Kōrero: Kīngitanga – the Māori King movement

Whārangi 2. Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, 1858–1860

Ngā whakaahua

I te tau 1856 nā Iwikau Te Heuheu of Tūwharetoa tētehi hui nui whakaharahara i karanga, ka kīia ai ko ‘Hīnana ki uta, Hīnana ki tai (he rapu mā te whenua, he rapu mā te moana) i Pūkawa, i te tahatika o Taupō Moana. I reira katoa ngā iwi nui. Ko tā Te Heuheu i reira, ko te ariki rongonui o Waikato, ko Pōtatau Te Wherowhero hei kīngi.

Nō te tau 1841 ko tā Kāwana Wīremu Hopihana rīpoata ki Rānana ko Pōtatau te rangatira mana nui o Aotearoa. Nā Mātene Te Whiwhi o Ngāti Raukawa te whiu o te pātai ki ngā tohunga mōhio ki te whakapapa ki a Te Hūkiki Te Ahukaramū rāua ko Te Whīoi o Ngāti Raukawa.  Ko tā rāua ko Pōtatau te tangata. Kei tōna whakapapa he herenga, he hononga ki ngā iwi nui. Ko tōna Kīngitanga ka tautokona nuitia e ngā whenua mōmona me te nui o ngā rahinga o Waikato whairawa. He mea nui taua whairawa a Pōtatau, kia taea ai e tōna iwi te manaaki i te tini o āna manuwhiri.

Te Whakaae i te Kīngitanga

Pērā me te nuinga, mau tonu a Pōtatau ki te kore e whakaae ko ia hei kīngi. He nui, he maha ngā hui i tū hei whakawhitiwhiti whakaaro i te kaupapa, tae noa ki te tau 1857 ki tētehi hui ka kīia ai ko Te Puna o te Roimata, i Haurua, i waenga i a Ngāti Maniapoto. I reira nā tētehi o ngā rangatira o Ngāti Maniapoto nā Tanirau te tautoko a tōna iwi i a Pōtatau hei kīngi. Ko tā Pōtatau, ‘E Tā, kua tō te rā!’, arā, kua koroheketia, kua kore e roa ka mate. Ko tā Tanirau, ‘E tō ana i te ahiahi, e ara ana i te ata, e tū koe hei Kīngi’ (Ka tō te rā i te ahiahi, ka ara anō ia i te ata: ka whakaarahia koe hei Kīngi). Nāna te whakaaro, ka mate ana a Pōtatau, mā tana tama mā Tāwhiao te kaupapa o te kīngi hei kawe, heke iho, heke iho i tōna whare. Ko tā Pōtatau, ‘E pai ana’.1 Nā reira ia i whakaae ko ia hei kīngi, ka riro mā Waikato te mahi hei kaitiaki o te Kīngitanga.

Hei Kīngi

Nō te tau 1858 ka whakawahia a Pōtatau hei kīngi i Ngāruawāhia. Ko tā Iwikau Te Heuheu: ‘Potatau, i tēnei rā, nāku koe i tohu hei Kīngi o te iwi Maori. Ko kōrua ko Kuīni Wikitōria ka paiheretia kia kotahi. Ko te whakapono ki a Te Karaiti hei korowai manaaki i a koe; ko te ture hei whāriki mō ō waewae, ake, ake tonu atu.’’2

I tētehi atu hui i Rangiaowhia i te tau 1858, nā Te Tāpihana o Ngāti Hikairo te pātai ki te iwi ki te taitara tika mō Pōtatau. Mai i te iwi i reira ka puta ko ngā ingoa Māori tūturu, arā, he ariki tauaroa, he toihau, he kahutātara, ka mutu nā Te Moananui o Heretaunga te karanga ‘he kīngi’. Ka whakaaea katoatia e te iwi.

Nō muri mai ka whakawahia a Pōtatau hei kīngi i Ngāruawāhia, nā Wiremu Tāmihana Tarapīpīpī Te Waharoa (arā, ko te ‘kingmaker’) te kawa o te whakawahinga ki te hinu i kawe, nāna hoki te Paipera i whakarewa ki runga o te pane o Pōtatau.

Ko Aituā

I tōna wā poto hei kīngi, ka noho a Pōtatau ki Ngāruawāhia, ki reira whakatū ai i tōna kaunihera nui, Te Rūnanga o Ngāruawāhia, hei ārahi i tōna kīngitanga. Ka mate ia tata ki te 25 o Hune ki tōna kāinga i Ngāruawāhia.

Kupu tāpiri
  1. I takoto ki Pei Te Hurinui Jones, King Potatau: an account of the life of Potatau Te Wherowhero, the first Maori king. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Polynesian Society, 1959, p. 207. Back
  2. I takato ki James Cowan, The New Zealand wars: a history of the Māori campaigns and the pioneering period (1845–64), http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-Cow01NewZ-b1-1-9.html (last accessed 9 May 2012). Back
Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Rahui Papa and Paul Meredith, 'Kīngitanga – the Māori King movement - Pōtatau Te Wherowhero, 1858–1860', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kingitanga-the-maori-king-movement/page-2 (accessed 15 October 2019)

Story by Rahui Papa and Paul Meredith, published 20 Jun 2012