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Topia, Heni Hoana

by Agnes Patricia Daley, Janie Topia

Biography

Kātahi ngā kaiārahi i matea nuitia e ō rātau iwi kāinga ko Mereana Tōpia (ki te nuinga rā ko Maria), rāua ko tana tamāhine, ko Hēni (Jane) Hoana Tōpia. Mai i roto i ā rāua mahi nui, mau haere tonu tā rāua whakatītina i ngā mahi toi me ngā mahi pūkenga tuku iho o tō rāua taha Māori.

Ki tā te whānau, nō te 20 o Ākuhata o te tau 1862 i whānau ai a Maria ki Waiaua i Ōpōtiki. Hei tamāhine a Maria mā Mereana Tuki, he wahine whai mana nō Te Whakatōhea, rāua ko Sanderson Black, he Pākehā, he kāpene kaipuke e hokohoko haere ana i takutai. Tokorua ā rāua tamariki. Ko Maria te mea pakeke; ko tana teina, ko Mihikore, he mate hauā nei tō tērā, ā, nō mua kē atu i a Maria i mate ai. Ka roa nei te pāpā o Maria e ngaro ana i ana haere, moea kētia ana e tana māmā a Tairua Ēria o Te Whakatōhea. Nō muri iho puta ai te nui o te tamariki i a Tuki rāua ko Tairua, ā, i tipu tonu mai a Maria i waenganui i a rātau. E ono marama noa pea te roa o Maria i te kura, ka mutu. Ka kōrero Pākehā nei a Maria, he tūpato, mātau nei tana momo kōrero, ā, uaua ana ki a ia te tuhituhi. Ēngari anō tōna ake reo, ngāwari noa tana kōrero, pānui hoki i te reo Māori. Ko tētahi mea anō hoki, he wahine koi a Maria ki ngā take pū o te mahi tōrangapū, mahi ohanga hoki, ā, nō muri kitea ake ai te pai ki a ia.

Nō te tau 1889 pea te tūtakitanga a Maria ki a Heremia (Mick) Tōpia, meake nei ko tana tāne. Nō Whāngāpē, nō Te Rarawa o Te Tai Tokerau a Heremia, ā, oma atu ana rāua ko Maria, kore rawa ia mō te hoki mai ki Ōpōtiki. Ahakoa tērā, pūmau kaha tonu a Maria ki tōna whānau. Taro rawa ake kua whakanōhia kētia e rāua tō rāua kāinga ki Bradleys Landing i ngā tahataha tonu o te awa o Te Wairoa ki te raki, āhua ono māero nei te tawhiti mai i Tākiwira (Dargaville) ki te taha whakararo o te awa. Tokoiwa ā rāua tamariki, tokoono ngā kōtiro, tokotoru ngā tama.

I te tuatahi ko te awa tonu nei hei whāngai i a rātau, arā, i te raki e poroa ake ana ngā ngahere kauri, mā runga waka piki atu i te awa ki te tiki i ngā rākau. Noho ake ana a Heremia he mahi rākau tana mahi. Kāti, ko te raru o te autaia nei kua tino hē kē ia i te mahi petipeti moni, ā, tūpatopato tonu te mahi a Maria ki te tiaki i ngā rawa a tōna whānau. Kia nui ake ai te moni māna, pīhukatia ana e Maria ngā poro rākau e tere ana i te awa, arā, i ngā mea makere mai i ngā kahupapa. Tōia mai ana ki rahaki, hokona atu ana e ia. Taro kau rawa ake, noho mai ana a Maria i runga i tōna ake whenua, he whenua here kore nāna tonu i para, whakamahia ana e ia hei pāmu miraka kau, hoko kirīmi. He kūmara, he kānga, he merengi me ētahi poaka ruarua nei wāna i whakatipu ai, ā, ina koa i kore ai te whānau i mate kai.

He tino tau kē nei te tiaki a Maria Tōpia i tōna whare, hīti whakapaipai rawa mō ngā moenga manuhiri, he haina tarapī nei ana pereti me ana kapu. Oti atu i a ia te whakakao he moni hei whakaako i ana tamāhine ki te kanikani, ki te puoro. He tohunga kē nei a Maria ki te raranga whāriki, raranga kete hoki. Ahakoa kāore i tino whakamahia e ia ana tamariki ki te kōrero Māori, ki te ako rānei i ngā mahi toi, tino kaingākau tonutia e Maria ngā painga tuku iho o tana taha Māori.

Tērā noa atu ngā whānau i manaaki haere tonutia e Maria, ā, me karanga noa te tangata, tere tonu ia ki te āwhina. He kaiwhakawhānau tamariki anō hoki a Maria ki ngā wāhine Tarameihana, wāhine Māori rānei, ina koa tō rātau īngoa karanga mōna ko 'Karani Tōpia' (Granny Tōpia). Kitea tonutia ana te tino pai o āna mahi e te tākuta o tōna takiwā, e C. M. Mules, ā, i te tekau tau atu i 1930 tūtohua ana e ia a Maria kia whakawhiwhia ki te tiwhikete whakawhānau tamariki, tiwhikete hōnore. Kātahi hoki te mea tino whakahīhī ko tēnei.

I whakatupua mai a Maria hei Katorika, ā, kātahi tonu te mea nui ki te whānau ko te whakapono. Ia rā, ia rā tonu pānui ai a Maria i ana pukapuka karakia Māori, ā, me e taea ana, tonoa ana e ia ana tamariki ki ngā kura Katorika. Ki te tangata ko Maria tonu te pou o te Hāhi, ā, e hia kē nei ngā whānau Māori nāna i whakamōhio ki te whakapono. Aua atu, kāore he taupatupatu ki a Maria o ngā whakapono o tana Hāhi ki ētahi o ngā whakaaroaro wairua ake o tana taha Māori; inarā, nōna ka tino kuia, taetae tonu mai te tohunga whakaora ki te kite i a ia.

Ka pakeke haere nei ana tama, ko tā Maria tonu he whakanoho i a rātau ki runga tonu i ō rātau whenua. Nā tana kaha ki te mahi me te tūpato anō o te whakahaere, i tutuki i a ia tāna i tohe ai. He maha tonu nei ngā mahi moni a te whānau hei hoko whenua. Ana kē atu hoki te rawe o ana tama ki te whakatangi taputapu puoro, arā, i te panio, i te manarino me te kitā, ā, tonotono tonu mai te mahi a te tangata i a rātau mō ngā mahi whakangahau o te takiwā. Noho tonu ko Maria hei puri i ā rātau moni. Tokomaha kē nei ngā wāhine o te rohe kāinga nā Maria i whai mahi ai, inā kē te rahi o ana māra whakatipu rōpere, ko te nuinga rā he tipu hei hoko atu māna ki te Kamupene o Radley, he kaihoko hua nei i Ākarana (Auckland). Whakarahia ake ana e ia me āna tama tana mahi miraka kau, ā, i hokona mai anō hoki tētahi whenua e kapi tonu ana i te nui o te rākau, he pai kē nei hei mahi papa.

O āna tamāhine nei tokorua i puta hei kura māhita, arā, ko Ērena (Ellen) rāua ko Hēni Hoana (e mōhiotia kētia ana nei ko Jane). I whānau a Hēni, arā, te mea tuatoru o te whānau, i te 18 o Hepetema o te tau 1898 i Aratapu e tata tonu ana ki Bradleys Landing. Atu i te tau 1917 ki 1926 e kura māhita ana a Hēni i te kura Māori tūhāhā nei o Waikeri. Mea rawa ake te tau 1927 kua noho kē mai ko ia anake i te Kura Māori o Manukau i Kaitāia. Tae rawa ki te tau 1928 ka whiwhi te kura i tētahi atu māhita, ā, riro ana ko Hēni hei tumuaki tuatahi mō te kura. I te tuatahi i rō hōro tawhito noa nei te whare kura o Manukau. Ēngari nā te pēhanga tonutanga a Hēni i te Tari Kura (Department of Education) i oti ai he whare kura hou i te tau 1934, e rua nei ngā rūma. Oti atu hoki te pahī mō te kura māhita ki te taha tonu o te kura. Riro ana nā Hēni rātau ko āna tamariki kura me ō rātau mātua tonu te whenua o te kura i whakapai, ā, noho ana te kura hei wāhi huihui mō te hunga kāinga.

Pūmau tonu te mahi a Hēni ki te whakaū mai i ngā mātua ki ngā whakaakoranga o ā rātau tamariki. Whakahauhautia ana e ia ngā whāea kia haramai ki ngā karaehe a ā rātau tamariki, ā, whakakaupapatia anō e ia he wāhanga o te marau mātauranga hei ako i ngā mahi o te taha Māori. Āwhinatia ana ia e ngā kuia o te rohe kāinga ki te whakaako i te raranga kete me te whatu whakapaipai. I akona anō hoki ngā tamariki ki ngā waiata ā-ringa, te poi me te haka. Haere atu ana hoki ngā tamariki ki ngā kura tata mai whakahaereere ai i ā rātau mahi waiata, kōputu ana te moni. Waiho ana tēnei hei whakaohooho ake i ērā atu o ngā kura ki te whakahaere mahi pēnei anō mā rātau.

Waihoki rite tonu ia ki tana māmā, he wahine pūkenga a Hēni, aroha nuitia ana e ia te iwi kāinga. Riro ana nāna i tīmata atu te Rōpū mō ngā Wāhine Māori (Māori Women's Institute) ki Manukau, he ako nei tā rātau i ngā mahi tara ā-whare, arā, te tuitui kaka, te mahi kāri, te kōhua tiamu, te mahi pīkara tae atu hoki ki te whakapounamu hua rākau. He kaiwhakatangitangi tino pai rawa atu a Hēni, ahakoa piana, ahakoa kōriana, ahakoa wairingi, pūtahoro hoki. Ka tū nei i a ia tana pēne, whakahaerea ana e ia he kanikani hei mahi moni ake mō ngā kaupapa o te hau kāinga. He toa anō hoki a Hēni ki ngā tākaro nei, ki te tēnehi me te korowha, hāpaitia ana hoki e ia ngā whakataetae tēnehi i waenganui i ngā marae. Whakahauhautia ana hoki e ia ngā whakataetae tēnehi tēpu me te mahi whakatakoto hoki i tētahi papa tākaro korowha. He wahine tau a Hēni ki te eke hōiho, whai hoki i ngā mahi whakakite, whakataetae hōiho.

I te tekau tau atu i 1930, ko te āhua nei, ko Hēni tonu te kaiutu, kaiwhiriwhiri ake mō tētahi mahi ahu whenua ā-rohe. Ko ēnei momo kaupapa ahu whenua nā te Tari Māori tonu i tairanga, whakahauhau hoki i te mahi whakatōpū i ngā whenua kia noho poraka kotahi ai, me te whakapai ake hoki i te āhua o te mahi pāmu a te tangata, whakawhānui atu rānei i ngā hua mai o te whenua. He wāhi āwhina anō nei tō Hēni ki te whakatutuki i te kerēme mō te moana o Ōmāpere, nāna rā i tuhi atu ki ngā āpiha kāwanatanga, ki te whakamōhio atu i te take nei ki a rātau.

Nō tēnei wā tonu i tīmata te hanga me te whakairo a Hēni i tētahi whare nui mō tana māmā ki Bradleys Landing. Ahakoa e hia tau kē nei i pau i a Maria i Te Tai Tokerau, hoki tonu ōna whakaaro ki tōna iwi i Ōpōtiki me ā rātau tikanga. He aha hoki ki a Maria, moemoeā ake nei ia mō tana teina, kua mate kē atu rā. Ki tā Maria he tohu mai tēnei ki a ia, tohe ana ia me whakatū he whare nui hei tūrangawaewae mō tōna whānau, e taea te karanga te wāhi nei nō rātau ake. Kia mōhio ai a Hēni ki te mahi whakairo, tae atu ana ia ki te tohunga rā, ki a Pine Taiapa i Te Tai Rāwhiti, ako ai. I te hokinga atu o Hēni ki Manukau hokona mai ana e ia he tōtara, he kauri, ā, i ngā wā wātea nei ia i tāna ake mahi, ka tīmata tana whakairo. Ko te rahi o te whare i oti i a ia te whakairo katoa, e 20 putu te roa, e 12 putu te whānui. Ko ētahi o ngā hanga whakairo i te mahau e rite ana ki ērā o te whare nui i Waiomatatini, e pātata atu rā ki Ruatōria. I te mutunga o tana mahi, noho noa ana a Hēni ko tētahi o ngā wāhine ruarua nei i tohea e ia te tikanga tuku iho, arā, ko ngā mea tāne anake te hunga e tika ana ki te mau i te mahi tapu nei, i te whakairo. Ko te nuinga o ngā taonga me ngā taputapu o te whare nā Maria i mahi, hoe atu hoki ia i te awa kohikohi wīwī ai, mahi toetoe mai ai hoki hei whakapuru, hei whakamahana ake hoki i roto o te whare. Kōwhaiwhaitia ana e Maria ngā heke o te whare ki ngā kano ake anō a te Māori, whakamau anga whakapaipai atu hoki. He mea tapa te whare ki te īngoa o tētahi o ōna tūpuna o Te Whakatōhea, ki a Rangikurukuru. Ono rau te nui o ngā tāngata i tae ake ki te whakatuwheratanga o te whare i te 13 o Āperira 1936. Ko tētahi o ngā tino manuhiri āna ko te Mema Pāremata tonu o te hau rohe, ko Te Kōti (Gordon Coates).

I te matenga atu o te tāne a Maria, o Heremia i te tau 1935, noho kau ake ana ia i roto i tōna whare nui, ā mate noa. Ahakoa taikuia ana, hihiri tonu te tinana o te autaia nei, mahi haere tonu i āna mahi mō tōna iwi kāinga. He wahine tautoko a Maria i te Rōpū Reipa, ā, i te tau 1958 he manuhiri ia i tētahi hui nei i Tākiwira i tae atu rā te Pirimia, a Waata Naahi (Walter Nash). I taua hui tukua ana e ngā Māori o reira he korowai ki a Maria. Nō te 4 o ngā rā o Tīhema o te tau 1960 i hinga ai a Maria, e 98 tōna pakeke. I Rangikurukuru tonu te tangihanga, ā, e hia rau kē o Te Ika-a-Māui i taetae ake ki te tangi ki a ia. He mea tāpuke a Maria i te urupā o Kāpehu kei runga hiwi, he puhinga nā te hau; kei raro tonu atu ko te awa o Te Wairoa ki te raki, te wāhi i pau ai te nuinga o ōna rā pakeke.

I te mutunga ake o te mahinga a Hēni i a Rangikurukuru, ka tīmata tana whakaako i ngā mea pakeke o ngā tama tāne o te kura o Manukau ki te whakairo, i te mahi kātahi anō ka mau nei i a ia. Pau noa ngā rā o Hēni he whakairo haere tonu tana mahi, whakairo tokotoko, utauta ā-whare, whakapakoko itiiti nei hoki. Whakakitea ana e ia ētahi atu o ana pūmanawa i te tāinga i tētahi kōrero, harangotengote nei te puta, i tētahi o ngā pepa ā-rohe. Nō te tau 1940 pea te nukutanga atu o Hēni ki Ōpōtiki, kura māhita ai i te kura Māori o Ōmarumutu. I reira ka tahuri ia ki te whakahaere i ngā mahi āwhina i te whawhai, arā, te whakareri pūhera kai mā ngā hōia o te rohe kāinga o te Ope Taua 28 (Māori) o Aotearoa (28th New Zealand (Māori) Battalion), kohikohi moni atu hoki. Inarā hui katoa £1,000 te moni i kohikohia, hei whakanohonoho i ngā hōia Māori e hoki mai ana i te pakanga me tana āwhina anō ki te kimi mahi mā rātau. Nāna i tū ai he karapu whakangahau, karapu taitamariki hoki.

Nō te pokapūtanga o te tekau tau atu i 1940, i wehe mai ai a Hēni i Ōpōtiki, ka riro nei i a ia he tūranga i te Kura Māori o Waiiti (nō muri mai i tapaina ko te Kura Māori o Te Rotoiti) i Rotorua. I reira ka tūtaki rāua ko Pita Pikikōtuku Īhāia o Ngāti Tūwharetoa, he karaka nei tana mahi i te Tari Māori. Nō te 17 o Mei o te tau 1947 i mārena ai rāua i te whare karakia Katorika i te marae o tērā o ōna hapū o Ngāti Patumoana i Waiaua, i te taha rāwhiti o Ōpōtiki. Kātahi te mārena nui ko tēnei ki roto i Te Whakatōhea, ā, e hia kē nei ngā whanaunga me ana hoa i puta ake. Nō muri takoto ai te hākari ki runga ki tērā o ana marae i Ōmarumutu, o tērā o ōna hapū, o Ngāti Ruatakenga. I noho ngā tokorua nei i Te Rotoiti, ā, ahakoa kāore i whai tamariki, tokomaha tonu ngā tamariki a ngā whanaunga nā rāua i whāngai.

Kotahi atu anō te mahi a Hēni mā te iwi kāinga o konei, mahi mai rā i roto i te Rōpū o te Ora (Women's Health League), he rōpū mō ngā wāhine Māori i whakatūria ki Rotorua i te tau 1937. Ko ngā mahi i tutuki i a ia i Te Rotoiti, he whakatū pēne kanikani mō ngā kaiwhakatangitangi o te rohe, he whakatū i te karapu whutupaoro o Te Rotoiti, akiaki atu hoki i ngā whakataetae hākinakina nei i waenganui i ngā marae. Nāna anō hoki i āwhina te mahi kohi moni mō te pā tauira whakairo i Te Rotoiti, nō te tau 1960 i whakatuwheratia ai. Nā runga i āna mahi i Te Rotoiti, karangatia ana ia ko 'Whaea Hēni' (Auntie Jane), inarā te īngoa aroha o te iwi kāinga mōna.

Nā te take i hokona mai e Hēni rāua ko Pita Īhāia he toa hoko miraka, mahi tunu keke, parāoa nei tā rāua i Ngongotahā, i mutu ai te mahi kura māhita a Hēni i ngā tau tōmua o te tekau atu i 1950. Nō te 4 o ngā rā o Āperira 1964 i mate ai a Hēni i te Hōhipera o Rotorua, mahue ora ake ana ko tana hoa tāne. Rite tonu tana tangihanga ki tērā o tana māmā, taetae ake ana te nui o te tangata o Te Ika-a-Māui ki te tangi ki a ia. He mea tāpuke tonu ia i Te Rotoiti. Kei te tū tonu te whare nā rāua ko tana māmā i hanga, inarā tā Maria me waiho tōna whare a Rangikurukuru kia mate pirau ai i muri i a ia; ahakoa pakupaku nei ngā whakatikatikanga i te whare, kāre e kitea he tangata e hiahia ana ki te whakaora i te katoa o te whare. Ahakoa mahue noa te āhua o Rangikurukuru, he tino tohu whakamaharatanga ātaahua kē tēnei ki te whānui o te titiro me te hautoa o ēnei wāhine, ka mau kē nei te wehi.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    'Digs drains at ninety-five'. Weekly News. 26 July 1960: 15

    'New meeting house'. Dargaville News. 17 April 1936: 3

    Obit. [H. H. Topia]. Daily Post. 7 April 1964: 4


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Agnes Patricia Daley and Janie Topia. 'Tōpia, Hēni Hoana', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1998. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/4t23/topia-heni-hoana (accessed 20 November 2019)