauhakenga i te kūmara. Takina ai te karakia purenga hei hiki i te tapu. Ko ngā kōpura tōmua rawa ka whakatapua ki ngā atua, pērā i a Rongo. Whai muri ko te hākari.

Te māngaro me te rawe

Kei roto te kūmara i te maha o ngā whakataukī a te Māori. Kīia ai te rangatira he nui tōna iwi, ‘E tupu atu kūmara, e ohu e te anuhe’. Waihoki, arā te kupu whakaiti mō te tangata, ‘Kāore te kūmara e kōrero mō tōna māngaro’.

Mauri

Tiakina ai te mauri o te māra e ētahi taonga pērā i te taumata atua – he kōhatu ka whakarite ki tētahi atua pērā i a Rongo. Ko te atua kiato he rākau whakairo ka titia ki te one. He wā ka whakairia ngā ūpoko o ngā hoariri ki runga i ngā pou hei pupuri i te mauri o te kūmara.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Peter Adds, 'Kūmara', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kumara/print (accessed 8 August 2020)

He kōrero nā Peter Adds, i tāngia i te 24 Nov 2008