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Tamati, Te Matenga

by Bronwyn Elsmore

Biography

Ko te whakaaro, i whānau mai a Te Mātenga Tāmati i ngā tau tōmuri o te tekau tau atu i 1830. I ētahi wā karangatia ai a ia ko Hia. Ko tōna whanaungatanga ki a Ngāti Rongomaiwahine tōna hononga matua, ēngari, e ngaro ana ngā īngoa o ōna mātua, ā, kāhore hoki he kōrero maharatanga mō tona whanaketanga. He tangata tino whakarae a ia nō roto o Ngāti Kahungunu ki te takiwā ki Te Wairoa, i te pito whakararo o Te Matau-a-Māui (Hawke's Bay), i ngā tau potapotae o te tīmatanga o te rau tau rua ngahuru. He kaumātua a ia nō te pā o Pūtahi, he kāinga e tū tata ana ki Waiparapara; nō muri mai i tapaina ko Te Kapu, ā, nō muri mai anō, ko Frasertown.

E ai ki ngā kōrero, e 55 ngā tau o Te Mātenga i te matenga o Te Kooti i te tau 1893. Ahakoa i pakanga ngā iwi o te takiwā o Te Wairoa ki a Te Kooti, i whakapono rātau he mea whiriwhiri e te Atua a Te Mātenga hei taua wairua mō Te Kooti. I whakaponotia, arā, i hāngai te whakawhiwhi mai a te Atua i ana whakakitenga ki a Te Mātenga, ā, he mea hoatu māna e kawe te taha wairua ki te iwi Māori. Kāore te whakapono Ringatū a Te Kooti i awhitia whānuitia, nā te mea nā tōna poropiti i patu ētahi tāngata kia mate. He nui kē ake te karere kōrero a Te Mātenga, ā, he kaha kē ake ki te awhi, ki te whakamārire. E whakataukī ana anō hoki i te whakaaro, i tētahi wā kei te heke mai ka noho te wairua mārire i waenganui i te Māori me te Pākehā, nā runga i te whakapono ki te Atua. I mōhiotia tana hāhi ko Te Hāhi o te Kōhititanga Marama, arā, te whakapono o te marama e kōhiti ana; i ētahi wā ka karangatia ko te Hāhi o te Ao Hou. E ai ki ana apataki, koia tēnei te whakaritenga o te hāhi Ringatū.

Hei whakataka mō te haerenga mai o te ao hou, ka tukua mai e te Atua ētahi tohutohu ki a Te Mātenga hei hanga i tētahi tāpenakara, temepara rānei: me hanga tētahi anga porowhā ki ngā pou nui, 12 te maha. He anga kore tuanui, e tūraha ana ki a Tāwhirimātea. Ko roto i te temepara te tūranga mō te āka o te kawenata, koirā te wāhi e kōrero mai ai te Atua ki tōna iwi. I ngā tau whakamutunga o te rau tau o 1800–1899, ka kōharia e te poropiti me ana apataki ngā rākau tōtara nui whakaharahara, 12 te maha, kātahi ka miratia ki Mangatawhiti. Kei ngā take puke o te paeroa o Ngāmoko kei te taha whakarua o Waikaremoana te wāhi nei. Kātahi ka puta te tohu āwhina a te Atua, i tāna whakatinanatanga ko te waipuke nui o te Maehe o 1904 hei kawe mai i ngā poro rākau ki te awa o Mangaaruhe, heke atu mā te awa o Te Wairoa, puta atu ki te moana. Nā aua rākau tonu i mea rātau kia pae ki uta i Kōrito, arā, ki te wāhi i kōwhiria ai hei papa tūnga mō te temepara. E pātata ana ki Iwitea i te rāwhiti o Te Wairoa te wāhi nei.

I hāngai pū te mahinga o ēnei mahi katoa e ai ki ngā tikanga tapu me ngā tikanga tuku iho, ā, nā Te Mātenga tonu i whakahaere ngā wāhanga katoa o te mahi. I tapaina ngā pou nui ki ngā īngoa o ngā tama 12 a Hākopa o te Kawenata Tawhito, ā, tērā atu anō ētahi ōritetanga i waenganui i te Hāhi o te Kōhititanga Marama me te whakapono o ngā Iharaira o onamata. Heoti, kāore te temepara i whakatūria. I tūpono ētahi uauatanga i te tikinga atu i tētahi o ngā poro rākau i tere whaka-te-rāwhiti kē atu ki Waikōkopu i te raenga kūititanga o Te Māhia. Nā tēnei me ētahi atu whakaputanga i whakaatu ki a Te Mātenga, ehara taua wā i te wā tika. Tērā atu anō tētahi poropiti taihoa ka puta ake, ā, māna te temepara e whakaoti. Kei te tāhuna tonu o Kōrito aua pou rā e pae ana, e whanga ana i taua wā.

E mōhiotia whānuitia ana te mana tohunga matakite, tohunga whakaora tūroro o Te Mātenga, ā, he maha ngā kōrero kua kōrerotia mō āna merekara whakakitenga, merekara whakaora māuiuitanga hoki. He puna wai whakaora tōna i tōna kāinga i Pukerimu, he wāhi e pātata ana ki Te Wairoa. E ai ki ngā kōrero, ka taea e te wai o taua puna te whakaora te māuiui, te pākoko me ngā ringa whati, waewae whati rānei. Ina whakamahia ana e ia ngā rongoā tuku iho, whakapuakina rawatia e ia tētahi kupu whakapai, ka whakataukī hoki ki te hiranga o te whakapono ki te Atua.

Ko 1905 tonu pea te tau i hangaia ai tētahi whare nui, ko Te Karauna te īngoa, ki runga ki te wāhi e tika kē ana hei tūnga mō te temepara. I whakahaeretia e Te Mātenga ngā rā karakia ia marama i reira i te wā o te marama kōhiti. I te wā o aua karakia nei, ka inoi tahi rātau ko ana apataki mō te taenga mai o te ao hou, me te haerenga mai o tētahi poropiti anō hei tohutohu i a rātau, hei whakaoti hoki i te hanganga o te temepara. I uru atu te nuinga o ana apataki ki te Hāhi Ringatū i muri mai i tōna matenga i Pukerimu; e ai ki te kōrero i mate ia i te tau 1914. Nā te āwhā te whare nui i Kōrito i tukituki i te tau 1969.

Ahakoa i whakaaro nuitia, whānuitia a ia mō ana tini pūmanawa, ko te pū kōrero nei tētahi, i mōhiotia anō hoki a Te Mātenga mō tana whakamōwaitanga. Ehara ia i te tangata ki te whakameremere ki āna mahi. Kīhai ia i kimi ki te whakatairanga i a ia anō, i te kaupapa rānei o tana whāinga. Ki ana apataki, ko ia te kauwaka mō ngā whakakitenga e pā ana ki te hiahia o te Atua. Kīhai rawa rātau i koropiko atu ki a ia, ki te tangata kikokiko. Ko te hua o tēnei tū āhua, ko te iti o ngā kōrero taha tangata mōna i mahue mai, ko te kore whakaahua ōna, me te kore kupu rānei e whakaatu mai ana i tōna āhua ake. Nāna i moe a Mate Takitaki, ka puta ko ngā tamāhine tokorua, ko Te Waihae Matanga (Mātenga) Hia rāua ko Hēni Hia. He tokomaha ngā uri i puta. I puta ki a rāua ko tana wahine tuarua, ko Ēmere Maanu, he tamāhine, arā, ko Rīpeka Tāmati, ēngari e taitamariki tonu ana ia ka mate. E ai ki ngā kōrero kei Kōrito a Te Mātenga e tāpuke ana, arā, kei tētahi wāhi e pātata ana ki te papa o te temepara i marohitia rā.


Hononga, rauemi nō waho

Ētahi whakaaro puaki, takenga

    Elsmore, B. Mana from heaven. Tauranga, 1989

    Elsmore, B. 'Te Hahi o te Kohititanga Marama: the religion of the reflection of the moon'. MPhil thesis, Massey, 1983

    Phillipps, W. J. Carved Maori houses of the eastern districts of the North Island. Wellington, 1944

    Teague, B. 'Israel in Wairoa'. NZ Listener (19--25 Aug. 1978): 48--49


Me pēnei te tohu i te whārangi:

Bronwyn Elsmore. 'Tāmati, Te Mātenga', Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, first published in 1996. Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, https://teara.govt.nz/mi/biographies/3t2/tamati-te-matenga (accessed 16 November 2019)