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Kaitiakitanga – guardianship and conservation

by  Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal

E ai ki te tirohanga a te Māori ki tōna ao, he whanaungatanga te hononga i waenganui i te tangata me tōna ao. Ka whakapuakina tēnei hononga mā roto te kaitiakitanga – he tikanga tiaki i te taiao. Kua tipu te whakaaro mō te kaitiakitanga i ēnei rā, e ngana ana ngā iwi ki te whakaora anō i ō rātou taiao me ō rātou ahurea.


Understanding kaitiakitanga

Ko te tikanga o te kaitiakitanga he tiaki, he manaaki, he atawhai, he whakamaru. Me kī, he whakahaere i te taiao i runga i te titiro a te Māori ki tōna ao.

Tirohanga a te Māori ki tōna ao

Hei tā te Māori he hononga ita kei waenganui i te tangata me te taiao. Ahakoa he aha te mea i tēnei ao, he hononga tōna ki ngā mea ora katoa. Ehara i te mea kei runga ake te Māori i ētahi atu mea i te taiao, hāunga, he wāhanga kē a ia nō te taiao. He rite te Māori ki ētahi o ngā tāngata whenua o te ao, arā, tiro ai ia ki te tangata anō he wāhanga o ngā koiora puta noa. E mārama ai te tangata ki tōna ao, me mārama a ia ki te whanaungatanga a tēnā, a tēnā, a tēnā.

Ko te kaitiakitanga he waka hei whakaora hei whakahoki mai i aua ariā.

Kaitiaki

Ko te kaitiaki he tangata, he rōpū rānei ka arongia e te tangata whenua. Hei tauira, ka noho mai tētahi hapū kaitiaki i tētahi roto i tētahi ngahere rānei.

Kei te tipu haere tēnei mea te kaitiakitanga i ēnei rā. Kei te ngana ngā iwi ki te whakatika i ngā raruraru ki te taiao, ki te ako anō i a rātou ki ētahi āhuatanga mai anō.

Ngā pānga ki te taiao

Ahakoa he aha te iwi, te tōpūtanga tāngata rānei, ka pā ōna putanga ki te taiao. I mua i te taenga o te Pākehā ki Aotearoa, patua ai e te Māori te moa, ā, mate rawa. Wai hoki, he nui ngā ngahere i tahuna ai e te Māori. Arā atu anō ā rātou mahi ki ngā rākau me ngā tipu, ngā kararehe, te whenua, te moana. Hāunga tērā, he pānga anō to te Pākehā ki te taiao i tōna taenga ki Aotearoa – ki ngā tipu, ngā kararehe, te whenua, te moana. Hei tauira, i tahia atu te nui o ngā ngahere kia pai ai ngā mahi ahuwhenua.

Te noho mōrearea

I ngā rau tau o te 1800 me te 1900 ka pokea ngā hapori Māori me ō rātou ahurea, tata mate rawa. Ka whakarite te Māori i a ia ki ngā tipu me ngā kararehe ka ngaro ki te pō. Hei tauira, he parekura nui ki a Ngāti Huia te korenga o te manu nei te huia i te mea he tohu te manu nei ki tō rātou tuakiri me tō rātou mana.

Te kaitiakitanga o ngā taonga

Ka hāngai anō te kaitiakitanga ki ngā taputapu, taonga, aha atu, pērā i ngā taonga tuku iho a te whānau pērā i ngā korowai, ngā pounamu, pukapuka whakapapa, aha atu. Ka noho te taonga a tētahi hei taonga mā ōna uri whakaheke. Ka tiakina ēnei taonga e tētahi tangata mai te rōpū i āta tohungia. Ko tā te kaitiaki he whakaatu i te taonga, ngā taonga rānei i ngā hui nui a te Māori pērā i ngā tangihanga. Kei tērā tangata kaitiaki hoki e mau ana ngā kōrero mō aua taonga.

Kaitiakitanga i ēnei rā

I ēnei rā ka whakaatu te kaitiakitanga i ngā tikanga o mua i roto i ēnei rā rerekē. Kua tahuri ngā iwi ki te whakaora anō i te taiao me te ahurea i ō rātou rohe. Otirā kei te ngana rātou kia tū te kaitiakitanga i roto i tēnei te ao hurihuri.


Connected to nature

E ai ki te Māori he hononga ita tō te tangata ki te whenua me te taiao. Ka tipu ake te kaitiakitanga i tēnei hononga i tēnei te ao hurihuri.

Tangata whenua

Ko te tangata whenua, koirā te tōpūtanga tāngata ka whai mana ki tētahi wāhi ake nā runga i te pānga o ō rātou tīpuna ki taua wāhi. Kāore he wehewehe i te tangata i te whenua, ā, ehara i te mea kei runga ake te mana o te tangata i te mana o te whenua. Ka tarea e te taiao te kōrero ki te tangata, te tuku māramatanga, te tuku mōhiotanga. Ko tā te tangata he whakahāngai i a ia ki te taiao.

Whanaungatanga

Kei ētahi kōrero a te Māori e kōrero ana mō te huri a te tangata hei manu, hei ika, aha atu rānei. He maha hoki ngā kōrero mō te tangata ka whakarite i tōna tinana ki te takoto o te whenua. Ka whakaatu ēnei tirohanga i te whanaungatanga ita a te tangata ki te taiao.

Taunaha whenua

Ko te taunaha whenua he tikanga ka whakaingoa te rangatira i tētahi rohe whenua mō tētahi wāhanga o tōna tinana. Ko Tamatekapua te rangatira o runga i a Te Arawa i rere mai i Hawaiki. I tōna kitenga i te kūrae o Maketū ka kī a ia, ‘Te kūrae rā mō aku whakatipuranga. Ko te kūreitanga o taku ihu!’ 1

Ko Tia anō tētahi i haere mai i runga i a Te Arawa. Ka titiro a ia ki te takiwā o Rangiuru ka kī, ‘Te toropuke i runga rā, ahu mai ki ngā maunga nei, ko te takapū o Tapuika!’ 2

Whenua tapu

Ko Mananui Te Heuheu te ariki o Ngāti Tūwharetoa i ōna rā. Ka ūhia e ia tōna mana me tōna tapu ki runga i ngā whenua i tōna rohe mā te whakarite i aua whenua ki tōna tinana. Inarā te whakamārama a tana mokopuna a Tūreiti Te Heuheu:

I takoto nui tōna tinana. Ko tētahi o ōna kūhā ki runga o Tītī-o-kura ko tētahi ki runga o Ōtāiri. Ko tētahi o ōna pakihiwi ki runga o Paretetaitonga ko tētahi ki runga o Tūhua. Ko tōna māhunga ki runga o Tongariro, ko tōna tinana ka hora ki runga o Taupō. I pēnei te mahi kia noho tapu te whenua he wāhi mō tōna mana nui. 3
Footnotes
  1. John Te H. Grace, Tuwharetoa: a history of the Maori people of the Taupo district. Tāmaki-makau-rau: A. H. & A. W. Reed, 1992, wh. 52. › Back
  2. Tuwharetoa, wh. 52. › Back
  3. Tureiti Te Heuheu, kōrerotia ki a Elsdon Best, 26 Mei 1913. MS Papers 72, folder 36, Alexander Turnbull Library, Te Whanganui-a-Tara. › Back

Traditional kaitiakitanga

Te tangata me te taiao

I ngā rā o mua kāore he wehewehe i te tangata mai i te taiao. Ka kitea te ora o tētahi hapori i te oranga o tō rātou taiao. Hei tauira atu, mēnā kei te paruparu ngā wai o tētahi wāhi, he tohu tērā kei te raruraru te iwi o taua rohe. Koianei te pūtake o te kaitiakitanga.

Te noho pai

Mā ngā mahi ka pai te noho a te hapori me te taiao. Ko ngā mahi pērā i te hopu manu, te ono kai, te hī ika ka whakahaerehia ai i runga i tēnei āhuatanga. Ko ētahi o ēnei tūmomo mahi ko:

  • te whakatū rāhui ki tētahi wāhi ka tohungia
  • te whai i ngā tohutohu a te maramataka mō te ono me te hauhake kai
  • te aukati i te hī ika me te hopu manu
  • te whakamahi i te kete e tika ana mō te kawe i tēnā kai, i tēnā kai
  • te tango i ngā kai e rahi ana
  • te whakanoho mauri ki te māra hei tiaki i ngā kai
  • te whakamahi i ngā tāwhiti manu i ngā wā e tika ana, kaua i te wā o te hua
  • ngā tikanga mō te hī ika – hei tauira atu, ka haere ētahi iwi ki te hī me tētahi kupenga nui whakaharahara ka tōia e ētahi waka e rua; heoi, kotahi anake te wā i te tau mō tēnei mahi.

Ngā tikanga tiaki a ngā Māori o mua

He uri a Tāmati Ranapiri nō te iwi o Ngāti Raukawa. I te tau 1895 ka tuhi kōrero a ia mō ngā tikanga a tōna iwi mō te mahi i te kahitua, he mātaitai ka kitea i tātahi mai Paekākāriki ki Taranaki.

Kāore i whakaaetia te wahine e rere ana tōna toto kia haere ki te mahi mātaitai….kāore i whakaaetia te kai māoa. Ki te puta tētahi wahine e rere ana ōna toto ki te mahi mātaitai, ka taea te mātaitai i taua rā anake. Aoinaake, kāore rawa e kitea he mātaitai ki taua ākau i te mea kua neke kē rātou i taua ākau ki te ākau kei raro i te mana o hapū kē. 1
Footnotes
  1. Tāmati Ranapiri, Reta ki a Elsdon Best, 14 Hānuere 1895. MS Papers 1187-127, Alexander Turnbull Library, Te Whanganui-a-Tara. › Back

Kaitiaki – guardians

Ko te pūtake o te kupu kaitiakitanga ko te tiaki. Ko te tikanga o te tiaki ko te atawhai, ko te manaaki, ko te ārai, ko te whakamarumaru. Nā reira ka takea mai te kupu tiaki i ngā whakaaro mō te manaaki me te ārai, nā reira te matatika mō te tiaki.

Te tūranga o te kaitiaki

Ko te kaitiaki he tangata he rōpū rānei ka noho ki te manaaki, ki te atawhai, ki te ārai, ki te tiaki. Ko ngā atua ngā kaitiaki tūturu o te ao Māori – hei tauira atu, ko Tāne te atua o te wao nui, ko tāna he tiaki i te wao me ngā mea katoa ki roto. Ka whai ngā kaitiaki katoa o muri mai i te tauira he mea takoto e ngā atua.

Ko te maha o ngā hapū me ngā whānau ka noho hei kaitiaki mō tētahi wāhi pēnei i tētahi roto i tētahi ngahere rānei. Ka ngana rātou ki te pupuri i ngā taonga o te taiao, ki te whakaea i ngā pānga kino ki te taiao, ki te pupuri hoki i ngā kōrero tuku iho.

Te hunga tiaki

Ko te kupu a ngā iwi o Te Arawa mō te kaitiaki ko te ‘hunga tiaki’. Anei te whakamārama a Huhana Mihinui.

Ka whakamahi a Te Arawa i te kupu ‘hunga’, kāpā te ‘kai’, whai anō te ‘hunga tiaki’. Ko te tikanga o te ‘hunga’ ko tētahi rōpū he kotahi ō rātou whakaaro. Ka hāngai hoki te kupu ‘hunga’ ki runga i ngā kawenga o te hapori. Kāore e puta tēnei tirohanga i te kupu ‘kai’. I tua atu, ka kawea e te ‘hunga tiaki’ ngā whakaaro mō te manaaki manuhiri, te whakahaere me te ārai. Ka arongia te mana whenua o te hunga tiaki. 1

Ētahi atu kaitiaki

Ka āhei te noho a ētahi kararehe hei kaitiaki. Anei te whakamārama a Tāmati Ranapiri he kaumātua o Ngāti Raukawa mō tēnei āhuatanga:

Ko te manu taupunga ka noho mataara i te wā e kai ana te kāhui. Ka noho te manu taupunga ki te tiaki i te rākau e kainga ana; ki te tata mai he manu kē ki te kai, ka panaa e ia. 2
Footnotes
  1. Huhana Mihinui, ‘Hutia te rito o te harakeke: a flaxroots understanding of resource management.’ Kei Whenua: managing our resources, ētita Merata Kāwharu. Tāmaki-makau-rau: Reed, 2002, wh. 22–23. › Back
  2. Tāmati Ranapiri, Reta ki a Elsdon Best, 15 Hānuere 1895. MS Papers 1187-271, Alexander Turnbull Library, Te Whanganui-a-Tara. › Back

Key concepts

Ka noho te mana, te tapu, te mauri ki te pūtake o te kaitiakitanga.

Mana

Ka whakaatu te ngahere i tōna mana mā roto i ngā manu, ngā rākau me te takoto o te whenua. Ko te ora o ngā pua me ngā hua o ngā rākau, te nui o ngā manu e kai ana, koianei katoa ngā whakaaturanga o te kaha o te mana o te ngahere. Mehemea kei te ora rawa atu te ngahere, ka kīia e te Māori he matomato he māpua tōna āhua.

Tapu

Ki te whakaputa e te ngahere tōna mana, me whakanoho ētahi tikanga tiaki. Ka hua i te tapu ko te rāhui.

Mauri

E kore te ngahere e ora ki te kore tōna mauri. Mā te mauri ka hua te rākau, ka tau ngā manu, ērā mea katoa. I ngā rā o mua he nui, he kaha ngā tikanga whakahaere i te ngahere. Ka karakia ngā tohunga i runga i te ika purapura arā te kōhatu mauri hei pupuri i te mauri. Ka tiaki rātou i te mauri o te ngahere kia puta ai te mana.

Anei te kaumātua o Ngāti Raukawa a Tāmati Ranapiri hei whakamārama:

Ko te mauri te mana nui rawa atu taka iho nō ngā atua, e hua ai te kai ki te ngahere kia kore ai e ngaro, kia kore ai e riro kei wāhi kē. He mauri kei roto i te whenua, kei ngā awa me ngā roto. Mehemea kāore he manu i tētahi maunga i tētahi ngahere rānei, kāore rānei he kai kei tētahi awa…ka whakanōhia he mauri … 1
Footnotes
  1. Tāmati Ranapiri, Reta ki a Elsdon Best, 14 Hānuere 1895. MS Papers 1187-127, Alexander Turnbull Library, Te Whanganui-a-Tara. › Back

Rāhui – prohibitions

Te tiaki mā te aukati

Ko te rāhui he aukati ka ūhia ki runga i tētahi wāhi kia kore ai e āhei te tango i nga rawa o taua wāhi. Hei tauira atu, ki te tūpuhi ngā ika rānei, ngā manu rānei, ngā rākau rānei o tētahi wāhi, ka whakataungia he rāhui ki runga i taua wāhi taea rawa atu ki te wā ka ora anō aua ika, aua manu, aua rākau. Anei he tauira nā Hirini Moko Mead:

Ko te rāhui hei tiaki i ngā hua o te whenua, o te wai….he rangatira a Tukuha i ōna rā…nāna i whakatū he pou rāhui ki Te Rautāwhiri. Tū ana taua pou ki taua wāhi; kia tae rawa ki te wā ka hiahia a Tukuha ki te rāhui i ngā tuna o te awa o Rangitāiki ka whakairi e ia tētahi o ona kākahu koroua ki te pou. Ka kite te iwi i tērā ka mōhio rātou kua rāhuitia te tuna. Inarā tōna ingoa Te Rautāwhiri (ngā rau he mea kōwiri ki runga i te pou) ka tohu ki te mea i tū tēnei wāhi hei pou rāhui mō tētahi wā roa. 1

Tērā te moka o Murihiku i Te Wai Pounamu, ka whakamahia e Ngāi Tahu ētahi momo rāhui ki reira:

Ko tētahi tauira mai Ngāi Tahu kīia ai ko te wakawaka (ngā paenga rohe tauranga ika i waenganui i ngā hapū….Hei tauira o te rāhui noa, ko te manu nei ko te hākuai…e ai ki te kōrero ko te hākuai te kaitiaki o te tītī. Ka rongo ana te taringa ki te tangi o te hākuai i te pō, he tohu tērā me mutu te mahi tītī mō te tau. Ka tau tēnei rāhui ā, tae rawa ki te tau hōu. 2

I te tekau tau atu i 1980 ka tau te rāhui a Ngāi Tahu ki runga i ngā kaimoana.

Nā Rakiihia Tau i uhi te rāhui ki runga i te rohe pōtae o Ngāi Tahu….i kōrerongia te rāhui i tētahi hui a te iwi ka tū ki Rāpaki i bte tau 1986. Ka tukua te kawenga mō te rāhui o ngā kaimoana ki ngā kaiwhakahaere o te iwi. I tēnei momo rāhui, kei ngā marae o Ngāi Tahu te mana whakaaea te tango mātaitai. 3
Footnotes
  1. Hirini Moko Mead, Tikanga Māori: living by Māori values. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Huia, 2003, wh. 197. › Back
  2. Peter Garven, Marty Nepia rātou ko Harold Ashwell, Te whakatau kaupapa o Murihiku: Ngai Tahu resource management strategy of the Southland region. Te Whanganui-a-Tara: Aoraki Press, 1997, wh. 29. › Back
  3. Te whakatau kaupapa o Murihiku, wh. 29. › Back

Kaitiakitanga today

Kua kitea anōtia

Kei te hoki mai te kaha o te kaitiakitanga i ēnei rā. Kei te tahuri ngā iwi ki te hanga me te whakaputa i ō rātou mātauranga tuku iho mō te kaitiakitanga i ō rātou hapori, i ō rātou rohe. Kei te whakahokia mai te ora ki te taiao, kei te whakahokia mai ko ngā mōhiotanga tuku iho o te iwi mō tō rātou rohe.

Whakamahinga o te kaitiakitanga

He maha ngā tauira mō te kaitiakitanga i ēnei rā.

  • Ko Ngāi Tahu te kaitiaki o te pounamu ki Te Wai Pounamu
  • I te tau 1981 ka takoto te kerēme a Te Āti Awa ki te aroaro o te Rōpū Whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi mō ngā paru e tūkino ana ō rātou tauranga ika.
  • Nā te iwi o Ngāti Toa rātou ko ngā kainoho o te whanga o Pukerua i te raki o Te Whanganui-a-Tara tētahi rāhui i whakatakoto ki runga i ngā wāhi mahi kaimoana o taua takiwā.
  • Kua whakatōpū a Ngāti Kahungunu, a Rangitāne, a Muaūpoko, a Ngāti Raukawa i a rātou ki te ātete i ngā tūkinotanga ki te awa o Manawatū.
  • Kei te ngana a Te Rarawa ki te tiaki i te kūkupa i tō rātou rohe.

Ngā wero

Arā tonu ngā wero ki te kaitiakitanga i ēnei rā. Me mārama ngā tāngata ki ngā tikanga o mua pērā i te mana, te tapu, te mauri, kātahi ka whakahāngai ki tēnei te ao hurihuri.

Tērā tētahi wero nui, te nanao a tauiwi ki te tikanga o te kaitiakitanga. Hei tauira atu, mō te tiaki i tētahi ngahere, tētahi awa rānei, ka whai wāhi mai ki ngā nekeneke te hunga nō rātou te whenua, ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe, te iwi o taua takiwā, ka mutu, he tirohanga tō tēnā, he tirohanga tō tēnā ki te ao me ngā mea nui o te ao.

Hanganga ture

Kua whakakuhuna te kaitiakitanga ki ētahi ture. Tērā te Resource Management Act 1991 me tōna whāinga kia taea ngā rawa o te taiao i runga i wairua tiaki pai. E ai ki te ture nei, me aro te hunga whāwhā ki ngā rawa o te taiao ki tēnei tikanga o te kaitiakitanga.

E ai ki te ture, ko te kaitiakitanga, ko ‘te tiaki a te tangata whenua i ngā rawa o tētahi wāhi i raro i ngā tikanga Māori, i runga hoki i te whakaaro penapena’.

I whakakuhuna te kaitiakitanga ki te Ture Foreshore and Seabed Act 2004.

Whiriwhiringa

Nā te mea kua whai wāhi a ia ki te ture, kua kaha te whāia o ngā whakamārama o tēnei mea te kaitiakitanga. Kei te tautoko ngā iwi i te whakatairangatanga o te kaitiakitanga. Nā tana whakakuhu i te kaitiakitanga ki ngā ture, kei te tāpae te kāwanatanga i ngā pānga me ngā tūmanako a ngā iwi ki mua i te hapori whānui. Ka noho ētahi iwi ki te whiriwhiri kōrero me ngā rōpū pēnei i ngā kāwanatanga ā-rohe, me te aha, kei te rērere tonu ngā kōrero mō te kaitiakitanga me te wāhi mōna i roto i ngā kaupapa tiaki i te taiao o Aotearoa.

Māori me tauiwi

He huarahi te kaitiakitanga e tareka ai e te Māori te hāpai i ngā kawenga me ngā tūmanako a ō rātou tūpuna. I tua atu, mā roto i te kaitiakitanga ka āhei a tauiwi ki te āta whakaaro mō te taiao me te whanaungatanga o ngā mea katoa i te ao, tae atu ki ngā rautaki tiaki i te taiao.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

More suggestions and sources


How to cite this page: Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, 'Kaitiakitanga', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/mi/kaitiakitanga/print (accessed 21 November 2019)

He kōrero nā Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal, i tāngia i te 24 Sep 2007