Other karst features

Karren Before rainwater drains underground, it flows across and corrodes rocky outcrops on the surface. Outcrops form into sculptures of vertically fluted rock and widely opened

Part of story: Limestone country

Distribution

At low altitudes on warm, moist, fertile sites, mixed conifer–broadleaf forest dominates. At higher altitudes, where the weather is colder and wetter, growing seasons are

Part of story: Southern beech forest

Ecology

Response to disturbances Earthquakes, landslides, gales, fire, snowstorms and drought can kill stands of trees. These leave gaps in the forest that trigger dynamic responses.

Part of story: Southern beech forest

Kingfishers and fernbirds – wetland margins

Kingfisher – kōtare

Part of story: Wetland birds

Western North Island parks

Egmont National Park

Part of story: National parks

Tropical cyclones

From about October to April, intense storms known as tropical cyclones occasionally form in the tropics to the north of New Zealand.

Part of story: Weather

Fish larvae and the ocean environment

Hoki: a case study Hoki (Macruronus novaezelandiae) is the most abundant commercial fish species in New Zealand waters. Since 1995, however, there has been a below-average survival of

Part of story: Open ocean

Cement, marble and dolomite

Limestone for cement production Cement, used to make concrete, is a mixture of two main materials – lime and marl (a calcareous clay). Cement was

Part of story: Rock, limestone and clay

Gravity always wins

Landslides are a natural process that removes material from hills, mountains, and coastlines, gradually lowering and flattening the topography.

Part of story: Landslides

Rocky coasts

Coasts made of solid rock, or sediment deposits with tightly packed or cemented grains, are known as hard coasts and are relatively resistant to erosion. When hard coasts

Part of story: Coastal erosion

Dargaville and the Northern Wairoa

Dargaville Town on the Northern Wairoa River, 58 km south-west of Whāngārei and 186 km north-west of Auckland. In 2013 it had a population of 4,251.

Part of story: Northland places

Ancestors

The Whāngārei coast

Part of story: Whāngārei tribes

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